Abstract

We report the design and testing of an SOI-based photonic integrated circuit containing two-dimensional membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides. The circuit comprises spot-size converters to efficiently couple light from a fiber into single-mode strip waveguides and butt-couplers to couple from strip waveguides to photonic crystal waveguides. Each optical interface was optimized to minimize back-reflections and reduce the Fabry-Perot noise. The transmission characteristics of each component are measured and record low propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides of 24dB/cm are reported. The combination of an efficient two-stage coupling scheme and utilization of ultra-long (up to 2mm) photonic crystal waveguides reduces the uncertainty in determining the loss figure to 3dB/cm.

© 2003 Optical Society of America

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App. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A.Scherer, �??Experimental and theoretical confirmation of Bloch-mode light propagation in planar photonic crystal waveguides,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 80, 1689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Tokushima, H. Kosaka, A. Tomita, and H. Yamada, Lightwave propagation through a 120 sharply bent single-line-defect photonic crystal waveguide,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 76, 952 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, �??Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, �??Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Miyai, M. Okano, M. Mochizuki, and S. Noda �??Analysis of coupling between two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide and external waveguide,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 81, 3729 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani and M. Agio �??Intrinsic diffraction losses in photonic crystal waveguides with line defects,�?? App. Phys. Lett. 82, 2011 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, H. Morita, �??Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibers,�?? Electron. Lett. 38, 1669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Sanchis, J. Marti, A. Garcia, A. Martinez, J. Blasco, �??High efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal waveguides,�?? Electron. Lett. 38, 961 (2002)
[CrossRef]

T. Baba, N. Fukaya, A. Motegi, �??Clear correspondence between theoretical and experimental light propagation characteristics in photonic crystal waveguides,�?? Electron. Lett. 37, 761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE International SOI Conference 2002 (1)

M. Fritze, J. Knecht, C. Bozler, C. Keast, J. Fijol, S. Jacobson, P. Keating, J. LeBlanc, E. Fike, B. Kessler, M. Frish, C. Manolatou, �??3D mode converters for SOI integrated optics�?? IEEE International SOI Conference, p.165-166, (2002).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman,, D. D. Zutter, and R. Baets, �??An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal slabs,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, �??Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography,�?? IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 928 (2002)

J. App. Phys. (1)

N. Moll, G.-L. Bona �??Comparison of three-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides with twodimensional photonic crystal waveguides: Efficient butt-coupling into these photonic crystal waveguides,�?? J. App. Phys. 93, 4986-4991 (2003)

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Karle, D. H. Brown, R. Wilson, M. Steer, T. F. Krauss, �??Planar Photonic Crystal Cavity Waveguides,�?? J. Quantum Electron. 8, 909 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. A. Kolodziejski, "Guided modes in photonic crystal slabs,�?? Phys. Rev. B 60, 5751 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

N. Moll, S. J. McNab, and Yu. A.Vlasov, unpublished.

S. Boscolo, C. Conti, M. Midrio, and C. G. Someda, �??Numerical Analysis of Propagation and Impedance Matching in 2-D Photonic Crystal Waveguides With Finite Length,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 304 (2002).

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