Abstract

We have fabricated diamond-like silicon photonic crystals through a sequential silica/silicon chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process from the corresponding polymer templates photopatterned by holographic lithography. Core-shell morphology is revealed due to the partial backfilling of the interstitial pores. To model the shell formation and investigate its effect to the bandgap properties, we developed a two-parameter level-set approach that closely approximated the core-shell morphology, and compare the bandgap simulation with the measured optical properties of the 3D crystals at each processing step. Both experimental and calculation results suggest that a complete filling is necessary to maximize the photonic bandgap in the diamond-like structures.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).
  2. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
  4. G. M. Gratson, M. J. Xu, and J. A. Lewis, "Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs," Nature 428, 386 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).
  6. S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, "Fabricating three-dimensional polymer photonic structures by multi-beam interference lithography," Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83-93 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, S. Chandra, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Switchable orthorhombic F photonic crystals formed by holographic polymerization-induced phase separation of liquid crystal," Opt. Express 10, 1074-1082 (2002).
  12. C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Electrically switchable mesoscale Penrose quasicrystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, M. Wohlgemuth, and E. L. Thomas, "Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 948-954 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Tétreault, H. Miguez, and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).
  22. G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Busch, and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3896-3908 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. H. Moon, S.-M. Yang, and S. Yang, "Photonic bandgap structures of core-shell simple cubic crystals from Holographic Lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. M. Su, Y. C. Zhong, X. Wang, X. G. Zheng, J. F. Xu, and H. Z. Wang, "Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication," Phys. Rev. E 67 (2003).
  27. The calculated bandgap width is smaller than literature value, which may be attributed to the discrepancy in refractive index of silicon used in calculation and calculation resolution.

2006 (5)

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, "Fabricating three-dimensional polymer photonic structures by multi-beam interference lithography," Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83-93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanco, and C. López, "Silicon onion-layer nanostructures arranged in three dimensions," Adv. Mater., In press (2006).

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon, S.-M. Yang, and S. Yang, "Photonic bandgap structures of core-shell simple cubic crystals from Holographic Lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Electrically switchable mesoscale Penrose quasicrystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, H. Miguez, and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Gratson, M. J. Xu, and J. A. Lewis, "Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs," Nature 428, 386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, S. M. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "A new synthetic approach to silicon colloidal photonic crystals with a novel topology and an omni-directional photonic bandgap: Micromolding in inverse silica opal (MISO)," Adv. Mater. 15, 597-600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, M. Wohlgemuth, and E. L. Thomas, "Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 948-954 (2003).

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

M. Maldovan, A. M. Urbas, N. Yufa, W. C. Carter, and E. L. Thomas, "Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165123 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, S. Chandra, D. Tomlin, and T. J. Bunning, "Switchable orthorhombic F photonic crystals formed by holographic polymerization-induced phase separation of liquid crystal," Opt. Express 10, 1074-1082 (2002).

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).

1998 (2)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3896-3908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

Aizenberg, J.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

Biswas, R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, A.

A. Blanco, and C. López, "Silicon onion-layer nanostructures arranged in three dimensions," Adv. Mater., In press (2006).

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Bo, X. Z.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bogomolov, V. N.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

Braun, P. V.

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

Bur, J.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch, and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3896-3908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).

Carter, W. C.

M. Maldovan, A. M. Urbas, N. Yufa, W. C. Carter, and E. L. Thomas, "Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165123 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaikin, P. M.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

Chen, G.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chomski, E.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Electrically switchable mesoscale Penrose quasicrystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).

Deubel, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S. H.

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. G.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J.

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, "Fabricating three-dimensional polymer photonic structures by multi-beam interference lithography," Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83-93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Santamaria, F.

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorkhali, S. P.

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Electrically switchable mesoscale Penrose quasicrystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grabtchak, S.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Gratson, G. M.

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Gratson, M. J. Xu, and J. A. Lewis, "Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs," Nature 428, 386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. J.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).

Hatton, B.

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).

Hermatschweiler, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hetherington, D. L.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ibisate, M.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

John, S.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

K. Busch, and S. John, "Photonic band gap formation in certain self-organizing systems," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3896-3908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaplyanskii, A. A.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

Kawata, S.

S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitaev, V.

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, S. M. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "A new synthetic approach to silicon colloidal photonic crystals with a novel topology and an omni-directional photonic bandgap: Micromolding in inverse silica opal (MISO)," Adv. Mater. 15, 597-600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koch, W.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, S. W.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Lewis, J. A.

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Gratson, M. J. Xu, and J. A. Lewis, "Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs," Nature 428, 386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

López, C.

A. Blanco, and C. López, "Silicon onion-layer nanostructures arranged in three dimensions," Adv. Mater., In press (2006).

Lousse, V.

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maldovan, M.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, M. Wohlgemuth, and E. L. Thomas, "Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 948-954 (2003).

M. Maldovan, A. M. Urbas, N. Yufa, W. C. Carter, and E. L. Thomas, "Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165123 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meisel, D. C.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meseguer, F.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Miguez, H.

N. Tétreault, H. Miguez, and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, S. M. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "A new synthetic approach to silicon colloidal photonic crystals with a novel topology and an omni-directional photonic bandgap: Micromolding in inverse silica opal (MISO)," Adv. Mater. 15, 597-600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Miklyaev, Y. V.

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Moon, J. H.

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, "Fabricating three-dimensional polymer photonic structures by multi-beam interference lithography," Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83-93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon, S.-M. Yang, and S. Yang, "Photonic bandgap structures of core-shell simple cubic crystals from Holographic Lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

Ng, C. Y.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, H. Miguez, and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, S. M. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "A new synthetic approach to silicon colloidal photonic crystals with a novel topology and an omni-directional photonic bandgap: Micromolding in inverse silica opal (MISO)," Adv. Mater. 15, 597-600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Pérez-Willard, F.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perovic, D.

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).

Prokofiev, A. V.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

Qi, J.

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Electrically switchable mesoscale Penrose quasicrystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russel, W. B.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Samoilovich, L. A.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

Samoilovich, S. M.

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).

Sheng, P.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, S.

S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

Tam, W. Y.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tetreault, N.

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, S. M. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "A new synthetic approach to silicon colloidal photonic crystals with a novel topology and an omni-directional photonic bandgap: Micromolding in inverse silica opal (MISO)," Adv. Mater. 15, 597-600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).

Tétreault, N.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, H. Miguez, and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, M. Wohlgemuth, and E. L. Thomas, "Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 948-954 (2003).

M. Maldovan, A. M. Urbas, N. Yufa, W. C. Carter, and E. L. Thomas, "Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165123 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Tomlin, D.

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V. P.

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).

Ullal, C. K.

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, M. Wohlgemuth, and E. L. Thomas, "Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 948-954 (2003).

Urbas, A. M.

M. Maldovan, A. M. Urbas, N. Yufa, W. C. Carter, and E. L. Thomas, "Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165123 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, "Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres," Nature 405, 437-440 (2000).

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, X. Z. Bo, J. C. Sturm, and D. J. Norris, "On-chip natural assembly of silicon photonic bandgap crystals," Nature 414, 289-293 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, V. N. Bogomolov, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. V. Prokofiev, L. A. Samoilovich, S. M. Samoilovich, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Optical spectroscopy of opal matrices with CdS embedded in its pores: Quantum confinement and photonic band gap effects," Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D-Condens.Matter At. Mol. Chem. Phys. Fluids Plasmas Biophys. 17, 1349-1354 (1995).

von Freymann, G.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. von Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, and M. Wegener, "Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiltzius, P.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wohlgemuth, M.

Xu, M. J.

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Gratson, M. J. Xu, and J. A. Lewis, "Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs," Nature 428, 386 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, "Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelengths," Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

J. H. Moon, J. Ford, and S. Yang, "Fabricating three-dimensional polymer photonic structures by multi-beam interference lithography," Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 83-93 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon, S.-M. Yang, and S. Yang, "Photonic bandgap structures of core-shell simple cubic crystals from Holographic Lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, "Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser," Chem. Mater. 14, 2831-2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. M.

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, S. M. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "A new synthetic approach to silicon colloidal photonic crystals with a novel topology and an omni-directional photonic bandgap: Micromolding in inverse silica opal (MISO)," Adv. Mater. 15, 597-600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, B. Hatton, S. M. Yang, D. Perovic, and G. A. Ozin, "Mechanical stability enhancement by pore size and connectivity control in colloidal crystals by layer-by-layer growth of oxide," Chem. Commun., 2736-2737 (2002).

Yang, S.-M.

J. H. Moon, S.-M. Yang, and S. Yang, "Photonic bandgap structures of core-shell simple cubic crystals from Holographic Lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yufa, N.

M. Maldovan, A. M. Urbas, N. Yufa, W. C. Carter, and E. L. Thomas, "Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165123 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, and J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (6)

H. Miguez, N. Tetreault, S. M. Yang, V. Kitaev, and G. A. Ozin, "A new synthetic approach to silicon colloidal photonic crystals with a novel topology and an omni-directional photonic bandgap: Micromolding in inverse silica opal (MISO)," Adv. Mater. 15, 597-600 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, H. Miguez, and G. A. Ozin, "Silicon inverse opal - A platform for photonic bandgap research," Adv. Mater. 16, 1471-1476 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Blanco, and C. López, "Silicon onion-layer nanostructures arranged in three dimensions," Adv. Mater., In press (2006).

G. M. Gratson, F. Garcia-Santamaria, V. Lousse, M. J. Xu, S. H. Fan, J. A. Lewis, and P. V. Braun, "Direct-write assembly of three-dimensional photonic crystals: Conversion of polymer scaffolds to silicon hollow-woodpile structures," Adv. Mater. 18, 461-465 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, "New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: Silicon double inversion of polymer templates," Adv. Mater. 18, 457-460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, C. Y. Ng, W. Y. Tam, C. T. Chan, and P. Sheng, "Large-area two-dimensional mesoscale quasi-crystals," Adv. Mater. 15, 1526-1528 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. J. Han, and S. Yang, "Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Gorkhali, J. Qi, and G. P. Crawford, "Electrically switchable mesoscale Penrose quasicrystal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon, S.-M. Yang, and S. Yang, "Photonic bandgap structures of core-shell simple cubic crystals from Holographic Lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoji, and S. Kawata, "Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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The calculated bandgap width is smaller than literature value, which may be attributed to the discrepancy in refractive index of silicon used in calculation and calculation resolution.

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