Abstract

We demonstrate that optical solitons can exist in dispersion-inverted highly-nonlinear AlGaAs nanowires. This is accomplished by strongly reversing the dispersion of these nano-structures to anomalous over a broad frequency range. These self-localized waves are possible at very low power levels and can form in millimeter long nanowire structures. The intensity and spectral evolution of solitons propagating in such AlGaAs nanowaveguides is investigated in the presence of loss, multiphoton absorption and higher-order dispersion.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2005 (4)

M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, Q. Cao, and R. Trebino, "Soliton-effect compression of supercontinuum to few-cycle durations in photonic nanowires," Opt. Express 13,6848-6855 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 41,795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41,400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi and S. Itabashi, "Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguide," Opt. Express 13,4629-4635, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

2003 (3)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kumar, A. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic Crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

S. Gehrsitz, F.K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1-xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling" J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A Briks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, " Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809, (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, GeorgeI. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, " Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147-149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J.S.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Al-hemyari, K.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A Briks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, " Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asimakis, S.

Birks, T. A.

Bolger, J. A.

Boyd, R. W.

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41,400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 41,795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Briks, T.A

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A Briks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, " Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Feng, X.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41,400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, V.

Foster, M. A.

Frampton, K.

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gaeta, A.L.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gehrsitz, S.

S. Gehrsitz, F.K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1-xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling" J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

George, A.

George, M.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, GeorgeI. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, " Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147-149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourgon, C.

S. Gehrsitz, F.K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1-xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling" J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R.S.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heebner, J. E.

Ho, P.-T.

Ironside, C.N.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

Kang, J.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, GeorgeI. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, " Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147-149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, G.T.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Knight, J.C.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A Briks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, " Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, F.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 41,795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41,400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," Opt. Express 12,5082-5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, V.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Lepeshkin, N. N.

Lin, C-H.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H-H.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lizé, Y. K.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, "Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12,1025-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mägi, E. C.

Mason, M. W.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, "Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12,1025-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

Moore, R. C.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A Briks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, " Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Reinhart, F.K.

S. Gehrsitz, F.K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1-xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling" J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 41,795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41,400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," Opt. Express 12,5082-5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schweinsberg, A.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, GeorgeI. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, " Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147-149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

Sibbett, W.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, H.

S. Gehrsitz, F.K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1-xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling" J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.I.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

Ta'eed, V. G.

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, "Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12,1025-1035 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Villeneuve, A.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, A. Villeneuve, M. Sheik-Bahae, GeorgeI. Stegeman, K. Al-hemyari, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, " Limitation due to three-photon absorption on the useful spectral range for nonlinear optics in AlGaAs below half band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 147-149 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vonlanthen, A.

S. Gehrsitz, F.K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, A. Vonlanthen and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1-xAs below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling" J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wadsworth, W.J.

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A Briks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, " Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

Wicks, G. W.

Yamada, K.

Yang, C.C.

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett. 41,795-797 (2005).
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G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41,400-402 (2005).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J.C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T.A Briks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W.J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, " Anomalous Dispersion in Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809, (2000).
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Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. (1)

G.I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. Kang, J.S. Aitchison, C.N. Ironside, K. Al-hemyari, C.C. Yang, C-H. Lin, H-H. Lin, G.T. Kennedy, R.S. Grant and W. Sibbett, "AlGaAs Below Half Bandgap: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optical Materials," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phy. 3, 347-371 (1994).
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Nature (2)

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, " Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819, (2003).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

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R. Iwanow, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, D. Modotto, A. Locatelli, C. De Angelis, F. Pozzi, C. R. Stanley, and M. Sorel, "Enhanced Third-Order Nonlinear Effects in Optical AlGaAs Nanowires," post-deadline paper PDP7, Nonlinear Guided Waves and Their Applications, OSA Topical Meeting, Dresden, Germany, Sep. 6-9, 2005.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) a nanowire structure; (b) group velocity dispersion β″ of an Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As nanowire when its radius is (A) 160, (B) 175 and (C) 193 nm. Bulk dispersion of Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As is also shown.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) group velocity dispersion β″ when a = 160nm , (b) group and effective refractive indices of an Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 As nanowire when a = 175nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity evolution of a 200 fs soliton propagating in a 193 nm (radius) AlGaAs nanowire when the peak power is (a) 5.5 and (b) 8 W. Similarly, (c) and (d) depict soliton propagation and compression in a nanowire of radius 175 nm when the peak power is 2 and 2.8 W respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Input and output soliton power spectra corresponding to the case shown in (a) Fig.3 (a) ; (b) Fig.3.(b) ; (c) and (d) spectral generation and intensity profile for an N =3 soliton (50 W peak power) at L ≈ 5mm

Equations (3)

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[ J ' m ( u ) u J m ( u ) + K ' m ( w ) w K m ( w ) ] [ J ' m ( u ) u J m ( u ) + ( n clad n core ) 2 K ' m ( w ) w K m ( w ) ] = m 2 ( 1 u 2 + 1 w 2 ) ( 1 u 2 + ( n clad n core ) 2 1 w 2 ) .
n core 2 ( x , T , λ ) = A x T + C o ( x ) E o 2 x T 1 λ 2 + C 1 ( x ) E 1 2 x T 1 λ 2
i φ z + iαφ + m = 2 i m β ( m ) m ! m φ T m + ω o n 2 2 c [ φ 2 φ + i ω o ( φ 2 φ ) T ] + i α 2 φ 2 φ + i α 3 φ 4 φ = 0

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