Abstract

Conformable phase masks, transparent photopolymers and two photon effects provide the basis for a simple, parallel lithographic technique that can form complex, but well defined three dimensional (3D) nanostructures in a single exposure step. This paper describes the method, presents examples of its ability to form 3D nanostructures (including free standing particles with controlled shapes) and comprehensive modeling of the associated optics. Single step, large area 3D pattern definition, sub-wavelength resolution and experimental simplicity represent features that make this method potentially useful for applications in photonics, biotechnology and other areas.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

H.-B. Sun and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication," Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169-273 (2004).

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and E. Chow, "Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals built with VLSI tools," Mrs Bulletin 26, 627-631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Schmid and B. Michel, "Siloxane Polymers for High-Resolution, High-Accuracy Soft Lithgraphy," Macromolecules 33, 3042-3049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (4)

B. T. Holland, C. Blanford, and A. Stein, "Synthesis of macroporous minerals with highly ordered three-dimensional arrays of spheroidal voids," Science 281, 538-540 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park and Y. Xia, "Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Macroporous Membranes with Assemblies of Microspheres as Templates," Chem. Mater. 10, 1745-1747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Witzgall, R. Vrijen, E. Yablonovitch, V. Doan, and B. J. Schwartz, "Single-shot two-photon exposure of commercial photoresist for the production of three-dimensional structures," Opt. Lett. 23, 1745-1747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

O. D. Velev, T. A. Jede, R. F. Lobo, and A. M. Lenhoff, "Porous silica via colloidal crystallization," Nature 389, 447-448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Denizligil, R. Resul, Y. Yagci, C. McArdle, and J. P. Fouassier, "Photosensitized cationic polymerization using allyl sulfonium salt," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1233-1240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Y. Chou and W. Y. Deng, "Subwavelength Amorphous-Silicon Transmission Gratings And Applications In Polarizers And Waveplates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 742-744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. S. Bates, "Polymer-polymer phase behavior," Science 251, 898-905 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acharya, B. R.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Alleyne, A. G.

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, K. W.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bates, F. S.

F. S. Bates, "Polymer-polymer phase behavior," Science 251, 898-905 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

Bernard, A.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bietsch, A.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blanford, C.

B. T. Holland, C. Blanford, and A. Stein, "Synthesis of macroporous minerals with highly ordered three-dimensional arrays of spheroidal voids," Science 281, 538-540 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou and W. Y. Deng, "Subwavelength Amorphous-Silicon Transmission Gratings And Applications In Polarizers And Waveplates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 742-744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and E. Chow, "Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals built with VLSI tools," Mrs Bulletin 26, 627-631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cirelli, R.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delamarche, E.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, W. Y.

S. Y. Chou and W. Y. Deng, "Subwavelength Amorphous-Silicon Transmission Gratings And Applications In Polarizers And Waveplates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 742-744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Denizligil, S.

S. Denizligil, R. Resul, Y. Yagci, C. McArdle, and J. P. Fouassier, "Photosensitized cationic polymerization using allyl sulfonium salt," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1233-1240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doan, V.

Fink, Y.

Fleming, J. G.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and E. Chow, "Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals built with VLSI tools," Mrs Bulletin 26, 627-631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fouassier, J. P.

S. Denizligil, R. Resul, Y. Yagci, C. McArdle, and J. P. Fouassier, "Photosensitized cationic polymerization using allyl sulfonium salt," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1233-1240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fulton, J. M.

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geissler, M.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heitzman, C. E.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, B. T.

B. T. Holland, C. Blanford, and A. Stein, "Synthesis of macroporous minerals with highly ordered three-dimensional arrays of spheroidal voids," Science 281, 538-540 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsia, K. J.

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, J. W. P.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. G. Y.

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jede, T. A.

O. D. Velev, T. A. Jede, R. F. Lobo, and A. M. Lenhoff, "Porous silica via colloidal crystallization," Nature 389, 447-448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Juncker, D.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

H.-B. Sun and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication," Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169-273 (2004).

Kenis, P. J. A.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lenhoff, A. M.

O. D. Velev, T. A. Jede, R. F. Lobo, and A. M. Lenhoff, "Porous silica via colloidal crystallization," Nature 389, 447-448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and E. Chow, "Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals built with VLSI tools," Mrs Bulletin 26, 627-631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lobo, R. F.

O. D. Velev, T. A. Jede, R. F. Lobo, and A. M. Lenhoff, "Porous silica via colloidal crystallization," Nature 389, 447-448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Loo, Y. L.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J.

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McArdle, C.

S. Denizligil, R. Resul, Y. Yagci, C. McArdle, and J. P. Fouassier, "Photosensitized cationic polymerization using allyl sulfonium salt," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1233-1240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meitl, M.

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meitl, M. A.

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menard, E.

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michel, B.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid and B. Michel, "Siloxane Polymers for High-Resolution, High-Accuracy Soft Lithgraphy," Macromolecules 33, 3042-3049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. U.

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-U.

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park and Y. Xia, "Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Macroporous Membranes with Assemblies of Microspheres as Templates," Chem. Mater. 10, 1745-1747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Renault, J. P.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Resul, R.

S. Denizligil, R. Resul, Y. Yagci, C. McArdle, and J. P. Fouassier, "Photosensitized cationic polymerization using allyl sulfonium salt," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1233-1240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J.

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothuizen, H.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, H.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid and B. Michel, "Siloxane Polymers for High-Resolution, High-Accuracy Soft Lithgraphy," Macromolecules 33, 3042-3049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Winkel, P.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

B. T. Holland, C. Blanford, and A. Stein, "Synthesis of macroporous minerals with highly ordered three-dimensional arrays of spheroidal voids," Science 281, 538-540 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stutz, R.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication," Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169-273 (2004).

Thomas, E. L.

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbas, A. M.

Velev, O. D.

O. D. Velev, T. A. Jede, R. F. Lobo, and A. M. Lenhoff, "Porous silica via colloidal crystallization," Nature 389, 447-448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vrijen, R.

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Witzgall, G.

Wolf, H.

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

S. H. Park and Y. Xia, "Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Macroporous Membranes with Assemblies of Microspheres as Templates," Chem. Mater. 10, 1745-1747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. N.

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

Yagci, Y.

S. Denizligil, R. Resul, Y. Yagci, C. McArdle, and J. P. Fouassier, "Photosensitized cationic polymerization using allyl sulfonium salt," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1233-1240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaumseil, J.

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. X.

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Jeon, E. Menard, J.-U. Park, J. Maria, M. Meitl, J. Zaumseil, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional nanofabrication with rubber stamps and conformable photomasks," Adv. Mater. 16, 1369-1373 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

H.-B. Sun and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photopolymerization and 3D lithographic microfabrication," Adv. Polym. Sci. 170, 169-273 (2004).

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. N. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, "Soft lithography," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Femtosecond laser interference technique with diffractive beam splitter for fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725-727 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Hsia, Y. Huang, E. Menard, J. U. Park, W. Zhou, J. Rogers, and J. M. Fulton, "Collapse of stamps for soft lithography due to interfacial adhesion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou and W. Y. Deng, "Subwavelength Amorphous-Silicon Transmission Gratings And Applications In Polarizers And Waveplates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 742-744 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. H. Park and Y. Xia, "Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Macroporous Membranes with Assemblies of Microspheres as Templates," Chem. Mater. 10, 1745-1747 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

B. Michel, A. Bernard, A. Bietsch, E. Delamarche, M. Geissler, D. Juncker, H. Kind, J. P. Renault, H. Rothuizen, H. Schmid, P. Schmidt-Winkel, R. Stutz, and H. Wolf, "Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution printing," IBM J. Res. Dev. 45, 697-719 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Langmuir (1)

Y. G. Y. Huang, W. X. Zhou, K. J. Hsia, E. Menard, J. U. Park, J. A. Rogers, and A. G. Alleyne, "Stamp collapse in soft lithography," Langmuir 21, 8058-8068 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Denizligil, R. Resul, Y. Yagci, C. McArdle, and J. P. Fouassier, "Photosensitized cationic polymerization using allyl sulfonium salt," Macromol. Chem. Phys. 197, 1233-1240 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

H. Schmid and B. Michel, "Siloxane Polymers for High-Resolution, High-Accuracy Soft Lithgraphy," Macromolecules 33, 3042-3049 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mrs Bulletin (1)

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, and E. Chow, "Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals built with VLSI tools," Mrs Bulletin 26, 627-631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Lett. (1)

J. Zaumseil, M. A. Meitl, J. W. P. Hsu, B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, Y. L. Loo, and J. A. Rogers, "Three-dimensional and multilayer nanostructures formed by nanotransfer printing," Nano. Lett. 3, 1223-1227 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424, 810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Velev, T. A. Jede, R. F. Lobo, and A. M. Lenhoff, "Porous silica via colloidal crystallization," Nature 389, 447-448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

S. Jeon, J.-U. Park, R. Cirelli, S. Yang, C. E. Heitzman, P. V. Braun, P. J. A. Kenis, and J. A. Rogers, "Fabricating complex three-dimensional nanostructures with high-resolution conformable phase masks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 101, 12428-12433 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

F. S. Bates, "Polymer-polymer phase behavior," Science 251, 898-905 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. T. Holland, C. Blanford, and A. Stein, "Synthesis of macroporous minerals with highly ordered three-dimensional arrays of spheroidal voids," Science 281, 538-540 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

"The GSOLVER ver. 4.20 developed by Grating Solver Development Company (P.O. Box 353, Allen, TX 75013)."

M. V. Klein, Optics (John Wiley & Sons, INC., New York, 1970), pp. 415-481.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the experimental setup (top frame) with a grating mask (500 nm line and space with relief depths of 510 nm and an index of refraction of 1.4). The middle frames show calculated intensity distributions in air, for two different wavelengths (blue: 405 nm exposure, red: 810 nm exposure). The bottom frames compare intensities (1 ph) and the square of the intensity (2 ph) at specific depths, z, from grating; 100, 500, and 1000 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning optical measurements and modeling results of 3D distributions of intensity (left; wavelength of 442 nm) and the square of the intensity (right; wavelength of 884 nm) that result from passage of light through a 2D phase mask. The bottom frames show planar intensity distributions that correspond to the cases of calculated 1-photon (left; wavelength of 442 nm), measured 1-photon (middle; wavelength of 442 nm) and calculated 2-photon (right; wavelength of 884 nm). The mask, made of polyurethane (refractive index of 1.56), has a square array of rounded square holes (d= 1000 nm), h= 420 nm, and p=1570 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images and modeling of 3D structures made through a one photon process with mask 1 (d=570 nm, h=510 nm, p=710 nm, circular dot). (a) large area angled view, (b) top view, (c) cross sectional view and modeling (inset).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM images and modeling of 3D structures made through a two photon process with mask 1 (a) large area angled view and top view (inset), (b) and (c) cross sectional views at different angles, (d) cross sectional view (left) and modeling (right), and (e) image of ellipsoidal particles and modeling (inset) made through a two photon process by use of a short exposure time (~60 sec). An appropriately defined cutoff filter, close to the experimental condition, is chosen for each modeling.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SEM images of structures made through a two photon process with mask 1. Modeling results appear in the right column. The linear polarization of exposure light had angles of 0° (a), 22.5° (b), and 45° (c) relative to the [0, 1] direction of the mask. Frame (d) shows a corresponding structure formed with circularly polarized light.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a-d) SEM images of structures made through a two photon process with mask 2 (square array of posts with, d= 1000 nm, h= 510 nm, p= 1570 nm, rounded square dot). (a) and (b) show images and modeling results (inset) of the surfaces. (c) and (d) show images and modeling, respectively, of an angled view of similar structures. (e-h) SEM images of structures made through a two photon process with mask 3 (triangular array of posts with, d= 1120 nm, h= 420 nm, p= 1500 nm, circular dot). Surface structure (e). Top surface comparison between modeling and sem (f), second layer (g) and corresponding 3D calculation (h).

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