Abstract

We report the first measurements of spontaneous Raman scattering from silicon waveguides. Using a 1.43 μm pump, both forward and backward scattering were measured at 1.54 μm from Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides. From the dependence of the Stokes power vs. pump power, we extract a value of (4.1 ± 2.5) × 10-7 cm-1 Sr-1 for the Raman scattering efficiency. The results suggest that a silicon optical amplifier is within reach. The strong optical confinement in silicon waveguides is an attractive property as it lowers the pump power required for the onset of Raman scattering. The SiGe material system is also discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. James B. Kuo and Shih-Chia Lin, Low voltage SOI CMOS VLSI circuits and devices (John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 2001).
  2. M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the IEEE International SOI Conference, p.56, Rohnert Park, CA, October 1999.
  3. S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.
  4. M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the SPIE , Photonics West Conference, Vol. 3936, p. 33, San Jose, CA, January 2000.
  5. J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang; “Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 21858–1862 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  6. P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway; “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 73685–3697 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Cardona, “Resonance Phenomena,” in Topics in Appl. Phys. V. 50: Light Scattering in Solids II, M. Cardona and G. Guntherodt, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Saito, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, and M. Kawasaki; “Spontaneous Raman scattering in [100], [110] and [11-2] directional GaP waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 901831–1835 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali; “Prospects for Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” to be presented at the Materials Research Society Fall meeting (MRS), December 6th (2002), Boston, MA. IEE Paper No.54465.
  10. B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.
  11. Spectra-Physics Telecom: “Model RL5 Raman Fiber Laser Specifications.”
  12. R.G. Smith; “Optical Power Handling Capacity of Low Loss Optical Fibers as Determined by Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 682489–2494 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  13. R.H. Stolen and E.P. Ippen; “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22276–278 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  14. A.P.R. Harpin, A.G. Rickman, R.J.R. Morris, and M. Asghari; US Pat. No. 6,108,478 08/22/2000. Patent: Adiabatic Taper. Company: Bookham Technology, UK.
  15. R.A. Soref; “Nonlinear refractive Index of IV–IV compound semiconductors,” Appl. Opt. Vol. 31, 4627–4629 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali; “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” Electronics Letters, IEE (accepted for publication, October 2002). Paper No. ELL 34761.
  17. J.H. Parker, D.W. Feldman, and M. Ashkin; “Raman Scattering by Silicon and Germanium,” Phys. Rev. Vol. 155,712–714(1967).
    [Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Saito, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, and M. Kawasaki; “Spontaneous Raman scattering in [100], [110] and [11-2] directional GaP waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 901831–1835 (2001).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R.A. Soref; “Nonlinear refractive Index of IV–IV compound semiconductors,” Appl. Opt. Vol. 31, 4627–4629 (1992).
[Crossref]

1973 (2)

R.H. Stolen and E.P. Ippen; “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22276–278 (1973).
[Crossref]

P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway; “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 73685–3697 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

R.G. Smith; “Optical Power Handling Capacity of Low Loss Optical Fibers as Determined by Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 682489–2494 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang; “Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 21858–1862 (1970).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

J.H. Parker, D.W. Feldman, and M. Ashkin; “Raman Scattering by Silicon and Germanium,” Phys. Rev. Vol. 155,712–714(1967).
[Crossref]

Annetts, P.J.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Asghari, M.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

A.P.R. Harpin, A.G. Rickman, R.J.R. Morris, and M. Asghari; US Pat. No. 6,108,478 08/22/2000. Patent: Adiabatic Taper. Company: Bookham Technology, UK.

Ashkin, M.

J.H. Parker, D.W. Feldman, and M. Ashkin; “Raman Scattering by Silicon and Germanium,” Phys. Rev. Vol. 155,712–714(1967).
[Crossref]

Bowden, C.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Bozeat, R.J.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, “Resonance Phenomena,” in Topics in Appl. Phys. V. 50: Light Scattering in Solids II, M. Cardona and G. Guntherodt, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
[Crossref]

Chang, R.K.

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang; “Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 21858–1862 (1970).
[Crossref]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali; “Prospects for Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” to be presented at the Materials Research Society Fall meeting (MRS), December 6th (2002), Boston, MA. IEE Paper No.54465.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali; “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” Electronics Letters, IEE (accepted for publication, October 2002). Paper No. ELL 34761.

Coppinger, F.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali; “Prospects for Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” to be presented at the Materials Research Society Fall meeting (MRS), December 6th (2002), Boston, MA. IEE Paper No.54465.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali; “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” Electronics Letters, IEE (accepted for publication, October 2002). Paper No. ELL 34761.

Drake, J.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Feldman, D.W.

J.H. Parker, D.W. Feldman, and M. Ashkin; “Raman Scattering by Silicon and Germanium,” Phys. Rev. Vol. 155,712–714(1967).
[Crossref]

Fuller, S.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Harpin, A.P.R.

A.P.R. Harpin, A.G. Rickman, R.J.R. Morris, and M. Asghari; US Pat. No. 6,108,478 08/22/2000. Patent: Adiabatic Taper. Company: Bookham Technology, UK.

Hathaway, C.E.

P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway; “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 73685–3697 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E.P.

R.H. Stolen and E.P. Ippen; “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22276–278 (1973).
[Crossref]

Jackson, M.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Jalali, B.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the SPIE , Photonics West Conference, Vol. 3936, p. 33, San Jose, CA, January 2000.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the IEEE International SOI Conference, p.56, Rohnert Park, CA, October 1999.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali; “Prospects for Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” to be presented at the Materials Research Society Fall meeting (MRS), December 6th (2002), Boston, MA. IEE Paper No.54465.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali; “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” Electronics Letters, IEE (accepted for publication, October 2002). Paper No. ELL 34761.

Kawasaki, M.

T. Saito, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, and M. Kawasaki; “Spontaneous Raman scattering in [100], [110] and [11-2] directional GaP waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 901831–1835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kuo, James B.

James B. Kuo and Shih-Chia Lin, Low voltage SOI CMOS VLSI circuits and devices (John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 2001).

Lin, Shih-Chia

James B. Kuo and Shih-Chia Lin, Low voltage SOI CMOS VLSI circuits and devices (John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 2001).

Luff, B.J.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Morris, R.J.R.

A.P.R. Harpin, A.G. Rickman, R.J.R. Morris, and M. Asghari; US Pat. No. 6,108,478 08/22/2000. Patent: Adiabatic Taper. Company: Bookham Technology, UK.

Naydenkov, M.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the IEEE International SOI Conference, p.56, Rohnert Park, CA, October 1999.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the SPIE , Photonics West Conference, Vol. 3936, p. 33, San Jose, CA, January 2000.

Nishizawa, J.

T. Saito, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, and M. Kawasaki; “Spontaneous Raman scattering in [100], [110] and [11-2] directional GaP waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 901831–1835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pandraud, G.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Parker, J.H.

J.H. Parker, D.W. Feldman, and M. Ashkin; “Raman Scattering by Silicon and Germanium,” Phys. Rev. Vol. 155,712–714(1967).
[Crossref]

Ralston, J.M.

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang; “Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 21858–1862 (1970).
[Crossref]

Rendina, I.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.

Rickman, A.G.

A.P.R. Harpin, A.G. Rickman, R.J.R. Morris, and M. Asghari; US Pat. No. 6,108,478 08/22/2000. Patent: Adiabatic Taper. Company: Bookham Technology, UK.

Roberts, S.W.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

Saito, T.

T. Saito, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, and M. Kawasaki; “Spontaneous Raman scattering in [100], [110] and [11-2] directional GaP waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 901831–1835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smith, R.G.

R.G. Smith; “Optical Power Handling Capacity of Low Loss Optical Fibers as Determined by Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 682489–2494 (1972).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.A.

R.A. Soref; “Nonlinear refractive Index of IV–IV compound semiconductors,” Appl. Opt. Vol. 31, 4627–4629 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stolen, R.H.

R.H. Stolen and E.P. Ippen; “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22276–278 (1973).
[Crossref]

Suto, K.

T. Saito, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, and M. Kawasaki; “Spontaneous Raman scattering in [100], [110] and [11-2] directional GaP waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 901831–1835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Temple, P.A.

P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway; “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 73685–3697 (1973).
[Crossref]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.

Yoon, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.

Yoshimoto, T.

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.

Appl. Opt. (2)

R.G. Smith; “Optical Power Handling Capacity of Low Loss Optical Fibers as Determined by Stimulated Raman and Brillouin Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 682489–2494 (1972).
[Crossref]

R.A. Soref; “Nonlinear refractive Index of IV–IV compound semiconductors,” Appl. Opt. Vol. 31, 4627–4629 (1992).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R.H. Stolen and E.P. Ippen; “Raman gain in glass optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 22276–278 (1973).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Jalali, S. Yegnanarayanan, T. Yoon, T. Yoshimoto, I. Rendina, and F. Coppinger; “Advances in Silicon-on-Insulator optoelectronics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (Special Issue on Silicon-based Optoelectronics).  4, 938–947.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Saito, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, and M. Kawasaki; “Spontaneous Raman scattering in [100], [110] and [11-2] directional GaP waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 901831–1835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J.H. Parker, D.W. Feldman, and M. Ashkin; “Raman Scattering by Silicon and Germanium,” Phys. Rev. Vol. 155,712–714(1967).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J.M. Ralston and R.K. Chang; “Spontaneous-Raman-Scattering Efficiency and Stimulated Scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 21858–1862 (1970).
[Crossref]

P.A. Temple and C.E. Hathaway; “Multiphonon Raman Spectrum of Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 73685–3697 (1973).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

M. Cardona, “Resonance Phenomena,” in Topics in Appl. Phys. V. 50: Light Scattering in Solids II, M. Cardona and G. Guntherodt, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982).
[Crossref]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Claps, and B. Jalali; “Prospects for Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” to be presented at the Materials Research Society Fall meeting (MRS), December 6th (2002), Boston, MA. IEE Paper No.54465.

James B. Kuo and Shih-Chia Lin, Low voltage SOI CMOS VLSI circuits and devices (John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 2001).

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the IEEE International SOI Conference, p.56, Rohnert Park, CA, October 1999.

S.W. Roberts, G. Pandraud, B.J. Luff, C. Bowden, P.J. Annetts, R.J. Bozeat, S. Fuller, J. Drake, M. Jackson, and M. Asghari; paper 08000, NFOEC, Denver, CO, 2000.

M. Naydenkov and B. Jalali; Proceedings of the SPIE , Photonics West Conference, Vol. 3936, p. 33, San Jose, CA, January 2000.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali; “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Silicon Waveguides,” Electronics Letters, IEE (accepted for publication, October 2002). Paper No. ELL 34761.

Spectra-Physics Telecom: “Model RL5 Raman Fiber Laser Specifications.”

A.P.R. Harpin, A.G. Rickman, R.J.R. Morris, and M. Asghari; US Pat. No. 6,108,478 08/22/2000. Patent: Adiabatic Taper. Company: Bookham Technology, UK.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for measurement of spontaneous Raman scattering from silicon waveguides.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SOI Waveguide used. The (x, y, z) coordinates are oriented along the crystallographic axes. The resulting TM0 mode (λ=1.54 μm) from a BPM calculation is depicted to the right. The effective index of refraction is calculated assuming n=3.5 for bulk silicon.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Raman spectra from silicon obtained for different horizontal offsets of the waveguide relative to the optical axis. Fig. 3a shows the back-scattered spectra, and Fig. 3b shows the forward-scattered spectra.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured profiles of the Raman emission from the SOI waveguide in horizontal (∥ or x in Fig. 2), and vertical (⊥ or y in Fig. 2) directions. The corresponding TM0 mode profiles, calculated using BPM simulations, are super-imposed for comparison. Dashed lines are Gaussian fits to the data.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Raman spectra measured for different values of pump power.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spontaneous Raman intensity as a function of pump power. Forward and backward scattering cases are shown. The pump power was measured between the PBS and the input coupling lens.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Scattering efficiencies for different configurations in silicon. [100], [010], and [001] refer to the crystallographic directions, x, y, and z, respectively [7].

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P P ( z ) = P P ( 0 ) e γz .
dP R ( z ) dz = γ P R ( z ) ± α P P ( z ) .
α = S ΔΩ .
Backward : P R = α { 1 e 2 γL 2 γ } P P .
Forward : P R = αL e γL P P .
m = sinh ( γL ) γL
P R ( L ) = P R ( 0 ) exp ( γ L + g s S p ( 0 ) γ ( 1 exp ( γ L ) ) ) .
g s = 8 π c 2 ω p ħ ω s 4 n 2 ( ω s ) ( N + 1 ) Δ ω S .

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