Abstract

The realisation of a thermo-optically controlled symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer switch based on an AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial waveguide structure operating at wavelengths in the region of λ=1550 nm is reported. The device is based on a very compact two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguide structure. The measured and simulated transmission spectra for the devices are in good agreement. The π-phase shift switching power for the device is as low as 42 mW.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. F. Krauss, “Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 197, 688–702 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Camargo, A.S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R.M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,” in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, edited by Giancarlo and C. Righini, Proc. SPIE 4944, 376–381 (2003).
  5. S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and T. F. Krauss, “Y junctions in photonic crystals channel waveguides: high transmission and impedance matching,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1001–1003 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. G.V. Treyz, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometer operating at 1.3µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 118–120 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schüppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 30, 406–408 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Iodice, P.M. Sarro, and M. Bellucci, “Transient analysis of a high-speed thermo-optic modulator integrated in all silicon waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 42, 169–175 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

E. Camargo, A.S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R.M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,” in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, edited by Giancarlo and C. Righini, Proc. SPIE 4944, 376–381 (2003).

M. Iodice, P.M. Sarro, and M. Bellucci, “Transient analysis of a high-speed thermo-optic modulator integrated in all silicon waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 42, 169–175 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. F. Krauss, “Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 197, 688–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and T. F. Krauss, “Y junctions in photonic crystals channel waveguides: high transmission and impedance matching,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1001–1003 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schüppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 30, 406–408 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G.V. Treyz, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometer operating at 1.3µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 118–120 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bellucci, M.

M. Iodice, P.M. Sarro, and M. Bellucci, “Transient analysis of a high-speed thermo-optic modulator integrated in all silicon waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 42, 169–175 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boscolo, S.

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and T. F. Krauss, “Y junctions in photonic crystals channel waveguides: high transmission and impedance matching,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1001–1003 (2002).
[Crossref]

Camargo, E.

E. Camargo, A.S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R.M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,” in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, edited by Giancarlo and C. Righini, Proc. SPIE 4944, 376–381 (2003).

Cao, J.R.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.J.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R.M.

E. Camargo, A.S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R.M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,” in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, edited by Giancarlo and C. Righini, Proc. SPIE 4944, 376–381 (2003).

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schüppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 30, 406–408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Griol, A.

Iodice, M.

M. Iodice, P.M. Sarro, and M. Bellucci, “Transient analysis of a high-speed thermo-optic modulator integrated in all silicon waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 42, 169–175 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jugessur, A.S.

E. Camargo, A.S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R.M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,” in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, edited by Giancarlo and C. Righini, Proc. SPIE 4944, 376–381 (2003).

Kim, W.J.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, “Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 197, 688–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and T. F. Krauss, “Y junctions in photonic crystals channel waveguides: high transmission and impedance matching,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1001–1003 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kuang, W.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marshall, W.K.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Marti, J.

Martinez, A.

Midrio, M.

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and T. F. Krauss, “Y junctions in photonic crystals channel waveguides: high transmission and impedance matching,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1001–1003 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ntakis, I.

E. Camargo, A.S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R.M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,” in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, edited by Giancarlo and C. Righini, Proc. SPIE 4944, 376–381 (2003).

O’Brien, J.D.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schüppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 30, 406–408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sanchis, P.

Sarro, P.M.

M. Iodice, P.M. Sarro, and M. Bellucci, “Transient analysis of a high-speed thermo-optic modulator integrated in all silicon waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 42, 169–175 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schüppert, B.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schüppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 30, 406–408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shih, M.H.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Treyz, G.V.

G.V. Treyz, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometer operating at 1.3µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 118–120 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yukawa, H.

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zinke, T.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schüppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 30, 406–408 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M.H. Shih, W.J. Kim, W. Kuang, J.R. Cao, H. Yukawa, S.J. Choi, J.D. O’Brien, and W.K. Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G.V. Treyz, “Silicon Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometer operating at 1.3µm,” Electron. Lett. 27, 118–120 (1991).
[Crossref]

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, B. Schüppert, and K. Petermann, “Single mode optical switches based on SOI waveguides with large cross-section,” Electron. Lett. 30, 406–408 (1994).
[Crossref]

in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing (1)

E. Camargo, A.S. Jugessur, I. Ntakis, and R.M. De La Rue, “Photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder structures for thermo-optic switching,” in Integrated Optical Devices: Fabrication and Testing, edited by Giancarlo and C. Righini, Proc. SPIE 4944, 376–381 (2003).

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Iodice, P.M. Sarro, and M. Bellucci, “Transient analysis of a high-speed thermo-optic modulator integrated in all silicon waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 42, 169–175 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, and T. F. Krauss, “Y junctions in photonic crystals channel waveguides: high transmission and impedance matching,” Opt. Lett. 12, 1001–1003 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, A. Griol, P. Sanchis, and J. Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

T. F. Krauss, “Planar photonic crystal waveguide devices for integrated optics,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 197, 688–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scanning electron micrograph of Mach-Zehnder switch device showing the NiCr heater on top of one arm of the structure. (b) Detail of interface between 150 nm thick NiCr heater layer and 300nm thick Au contact layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Graph of transmission spectra: the dashed line shows simulation results and the bold line shows measured results. The y-axis is the normalised optical power output.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized optical power against electrical switching power measured at λ=1540 nm.

Equations (2)

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Δ T = ( n T ) 1 λ 2 l active = 250 ° C
P π = Δ T σ AlGaAs ( W l ) active d = 20 m W

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