Abstract

We report the first observations of the three-dimensional morphology of cone photoreceptors in the living human retina. Images were acquired with a high-speed adaptive optics (AO) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) camera. The AO system consisted of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and bimorph mirror (AOptix) that measured and corrected the ocular and system aberrations at a closed-loop rate of 12 Hz. The bimorph mirror was positioned between the XY mechanical scanners and the subject’s eye. The SD-OCT system consisted of a superluminescent diode and a 512 pixel line scan charge-coupled device (CCD) that acquired 75,000 A-scans/s. This rate is more than two times faster than that previously reported. Retinal motion artifacts were minimized by quickly acquiring small volume images of the retina with and without AO compensation. Camera sensitivity was sufficient to detect reflections from all major retinal layers. The regular distribution of bright spots observed within C-scans at the inner segment / outer segment (IS/OS) junctions and at the posterior tips of the OS were found to be highly correlated with one another and with the expected cone spacing. No correlation was found between the posterior tips of the OS and the other retinal layers examined, including the retinal pigment epithelium.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2421 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  9. N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1537-1539 (2002).
  10. M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
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  14. E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. D. R. Williams, "Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye," Vision Res. 28, 433-454 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "The relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment epithelium," J. Ultrastructure Res. 67, 23-32 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagogytosis of extrafoveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).
  21. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

2004 (4)

2002 (3)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

N. Doble, G. Yoon, L. Chen, P. Bierden, B. Singer, S. Olivier, and D. R. Williams, "Use of a microelectromechanical mirror for adaptive optics in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 27, 1537-1539 (2002).

M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Liang, D. Williams, and D. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2884-2892 (1997).

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparitive Neurology 292, 497-523 (1990).

1988 (1)

D. R. Williams, "Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye," Vision Res. 28, 433-454 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "The relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment epithelium," J. Ultrastructure Res. 67, 23-32 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagogytosis of extrafoveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).

1954 (1)

L. A. Riggs and J. C. Armington, J. C., "Motions of the retinal image during fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 315-321 (1954).

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. H.

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "The relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment epithelium," J. Ultrastructure Res. 67, 23-32 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Armington, J. C.

L. A. Riggs and J. C. Armington, J. C., "Motions of the retinal image during fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 315-321 (1954).

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bierden, P.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, T. C.

Choi, S.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparitive Neurology 292, 497-523 (1990).

de Boer, J. F.

Doble, N.

Donnelly, W. J.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Drexler, W.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duker, J. S.

Elzaiat, Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, E. J.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, S. K.

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "The relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment epithelium," J. Ultrastructure Res. 67, 23-32 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gendron, E.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glanc, M.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T. J.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparitive Neurology 292, 497-523 (1990).

Hermann, B.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, M. J.

R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagogytosis of extrafoveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparitive Neurology 292, 497-523 (1990).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacombe, F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lafaille, D.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Le, T.

Le Gargasson, J. F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R. A.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lena, P.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, D. Williams, and D. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2884-2892 (1997).

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

J. Liang, D. Williams, and D. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2884-2892 (1997).

Miller, D. T.

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N. A.

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Považay, B.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, P. M.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qu, J.

J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
[CrossRef]

Queener, H.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Rha, J.

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, L. A.

L. A. Riggs and J. C. Armington, J. C., "Motions of the retinal image during fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 315-321 (1954).

Romero-Borja, F.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Roorda, A.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Sattmann, H.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singer, B.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparitive Neurology 292, 497-523 (1990).

Srinivasan, V. J.

Steinberg, R. H.

R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagogytosis of extrafoveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Thorn, K. E.

J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
[CrossRef]

Unterhuber, A.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D.

J. Liang, D. Williams, and D. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2884-2892 (1997).

Williams, D. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wood, I.

R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagogytosis of extrafoveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).

Yoon, G.

Yun, S.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. , Wojtkowski, R. A. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Comparitive Neurology (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Comparitive Neurology 292, 497-523 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

L. A. Riggs and J. C. Armington, J. C., "Motions of the retinal image during fixation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 44, 315-321 (1954).

J. Liang, D. Williams, and D. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11,2884-2892 (1997).

J. Ultrastructure Res. (1)

D. H. Anderson and S. K. Fisher, "The relationship of primate foveal cones to the pigment epithelium," J. Ultrastructure Res. 67, 23-32 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distance by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J. F. Le Gargasson, and P. Lena, "Towards wide-field imaging with adaptive optics," Opt. Commun. 230, 225-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

J. Rha, K. E. Thorn, R. S. Jonnal, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging," Opt. Express (accepted).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2421 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Express (1)

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Optics Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. (1)

R. H. Steinberg, I. Wood, and M. J. Hogan, "Pigment epithelial ensheathment and phagogytosis of extrafoveal cones in human retina," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London. 277, 459-474 (1977).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional adaptive Optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Vision Res. 45, 3432-3444 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Williams, "Topography of the foveal cone mosaic in the living human eye," Vision Res. 28, 433-454 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers ANSI Z136.1. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (2894 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2445 KB)     

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