Abstract

We examined the expression of target optical properties in subsurface polarization imaging under linearly and circularly polarized illumination. Reflecting, scattering, and absorption targets were imaged in tissue mimic phantoms. The polarization gated images were compared with raw and unpolarized images to determine image enhancement as a function of target depth. The experimental results were also compared with Monte-Carlo simulations to study the model’s applicability. Our results indicated that polarization imaging provided a means to separate different optical targets where they would otherwise appear similar under unpolarized light.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, P.R. Dasari, L.T. Perelman, and M.S. Feld, �??Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron 5, 1019-1026(1999)
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging skin pathology with polarized light," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 329-340(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sankaran, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, "Comparative study of polarized light propagation in biologic tissues," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 300-306(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Stockford, S. P. Morgan, P. C. Y. Chang, and J. G. Walker, "Analysis of the spatial distribution of polarized light backscattered from layered scattering media," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 313-320(2002)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers in Surg. & Med.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, "Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light," Lasers in Surg. & Med. 26, 119�??129(2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature Medicine

W. Groner, J. W. Winkelman, A. G. Harris, C. Ince, G. J. Bouma, K. Messmer, and R. G. Nadeau, �??Orthogonal polarization spectral imaging: A new method for study of the microcirculation,�?? Nature Medicine 5, 1209-1213(1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Comm.

G. Yao, �??Differential optical polarization imaging in turbid media with different embedded objects,�?? Opt. Comm. 241, 255-261(2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photochemistry & Photobiology

S. G. Demos, A.J. Papadopoulos, H. Savage, A.S. Heerdt, S. Schantz, and P.R. Alfano, �??Polarization filter for biomedical tissue optical imaging,�?? Photochemistry & Photobiology 66, 821-5(1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Image results of a reflecting target acquired with (a) linearly and (b) circularly polarized light. CO, CR, Unpolarized, DIFF, and POL images are listed from left column to right column. Rows correspond to target depth at 1.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 10.5mfp.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Contrast plots for a reflecting target under (a) linearly and (b) circularly polarized illumination.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Image results of a scattering target acquired with (a) linearly and (b) circularly polarized light. CO, CR, Unpolarized, DIFF, and POL images are listed from left column to right column. Rows correspond to target depth at 1.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 10.5mfp.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Image contrast for a scattering target under (a) linearly and (b) circularly polarized illumination.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Image results of an absorption target acquired with (a) linearly and (b) circularly polarized light. CO, CR, Unpolarized, DIFF, and POL images are listed from left column to right column. Rows correspond to target depth at 1.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 10.5mfp.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Image contrast for an absorption target under (a) linearly and (b) circularly polarized illumination.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Contrast of a reflecting target in (a) POL and (b) unpolarized images from phantoms with different scattering and absorption coefficients

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Monte Carlo simulation of (a) linear and (b) circular POL contrast compared with experimental results.

Equations (3)

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DIFF = CO CR
POL = DIFF ( CO + CR )
contrast = I obj I bg I obj + I bg

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