Abstract

Bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is a new molecular imaging mode, which is being actively developed to reveal molecular and cellular signatures as labeled by bioluminescent probes in a living small animal. This technology can help diagnose diseases, evaluate therapies, and facilitate drug development with mouse models. In this paper, we describe in vivo mouse experiments with BLT, and propose the reconstruction procedure of bioluminescent sources from optical data measured on the body surface of the mouse using a modality fusion approach. The results show the feasibility of our methodology for localization and quantification of the bioluminescent activities in vivo.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, "Advances in Bioluminescence imaging of gene expression," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4, 235-260 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, "In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432-440 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. McLennan, Systems and methods for bioluminescent computed tomographic reconstruction. Patent disclosure filled in July 2002; US provisional patent application filled in March 2003; US patent application filed in March 2004.
  5. G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).
  6. G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, "Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography," Med. Phys. 31, 2289-2299 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. Cong, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, A. Cong, and G. Wang, "A practical method to determine the light source distribution in bioluminescent imaging," in Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV; U. Bonse, ed., Proc. SPIE 5535, 679-686 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, "Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6756-6771 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Gu, Q. Zhang, L. Larcom, and H. Jiang, "Three-dimensional bioluminescence tomography with model-based reconstruction," Opt. Express 12, 3996-4000 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Cong and G. Wang, "Boundary integral method for bioluminescence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020503 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Jiang, and G. Wang, "Image reconstruction for bioluminescence tomography," in Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV, U. Bonse, ed., Proc. SPIE 5535, 335-351 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N.V. Slavine, M.A. Lewis, E. Richer, P.P. Antich, "Iterative reconstruction method for light emitting sources based on the diffusion equation," Med. Phys. 33, 61-68 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. X. Cong and G. Wang, "Multi-spectral bioluminescence tomography: Methodology and simulation," International Journal of Biomedical Imaging 2006, ID57614, 1-7 (2006).
  16. H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spectrally resolved bioluminescence optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 365-367 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779- 1792 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. J. Welch and M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical and Thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue (Plenum Press, New York, 1995).
  19. J. M. Drake, C. L. Gabriel, and M. D. Henry, "Assessing tumor growth and distribution in a model of prostrate cancer metastasis using bioluminescence imaging," Clin. Exp. Metastasis PMID: 16703413, [Epub ahead of print] (2006).
    [PubMed]
  20. A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (3)

W. Cong and G. Wang, "Boundary integral method for bioluminescence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.V. Slavine, M.A. Lewis, E. Richer, P.P. Antich, "Iterative reconstruction method for light emitting sources based on the diffusion equation," Med. Phys. 33, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. C. Davis, S. Jiang, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Spectrally resolved bioluminescence optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 365-367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, "Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6756-6771 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

2002 (1)

C. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, "Advances in Bioluminescence imaging of gene expression," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4, 235-260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, "In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432-440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779- 1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antich, P.P.

N.V. Slavine, M.A. Lewis, E. Richer, P.P. Antich, "Iterative reconstruction method for light emitting sources based on the diffusion equation," Med. Phys. 33, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779- 1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachmann, M. H.

C. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, "Advances in Bioluminescence imaging of gene expression," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4, 235-260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bading, J. R.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, M. D.

W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, "In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432-440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardozo, S. J.

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chatziioannou, A. F.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaudhari, A. J.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherry, S. R.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, A.

Cong, W.

Contag, C.

C. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, "Advances in Bioluminescence imaging of gene expression," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4, 235-260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Conti, P. S.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darvas, F.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, S. C.

Dehghani, H.

Delpy, D. T.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779- 1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

Gupta, S.

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. E.

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hiraoka, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779- 1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, E.

Hoffman, E. A.

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Jiang, H.

Jiang, M.

Jiang, S.

Kumar, D.

Larcom, L.

Leahy, R. M.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, M.A.

N.V. Slavine, M.A. Lewis, E. Richer, P.P. Antich, "Iterative reconstruction method for light emitting sources based on the diffusion equation," Med. Phys. 33, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, "Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography," Med. Phys. 31, 2289-2299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

McCray, P.

McLennan, G.

Meinel, J.

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Moats, R. A.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, M. B.

W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, "In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432-440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

Pogue, B. W.

Rannou, F. R.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehemtulla, A.

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rice, W.

W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, "In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432-440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richer, E.

N.V. Slavine, M.A. Lewis, E. Richer, P.P. Antich, "Iterative reconstruction method for light emitting sources based on the diffusion equation," Med. Phys. 33, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripoll, J.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, B. D.

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schweiger, M.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779- 1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slavine, N.V.

N.V. Slavine, M.A. Lewis, E. Richer, P.P. Antich, "Iterative reconstruction method for light emitting sources based on the diffusion equation," Med. Phys. 33, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. J.

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegman, L. D.

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suter, M.

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Wang, G.

W. Cong and G. Wang, "Boundary integral method for bioluminescence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cong, G. Wang, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, M. Jiang, L. Wang, E. Hoffman, G. McLennan, P. McCray, J. Zabner, and A. Cong, "Practical reconstruction method for bioluminescence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6756-6771 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, "Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography," Med. Phys. 31, 2289-2299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Weissleder, R.

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zabner, J.

Zhang, Q.

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, "Advances in Bioluminescence imaging of gene expression," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4, 235-260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

W. Rice, M. D. Cable, and M. B. Nelson, "In vivo imaging of light-emitting probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 432-440 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cong and G. Wang, "Boundary integral method for bioluminescence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 020503 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (3)

G. Wang, Y. Li, and M. Jiang, "Uniqueness theorems in bioluminescence tomography," Med. Phys. 31, 2289-2299 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.V. Slavine, M.A. Lewis, E. Richer, P.P. Antich, "Iterative reconstruction method for light emitting sources based on the diffusion equation," Med. Phys. 33, 61-68 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, "The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779- 1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, J. Ripoll, L. V. Wang, R. Weissleder, "Looking and listening to light: the evolution of whole-body photonic imaging," Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 313-320 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

A. Rehemtulla, L. D. Stegman, S. J. Cardozo, S. Gupta, D. E. Hall, C. H. Contag, and B. D. Ross, "Rapid and quantitative assessment of cancer treatment response using in vivo bioluminescence imaging," Neoplasia 2, 491-495 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, "Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 4225-4241 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Chaudhari, F. Darvas, J. R. Bading, R. A. Moats, P. S. Conti, D. J. Smith, S. R. Cherry and R. M. Leahy, "Hyperspectral and multispectral bioluminescence optical tomography for small animal imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 5421-5441 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, G. McLennan, L. V. Wang, M. Suter, and J. Meinel, "Development of the first bioluminescent CT scanner," Radiology 229, 566 (2003).

Other (6)

G. Wang, E. A. Hoffman, and G. McLennan, Systems and methods for bioluminescent computed tomographic reconstruction. Patent disclosure filled in July 2002; US provisional patent application filled in March 2003; US patent application filed in March 2004.

W. Cong, D. Kumar, Y. Liu, A. Cong, and G. Wang, "A practical method to determine the light source distribution in bioluminescent imaging," in Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV; U. Bonse, ed., Proc. SPIE 5535, 679-686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiang, and G. Wang, "Image reconstruction for bioluminescence tomography," in Developments in X-Ray Tomography IV, U. Bonse, ed., Proc. SPIE 5535, 335-351 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. X. Cong and G. Wang, "Multi-spectral bioluminescence tomography: Methodology and simulation," International Journal of Biomedical Imaging 2006, ID57614, 1-7 (2006).

A. J. Welch and M. J. C. Van Gemert, Optical and Thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue (Plenum Press, New York, 1995).

J. M. Drake, C. L. Gabriel, and M. D. Henry, "Assessing tumor growth and distribution in a model of prostrate cancer metastasis using bioluminescence imaging," Clin. Exp. Metastasis PMID: 16703413, [Epub ahead of print] (2006).
[PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Our first BLT system consisting of a mouse stage, a CCD camera, a mouse holder and so on.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminescent views (in pseudo color) of the side surface of the first mouse body taken by the CCD camera from four directions of 90 degrees apart. The luminescent views are superimposed on the corresponding mouse photographs. (a)–(d) Anterior-posterior, right lateral, posterior-anterior, left lateral views, respectively (the dotted pink line and the small yellow dot in (a) represent the path of the catheter and the luminescent liquid, respectively)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

First mouse model and associated bioluminescent measurement. (a) A geometrical model of the mouse chest consisting of muscle, a heart, a lung and a liver, and (b) measured bioluminescent data mapped onto the finite element mesh model of the mouse chest.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

BLT reconstruction of the luminescent source distribution in the first mouse. (a) A 2D transverse section of the reconstructed light source (red) and contours representing boundaries of various organs (blue), (b) the true source (inside the black circle) in a micro-CT slice superimposed with the reconstructed source (red) (the enlarged bronchus airway on the left is due to the inserted luminescent tube), and (c) a 3D rendering of the reconstructed source distribution (inside the red ellipse) in the mouse.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Four bioluminescent views in pseudo-color superimposed on the corresponding photographs of the second mouse. (a)-(d) Anterior-posterior, right lateral, posterior-anterior and left lateral views, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BLT reconstruction and histological verification. (a) Two bioluminescent sources reconstructed on the two kidneys respectively, and (b) two tumors at the same locations on the dissected kidneys.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical parameters for the mouse organ regions

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

{ ( D ( r ) Φ ( r ) ) + μ a ( r ) Φ ( r ) = S ( r ) ( r Ω ) Φ ( r ) + 2 A ( r ) D ( r ) ( v ( r ) Φ ( r ) ) = 0 ( r Ω )
Φ ˜ ( r ) = D ( r ) ( v Φ ( r ) ) ( r Ω ) ,
AS = Φ ˜ .
min 0 S U S Ω S AS Φ ˜ W 2 + εη ( S ) ,

Metrics