Abstract

Oscillator-only femtosecond laser micromachining enables the manufacturing of integrated optical components with circular transverse profiles in transparent materials. The circular profile is due to diffusion of heat accumulating at the focus. We control the heat diffusion by focusing bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at various repetition rates into sodalime glass. We investigate the effect the repetition rate and number of pulses on the size of the resulting structures. We identify the combinations of burst repetition rate and number of pulses within a burst for which accumulation of heat occurs. The threshold for heat accumulation depends on the number of pulses within a burst. The burst repetition rate and the number of pulses within a burst provide convenient control of the morphology of structures generated with high repetition rate femtosecond micromachining.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
  2. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-648 (1999).
  3. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Comm. 171, 279-284 (1999).
  4. Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
  6. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
  7. A. M. Streltsov, and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
  8. A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti : Al2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 2037-2039 (2002).
  9. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
  11. X. Wang, H. C. Guo, H. Yang, H. B. Jiang, and Q. H. Gong, "Fabrication of beam shapers in the bulk of fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Opt. 43, 4571-4574 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. S. Carslaw, and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of heat in solids (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1959).
  14. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Comm. 171, 279-284 (1999).

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-648 (1999).

1996 (1)

Arai, A. Y.

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brodeur, A.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chiodo, N.

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Della Valle, G.

Eaton, S. M.

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Comm. 171, 279-284 (1999).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).

Gong, Q. H.

Guo, H. C.

Hartl, I.

Herman, P. R.

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, H. B.

Kartner, F. X.

Kazansky, P. G.

Killi, A.

Kondo, Y.

Kopf, D.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, M.

Marangoni, M.

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).

Minoshima, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

Miura, K.

Morgner, U.

Mysyrewicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Comm. 171, 279-284 (1999).

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Osellame, R.

Polli, D.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Comm. 171, 279-284 (1999).

Ramponi, R.

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).

Schibli, T. R.

Shah, L.

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, V.

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Comm. 171, 279-284 (1999).

Sugimoto, N.

Taccheo, S.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Watanabe, M.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yoshimo, F.

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. B.

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (2)

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Comm. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, "Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Comm. 171, 279-284 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (8)

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-648 (1999).

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).

A. M. Streltsov, and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).

A. M. Kowalevicz, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kartner, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultralow-threshold Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti : Al2O3 laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 2037-2039 (2002).

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Optics Express (2)

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshimo, L. Shah, B. J., and A. Y. Arai, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Shah, A. Y. Arai, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Optics Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. S. Carslaw, and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of heat in solids (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1959).

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