Abstract

We demonstrate the construction of diamond photonic crystal structures by the translation of a multi-beam interference pattern. Using phase shift of each beam, the double-exposed interference patterns can be aligned in the [111] direction for a face-centered cubic (FCC) and [210] direction for a body-centered cubic (BCC), respectively, producing diamond D from FCC and BCC-diamond like structure from BCC. The present result shows that the complete bandgap has been retained with slight deviation from ideal diamond symmetry.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. H. Park , D. Qin , and Y. Xia , “ Crystallization of mesoscale particles over large areas ,” Adv. Mater.   10 , 1028 – 1032 ( 1998 ).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. M. Gratson , M. J. Xu , and J. A. Lewis , “ Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs ,” Nature   428 , 386 – 386 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Kawata , H. B. Sun , T. Tanaka , and K. Takada , “ Finer features for functional microdevices -Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption ,” Nature   412 , 697 – 698 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Noda , N. Yamamoto , and A. Sasaki , “ New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   35 (7B), L909 – L912 ( 1996 ).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Maldovan and E. L. Thomas , “ Diamond-structured photonic crystals ,” Nat. Mater.   3 (9), 593 – 600 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Yablonovitch , T. J. Gmitter , and K. M. Leung , “ Photonic band-structure - The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   67 , 2295 – 2298 ( 1991 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. H. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , R. D. Meade , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ Design of 3-dimensional photonic crystals at submicron length scales ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   65 , 1466 – 1468 ( 1994 ).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Toader and S. John , “ Proposed square spiral microfabrication architecture for large three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals ,” Science   292 , 1133 – 1135 ( 2001 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , M. Wohlgemuth , and E. L. Thomas , “ Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 948 – 954 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. N. Sharp , A. J. Turberfield , and R. G. Denning , “ Holographic photonic crystals with diamond symmetry ,” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 205102 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Toader , T. Y. M. Chan , and S. John , “ Photonic band gap architectures for holographic lithography ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 (4), 043905 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Maldovan , C. K. Ullal , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups ,” Nat. Mater.   2 (10), 664 – 667 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. H. Moon , S.-M. Yang , D. J. Pine , and W.-S. Chang , “ Multiple-exposure holographic lithography with phase shift ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4184 – 4186 ( 2004 ).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Qi , M. E. Sousa , A. K. Fontecchio , and G. P. Crawford , “ Temporally multiplexed holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1652 – 1654 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. J. Escuti , J. Qi , and G. P. Crawford , “ Tunable face-centered-cubic photonic crystal formed in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals ,” Opt. Lett.   28 (7), 522 – 524 ( 2003 ).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

2005 (1)

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

J. H. Moon , S.-M. Yang , D. J. Pine , and W.-S. Chang , “ Multiple-exposure holographic lithography with phase shift ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4184 – 4186 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Gratson , M. J. Xu , and J. A. Lewis , “ Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs ,” Nature   428 , 386 – 386 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maldovan and E. L. Thomas , “ Diamond-structured photonic crystals ,” Nat. Mater.   3 (9), 593 – 600 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Toader , T. Y. M. Chan , and S. John , “ Photonic band gap architectures for holographic lithography ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 (4), 043905 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

M. Maldovan , C. K. Ullal , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups ,” Nat. Mater.   2 (10), 664 – 667 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , M. Wohlgemuth , and E. L. Thomas , “ Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 948 – 954 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Sharp , A. J. Turberfield , and R. G. Denning , “ Holographic photonic crystals with diamond symmetry ,” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 205102 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi , M. E. Sousa , A. K. Fontecchio , and G. P. Crawford , “ Temporally multiplexed holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1652 – 1654 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti , J. Qi , and G. P. Crawford , “ Tunable face-centered-cubic photonic crystal formed in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals ,” Opt. Lett.   28 (7), 522 – 524 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

O. Toader and S. John , “ Proposed square spiral microfabrication architecture for large three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals ,” Science   292 , 1133 – 1135 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata , H. B. Sun , T. Tanaka , and K. Takada , “ Finer features for functional microdevices -Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption ,” Nature   412 , 697 – 698 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. H. Park , D. Qin , and Y. Xia , “ Crystallization of mesoscale particles over large areas ,” Adv. Mater.   10 , 1028 – 1032 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Noda , N. Yamamoto , and A. Sasaki , “ New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   35 (7B), L909 – L912 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , R. D. Meade , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ Design of 3-dimensional photonic crystals at submicron length scales ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   65 , 1466 – 1468 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. Yablonovitch , T. J. Gmitter , and K. M. Leung , “ Photonic band-structure - The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   67 , 2295 – 2298 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizenberg, J.

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, W. C.

M. Maldovan , C. K. Ullal , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups ,” Nat. Mater.   2 (10), 664 – 667 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Chaikin, P. M.

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T. Y. M.

O. Toader , T. Y. M. Chan , and S. John , “ Photonic band gap architectures for holographic lithography ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 (4), 043905 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.-S.

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon , S.-M. Yang , D. J. Pine , and W.-S. Chang , “ Multiple-exposure holographic lithography with phase shift ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4184 – 4186 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Chelnokov, A.

A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Courtois, J. Y.

A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, G. P.

M. J. Escuti , J. Qi , and G. P. Crawford , “ Tunable face-centered-cubic photonic crystal formed in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals ,” Opt. Lett.   28 (7), 522 – 524 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Qi , M. E. Sousa , A. K. Fontecchio , and G. P. Crawford , “ Temporally multiplexed holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1652 – 1654 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

D. N. Sharp , A. J. Turberfield , and R. G. Denning , “ Holographic photonic crystals with diamond symmetry ,” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 205102 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Escuti, M. J.

Fan, S. H.

S. H. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , R. D. Meade , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ Design of 3-dimensional photonic crystals at submicron length scales ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   65 , 1466 – 1468 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Fontecchio, A. K.

J. Qi , M. E. Sousa , A. K. Fontecchio , and G. P. Crawford , “ Temporally multiplexed holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1652 – 1654 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Freymann, G. Von

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Gmitter, T. J.

E. Yablonovitch , T. J. Gmitter , and K. M. Leung , “ Photonic band-structure - The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   67 , 2295 – 2298 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratson, G. M.

G. M. Gratson , M. J. Xu , and J. A. Lewis , “ Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs ,” Nature   428 , 386 – 386 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermatschweiler, M.

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. H. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , R. D. Meade , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ Design of 3-dimensional photonic crystals at submicron length scales ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   65 , 1466 – 1468 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

O. Toader , T. Y. M. Chan , and S. John , “ Photonic band gap architectures for holographic lithography ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 (4), 043905 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Toader and S. John , “ Proposed square spiral microfabrication architecture for large three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals ,” Science   292 , 1133 – 1135 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata , H. B. Sun , T. Tanaka , and K. Takada , “ Finer features for functional microdevices -Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption ,” Nature   412 , 697 – 698 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-K.

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

E. Yablonovitch , T. J. Gmitter , and K. M. Leung , “ Photonic band-structure - The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   67 , 2295 – 2298 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, J. A.

G. M. Gratson , M. J. Xu , and J. A. Lewis , “ Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs ,” Nature   428 , 386 – 386 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lourtioz, J. M.

A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Maldovan, M.

M. Maldovan and E. L. Thomas , “ Diamond-structured photonic crystals ,” Nat. Mater.   3 (9), 593 – 600 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maldovan , C. K. Ullal , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups ,” Nat. Mater.   2 (10), 664 – 667 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , M. Wohlgemuth , and E. L. Thomas , “ Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 948 – 954 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

S. H. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , R. D. Meade , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ Design of 3-dimensional photonic crystals at submicron length scales ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   65 , 1466 – 1468 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M.

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. H.

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon , S.-M. Yang , D. J. Pine , and W.-S. Chang , “ Multiple-exposure holographic lithography with phase shift ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4184 – 4186 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda , N. Yamamoto , and A. Sasaki , “ New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   35 (7B), L909 – L912 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park , D. Qin , and Y. Xia , “ Crystallization of mesoscale particles over large areas ,” Adv. Mater.   10 , 1028 – 1032 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perez-Willard, F.

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Pine, D. J.

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon , S.-M. Yang , D. J. Pine , and W.-S. Chang , “ Multiple-exposure holographic lithography with phase shift ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4184 – 4186 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J.

J. Qi , M. E. Sousa , A. K. Fontecchio , and G. P. Crawford , “ Temporally multiplexed holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1652 – 1654 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti , J. Qi , and G. P. Crawford , “ Tunable face-centered-cubic photonic crystal formed in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals ,” Opt. Lett.   28 (7), 522 – 524 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, D.

S. H. Park , D. Qin , and Y. Xia , “ Crystallization of mesoscale particles over large areas ,” Adv. Mater.   10 , 1028 – 1032 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Rowson, S.

A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

Russel, W. B.

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

S. Noda , N. Yamamoto , and A. Sasaki , “ New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   35 (7B), L909 – L912 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, D. N.

D. N. Sharp , A. J. Turberfield , and R. G. Denning , “ Holographic photonic crystals with diamond symmetry ,” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 205102 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Small, A.

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, M. E.

J. Qi , M. E. Sousa , A. K. Fontecchio , and G. P. Crawford , “ Temporally multiplexed holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1652 – 1654 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

S. Kawata , H. B. Sun , T. Tanaka , and K. Takada , “ Finer features for functional microdevices -Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption ,” Nature   412 , 697 – 698 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata , H. B. Sun , T. Tanaka , and K. Takada , “ Finer features for functional microdevices -Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption ,” Nature   412 , 697 – 698 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata , H. B. Sun , T. Tanaka , and K. Takada , “ Finer features for functional microdevices -Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption ,” Nature   412 , 697 – 698 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tereault, N.

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Thomas, E. L.

M. Maldovan and E. L. Thomas , “ Diamond-structured photonic crystals ,” Nat. Mater.   3 (9), 593 – 600 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maldovan , C. K. Ullal , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups ,” Nat. Mater.   2 (10), 664 – 667 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , M. Wohlgemuth , and E. L. Thomas , “ Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 948 – 954 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

O. Toader , T. Y. M. Chan , and S. John , “ Photonic band gap architectures for holographic lithography ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 (4), 043905 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Toader and S. John , “ Proposed square spiral microfabrication architecture for large three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals ,” Science   292 , 1133 – 1135 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turberfield, A. J.

D. N. Sharp , A. J. Turberfield , and R. G. Denning , “ Holographic photonic crystals with diamond symmetry ,” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 205102 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ullal, C. K.

C. K. Ullal , M. Maldovan , M. Wohlgemuth , and E. L. Thomas , “ Triply periodic bicontinuous structures through interference lithography: a level-set approach ,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A   20 , 948 – 954 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

M. Maldovan , C. K. Ullal , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups ,” Nat. Mater.   2 (10), 664 – 667 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbas, A. M.

M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. H. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , R. D. Meade , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ Design of 3-dimensional photonic crystals at submicron length scales ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   65 , 1466 – 1468 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

Wiltzius, P.

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Wohlgemuth, M.

Xia, Y.

S. H. Park , D. Qin , and Y. Xia , “ Crystallization of mesoscale particles over large areas ,” Adv. Mater.   10 , 1028 – 1032 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. J.

G. M. Gratson , M. J. Xu , and J. A. Lewis , “ Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs ,” Nature   428 , 386 – 386 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch , T. J. Gmitter , and K. M. Leung , “ Photonic band-structure - The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   67 , 2295 – 2298 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda , N. Yamamoto , and A. Sasaki , “ New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   35 (7B), L909 – L912 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-M.

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon , S.-M. Yang , D. J. Pine , and W.-S. Chang , “ Multiple-exposure holographic lithography with phase shift ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4184 – 4186 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-R.

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Yufa, N.

M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. H. Park , D. Qin , and Y. Xia , “ Crystallization of mesoscale particles over large areas ,” Adv. Mater.   10 , 1028 – 1032 ( 1998 ).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. H. Fan , P. R. Villeneuve , R. D. Meade , and J. D. Joannopoulos , “ Design of 3-dimensional photonic crystals at submicron length scales ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   65 , 1466 – 1468 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Moon , S.-M. Yang , D. J. Pine , and W.-S. Chang , “ Multiple-exposure holographic lithography with phase shift ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   85 , 4184 – 4186 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi , M. E. Sousa , A. K. Fontecchio , and G. P. Crawford , “ Temporally multiplexed holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   82 , 1652 – 1654 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Yang , M. Megens , J. Aizenberg , P. Wiltzius , P. M. Chaikin , and W. B. Russel , “ Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser ,” Chem. Mater.   14 , 2831 – 2833 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. (1)

A. Chelnokov , S. Rowson , J. M. Lourtioz , V. Berger , and J. Y. Courtois , “ An optical drill for the fabrication of photonic crystals ,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op.   1 (5), L3 – L6 ( 1999 ).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Noda , N. Yamamoto , and A. Sasaki , “ New realization method for three-dimensional photonic crystal in optical wavelength region ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.   35 (7B), L909 – L912 ( 1996 ).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (3)

M. Maldovan and E. L. Thomas , “ Diamond-structured photonic crystals ,” Nat. Mater.   3 (9), 593 – 600 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel , G. Von Freymann , M. Wegener , S. Pereira , K. Busch , and C. M. Soukoulis , “ Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications ,” Nat. Mater.   3 , 444 – 447 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Maldovan , C. K. Ullal , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Exploring for 3D photonic bandgap structures in the 11 f.c.c. space groups ,” Nat. Mater.   2 (10), 664 – 667 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

S. Kawata , H. B. Sun , T. Tanaka , and K. Takada , “ Finer features for functional microdevices -Micromachines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption ,” Nature   412 , 697 – 698 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Gratson , M. J. Xu , and J. A. Lewis , “ Microporiodis structures - Direct writing of three-dimensional webs ,” Nature   428 , 386 – 386 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Campbell , D. N. Sharp , M. T. Harrison , R. G. Denning , and A. J. Turberfield , “ Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography ,” Nature   404 , 53 – 56 ( 2000 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Maldovan , A. M. Urbas , N. Yufa , W. C. Carter , and E. L. Thomas , “ Photonic properties of bicontinuous cubic microphases ,” Phys. Rev. B   65 , 165123 ( 2002 ).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Sharp , A. J. Turberfield , and R. G. Denning , “ Holographic photonic crystals with diamond symmetry ,” Phys. Rev. B   68 , 205102 ( 2003 ).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

O. Toader , T. Y. M. Chan , and S. John , “ Photonic band gap architectures for holographic lithography ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   92 (4), 043905 ( 2004 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch , T. J. Gmitter , and K. M. Leung , “ Photonic band-structure - The face-centered-cubic case employing nonspherical atoms ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.   67 , 2295 – 2298 ( 1991 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

O. Toader and S. John , “ Proposed square spiral microfabrication architecture for large three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals ,” Science   292 , 1133 – 1135 ( 2001 ).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. M. Ho , C. T. Chan , C. M. Soukoulis , R. Biswas , and M. Sigalas , “ Photonic band-gaps in 3-dimensions -New layer-by-layer periodic structures ,” Solid State Commun.   89 , 413 – 416 ( 1994 ).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

J. H. Moon , A. Small , G.-R. Yi , S.-K. Lee , W.-S. Chang , D. J. Pine , and S.-M. Yang , “ Patterned polymer photonic crystals using soft lithography and holographic lithography ,” Synth. Met.   148 , 99 – 102 ( 2005 ).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. Tereault , G. von Freymann , M. Deubel , M. Hermatschweiler , F. Perez-Willard , S. John , M. Wegener , and G. A. Ozin , “ New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates. ,” Adv. Mater. in press ( 2005 ).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Translation of (a) FCC interference pattern in the [111]direction and (b) BCC interference in the [210] direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The relative position of the FCC interference pattern (red) and the shifted pattern (blue) in the [111] direction by (a) 0.20d(1,1,1), (b) 0.25d(1,1,1), and (c) 0.29d(1,1,1). The level surface of each double-exposed FCC interference pattern with a filling fraction of 0.22 is shown in (d -f) for their respective cases.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity profile of 8-term and 4-term interference patterns along [111] direction

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The relative position of the BCC interference pattern (red) and the shifted pattern (blue) in the [210] direction by (a) 0.20d (1,1,1), (b) 0.25d (1,1,1), and (c) 0.29d (1,1,1). The level surface of each double-exposed BCC interference pattern with a filling fraction of 0.20 is shown in (d-f) for their respective cases.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Complete PBG of double-exposed (a) FCC and (b) BCC interference patterns as a function of the normalized pattern shift in [111] and [210], respectively.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = n = 1 4 E n 2 + m < n 4 E n E m ε n · ε m * cos [ ( k n k m ) · r + ( ϕ n 0 ϕ m 0 ) ] .
I nm = E n E m ε n · ε m * cos [ ( k n k m ) · r + ( ϕ n 0 ϕ m 0 ) + ( ϕ n ϕ m ) ] .
I nm = E n E m ε n · ε m * cos [ ( k n k m ) · ( r + r ) + ( ϕ n 0 ϕ m 0 ) ] .
( ϕ n ϕ m ) = ( k n k m ) · r .
I nm ~ cos [ 2 π d ( x y + z ) + ( ϕ 1 ϕ 3 ) ] + cos [ 2 π d ( x + y + z ) + ( ϕ 1 ϕ 4 ) ]
+ cos [ 2 π d ( x y + z ) + ( ϕ 2 ϕ 3 ) ] + cos [ 2 π d ( x + y + z ) + ( ϕ 2 ϕ 4 ) ]
I nm ~ cos [ 4 π d ( y + z ) + ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) ] + cos [ 4 π d ( x + y ) + ( ϕ 1 ϕ 3 ) ]
+ cos [ 4 π d ( x + z ) + ( ϕ 1 ϕ 4 ) ] + cos [ 4 π d ( x z ) + ( ϕ 2 ϕ 3 ) ]
+ cos [ 4 π d ( x y ) + ( ϕ 2 ϕ 4 ) ] + cos [ 4 π d ( y + z ) + ( ϕ 3 ϕ 4 ) ]
I nm ~ cos [ 2 π d ( x y + z ) ] + cos [ 2 π d ( x + y + z ) ]
+ cos [ 2 π d ( x y + z ) ] + cos [ 2 π d ( x + y + z ) ]
+ sin [ 2 π d ( x y + z ) ] sin [ 2 π d ( x + y + z ) ]
sin [ 2 π d ( x y + z ) ] + sin [ 2 π d ( x + y + z ) ]
I nm ~ cos [ 4 π d ( x + y ) ] + cos [ 4 π d ( y + z ) ]
+ cos [ 4 π d ( y + z ) ] + cos [ 4 π d ( x y ) ]
+ sin [ 4 π d ( x + y ) ] sin [ 4 π d ( y + z ) ]
sin [ 4 π d ( y + z ) ] sin [ 4 π d ( x y ) ]

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