Abstract

We describe how spectrally-resolved white-light phase-shifting interference microscopy with a windowed 8-step algorithm can be used for rapid and accurate measurements of the thickness profile of transparent thin film layers with a wide range of thicknesses deposited upon patterned structures exhibiting steps and discontinuities. An advantage of this technique is that it can be implemented with readily available hardware.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. S. C. Chim and G. S. Kino, "Correlation microscope," Opt. Lett. 15, 579-581 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. S. Lee and T. C. Strand, "Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope," Appl. Opt. 29, 3784-3788 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "Interferometric surface profiling with white light: effect of surface films," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1797-1800 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. W. Kim and G. H. Kim, "Thickness profile measurement of transparent thin-film layers by white-light scanning interferometry," Appl. Opt. 38, 5968-5973 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kim and S. Kim, "Direct spectral phase function calculation for dispersive interferometric thickness profilometry," Opt. Express,  12, 5117-5124 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Kim, S. Kim, H. Kong and Y. Lee, "Measurement of the thickness profile of a transparent thin film deposited upon a pattern structure with an acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Lett. 27, 1893-1895 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Calatroni, A. L. Guerrero, C. Sainz and R. Escalona, "Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry as a profilometry tool," Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 485-489 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon and H. Perrin, "High resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white light interferograms," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701-708 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, "Analysis of spectrally resolved white light interferograms: use of a phase shifting technique," Opt. Eng. 40, 1329-1336 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. K. Debnath and M. P. Kothiyal, "Optical profiler based on spectrally resolved white light interferometry," Opt. Eng. 44, 013606 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb and T. Eiju, "Digital phase-shifting interferometry: a simple error-compensating phase calculation algorithm," Appl. Opt. 26, 2504-2506 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Schmit and K. Creath, "Extended averaging technique for derivation of error-compensating algorithms in phase-shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 34, 3610-3619 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Schmit and K. Creath, "Window function influence on phase error in phase-shifting algorithms," Appl. Opt. 35, 5642-5649 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 752-758.
  16. A. Harasaki and J. C. Wyant, "Fringe modulation skewing effect in white light vertical scanning interferometry," Appl. Opt. 39, 2101-2106 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. K. Debnath and M. P. Kothiyal, "Optical profiler based on spectrally resolved white light interferometry," Opt. Eng. 44, 013606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

2001

S. S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, "Analysis of spectrally resolved white light interferograms: use of a phase shifting technique," Opt. Eng. 40, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1996

J. Schmit and K. Creath, "Window function influence on phase error in phase-shifting algorithms," Appl. Opt. 35, 5642-5649 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "Interferometric surface profiling with white light: effect of surface films," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1797-1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Calatroni, A. L. Guerrero, C. Sainz and R. Escalona, "Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry as a profilometry tool," Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 485-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon and H. Perrin, "High resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white light interferograms," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701-708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

1987

Calatroni, J.

J. Calatroni, A. L. Guerrero, C. Sainz and R. Escalona, "Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry as a profilometry tool," Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 485-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chim, S. S. C.

Creath, K.

Debnath, S. K.

S. K. Debnath and M. P. Kothiyal, "Optical profiler based on spectrally resolved white light interferometry," Opt. Eng. 44, 013606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

Escalona, R.

J. Calatroni, A. L. Guerrero, C. Sainz and R. Escalona, "Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry as a profilometry tool," Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 485-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guerrero, A. L.

J. Calatroni, A. L. Guerrero, C. Sainz and R. Escalona, "Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry as a profilometry tool," Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 485-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harasaki, A.

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "Interferometric surface profiling with white light: effect of surface films," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1797-1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb and T. Eiju, "Digital phase-shifting interferometry: a simple error-compensating phase calculation algorithm," Appl. Opt. 26, 2504-2506 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helen, S. S.

S. S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, "Analysis of spectrally resolved white light interferograms: use of a phase shifting technique," Opt. Eng. 40, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, G. H.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. W.

Kino, G. S.

Kong, H.

Kothiyal, M. P.

S. K. Debnath and M. P. Kothiyal, "Optical profiler based on spectrally resolved white light interferometry," Opt. Eng. 44, 013606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, "Analysis of spectrally resolved white light interferograms: use of a phase shifting technique," Opt. Eng. 40, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

Lee, Y.

Oreb, B. F.

Perrin, H.

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon and H. Perrin, "High resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white light interferograms," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701-708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roy, M.

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "Interferometric surface profiling with white light: effect of surface films," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1797-1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sainz, C.

J. Calatroni, A. L. Guerrero, C. Sainz and R. Escalona, "Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry as a profilometry tool," Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 485-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandoz, P.

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon and H. Perrin, "High resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white light interferograms," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701-708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, J.

Sirohi, R. S.

S. S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, "Analysis of spectrally resolved white light interferograms: use of a phase shifting technique," Opt. Eng. 40, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T. C.

Tribillon, G.

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon and H. Perrin, "High resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white light interferograms," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701-708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

Appl. Opt.

J. Mod. Opt.

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "White-light phase-stepping interferometry for surface profiling," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2197-2201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan and M. Roy, "Interferometric surface profiling with white light: effect of surface films," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1797-1800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, G. Tribillon and H. Perrin, "High resolution profilometry by using phase calculation algorithms for spectroscopic analysis of white light interferograms," J. Mod. Opt. 43, 701-708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S. S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal and R. S. Sirohi, "Analysis of spectrally resolved white light interferograms: use of a phase shifting technique," Opt. Eng. 40, 1329-1336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Debnath and M. P. Kothiyal, "Optical profiler based on spectrally resolved white light interferometry," Opt. Eng. 44, 013606 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

J. Calatroni, A. L. Guerrero, C. Sainz and R. Escalona, "Spectrally resolved white-light interferometry as a profilometry tool," Opt. Laser Technol. 28, 485-489 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th Ed. (Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 752-758.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the spectrally-resolved phase-shifting interference profilometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross section of a patterned surface with a transparent film deposited on it.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated phase ψ for a 1.5 µm SiO2 film on Si.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Phase ϕ(x,σ) vs. wave number σ at a point on the surface for four Si samples with SiO2 films of different thicknesses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Line profiles of the top surface of the film and substrate.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

tam ϕ = I 1 5 I 2 + 11 I 3 + 15 I 4 15 I 5 11 I 6 + 5 I 7 + I 8 I 1 5 I 2 11 I 3 + 15 I 4 + 15 I 5 11 I 6 5 I 7 + I 8
I ( x , σ ) = I 0 ( x , σ ) [ 1 + V ( x , σ ) cos ϕ ( x , σ ) ]
ϕ ( x , σ ) = 4 π σ z ( x ) + ψ ( σ , x , d , n 2 ) ,
ϕ ( x , σ ) = 4 π σ z + 4 π n 2 σ d + ϕ nl
η ( z , d ) = [ ϕ mod el ( σ , z , d ) ϕ measured ( σ ) ] 2
( z + n 2 d ) = slope ( 4 π )

Metrics