Abstract

We have assembled and studied melt-processed all-polymer lasers comprising distributed Bragg reflectors that were fabricated in large sheets using a co-extrusion process and define the cavities for dye-doped compression-molded polymer gain core sheets. Distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) resonators consisting of 128 alternating poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layers were produced by multilayer co-extrusion. Gain media were fabricated by compression-molding thermoplastic host polymers doped with organic laser dyes. Both processing methods can be used in high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing. Optically pumped DBR lasers assembled from these components display single and multimode lasing in the reflection band of the resonators, with a slope efficiency of nearly 19% and lasing thresholds as low as 90µJ/cm2. The lasing wavelength can be controlled via the layer thickness of the DBR resonator films, and variation of the laser dye. Studies of threshold and efficiency are in agreement with models for end-pumped lasers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. 1. I. D. W. Samuel, "Fantastic plastic," Nature 429, 709-711 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. K. H. Ho, D. S. Thomas, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, "All-polymer optoelectronic devices," Science 285, 233-236 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410-411 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,061123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, S. Suzuki, and H. Sakata, "Microcavity distributed-feedback laser using dye-doped polymeric thin films," Electron. Lett. 43, 30-32 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E Baer, "Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion," Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2210-2216 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Löwe and C. Weder, "Synthesis and properties of photoluminescent 1,4-bis-(α-cyano-4-methoxystyryl)-benzenes," Synthesis  9, 1185-1190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Crenshaw and C. Weder, "Thermally induced color changes in melt-processed photoluminescent polymer blends," Adv. Mater. 17, 1471-1476 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (John Wiley & Sons, 1991).

2008 (1)

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, S. Suzuki, and H. Sakata, "Microcavity distributed-feedback laser using dye-doped polymeric thin films," Electron. Lett. 43, 30-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E Baer, "Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion," Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2210-2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Crenshaw and C. Weder, "Thermally induced color changes in melt-processed photoluminescent polymer blends," Adv. Mater. 17, 1471-1476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1. I. D. W. Samuel, "Fantastic plastic," Nature 429, 709-711 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Löwe and C. Weder, "Synthesis and properties of photoluminescent 1,4-bis-(α-cyano-4-methoxystyryl)-benzenes," Synthesis  9, 1185-1190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. K. H. Ho, D. S. Thomas, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, "All-polymer optoelectronic devices," Science 285, 233-236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410-411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baer, E

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E Baer, "Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion," Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2210-2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, M.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410-411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capuzzo, M. A.

A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caruge, J. M.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. S.

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. H.

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crenshaw, B.

B. Crenshaw and C. Weder, "Thermally induced color changes in melt-processed photoluminescent polymer blends," Adv. Mater. 17, 1471-1476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410-411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

P. K. H. Ho, D. S. Thomas, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, "All-polymer optoelectronic devices," Science 285, 233-236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gombert, A.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haugeneder, A.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hilmer, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hiltner, A.

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E Baer, "Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion," Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2210-2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P. K. H.

P. K. H. Ho, D. S. Thomas, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, "All-polymer optoelectronic devices," Science 285, 233-236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kallinger, C.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, T.

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E Baer, "Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion," Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2210-2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Komikado, T.

T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, S.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Löwe, C.

C. Löwe and C. Weder, "Synthesis and properties of photoluminescent 1,4-bis-(α-cyano-4-methoxystyryl)-benzenes," Synthesis  9, 1185-1190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, K.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Natsume, K.

H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, S. Suzuki, and H. Sakata, "Microcavity distributed-feedback laser using dye-doped polymeric thin films," Electron. Lett. 43, 30-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. S.

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perner, M.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roger, A.

A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sakata, H.

H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, S. Suzuki, and H. Sakata, "Microcavity distributed-feedback laser using dye-doped polymeric thin films," Electron. Lett. 43, 30-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1. I. D. W. Samuel, "Fantastic plastic," Nature 429, 709-711 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherf, U.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. H.

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410-411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E Baer, "Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion," Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2210-2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, S. Suzuki, and H. Sakata, "Microcavity distributed-feedback laser using dye-doped polymeric thin films," Electron. Lett. 43, 30-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, S. Suzuki, and H. Sakata, "Microcavity distributed-feedback laser using dye-doped polymeric thin films," Electron. Lett. 43, 30-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

P. K. H. Ho, D. S. Thomas, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, "All-polymer optoelectronic devices," Science 285, 233-236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, D. S.

P. K. H. Ho, D. S. Thomas, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, "All-polymer optoelectronic devices," Science 285, 233-236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, E. L.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umegaki, S.

T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weder, C.

B. Crenshaw and C. Weder, "Thermally induced color changes in melt-processed photoluminescent polymer blends," Adv. Mater. 17, 1471-1476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Löwe and C. Weder, "Synthesis and properties of photoluminescent 1,4-bis-(α-cyano-4-methoxystyryl)-benzenes," Synthesis  9, 1185-1190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V.

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, S.

T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

C. Kallinger, M. Hilmer, A. Haugeneder, M. Perner, W. Spirkl, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, U. Scherf, K. Mullen, A. Gombert, and V. Wittwer, "A flexible conjugated polymer laser," Adv. Mater. 10, 920-923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Crenshaw and C. Weder, "Thermally induced color changes in melt-processed photoluminescent polymer blends," Adv. Mater. 17, 1471-1476 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Berggren, A. Dodabalapur, and R. E. Slusher, "Organic solid-state lasers with imprinted gratings on plastic substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 410-411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Roger, M. Meier, A. Dodabalapur, E. J. Laskowski, and M. A. Capuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89,061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoon, W. Lee, J. M. Caruge, M. Bawendi, E. L. Thomas, S. Kooi, and P. N. Prasad, "Defect-mode mirrorless lasing in dye-doped organic/inorganic hybrid one-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,091102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, "Organic semiconductor lasers," Chem. Rev. 107, 1272-1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, S. Suzuki, and H. Sakata, "Microcavity distributed-feedback laser using dye-doped polymeric thin films," Electron. Lett. 43, 30-32 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. W. Kim, S. S. Oh, J. H. Park, E. H. Choi, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, and B. Park, "One-dimensional birefringent photonic crystal laser," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 033103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Rapid Commun. (1)

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E Baer, "Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion," Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28, 2210-2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

1. I. D. W. Samuel, "Fantastic plastic," Nature 429, 709-711 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. K. H. Ho, D. S. Thomas, R. H. Friend, and N. Tessler, "All-polymer optoelectronic devices," Science 285, 233-236 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synthesis (1)

C. Löwe and C. Weder, "Synthesis and properties of photoluminescent 1,4-bis-(α-cyano-4-methoxystyryl)-benzenes," Synthesis  9, 1185-1190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Lasers (John Wiley & Sons, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Distributed Bragg reflector laser structure. (b) Layer multiplier schematic. (c) Multilayer coextrusion process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Reflection band (green), absorption (black) and emission (red) of C1-RG (inset shows molecular structure) (b). Reflection band (green), absorption (black) and emission (red) of R6G.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Bright emission from R6G DBR laser. The saturated bright spot on the screen (yellowish green) is the lasing emission and the fainter green spot to the right is the residue of the pump light. (b). Slope efficiency (14.3%) of a C1RG laser with 120 mm thick gain layer at 1.3×10-2 M in PMMA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Emission spectrum of a R6G sample pumped below threshold (black curve) and above threshold (red). Transmission curve of the whole sample is shown as the green curve. (b). Threshold trend observed on R6G samples. Data points were fitted by a 4-level lasing model (Eq. 4), solid curve (red).

Equations (4)

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g th = 1 2 l ln ( r 1 r 2 ) + a
Δ N th = g th σ ( ω )
P th ( 1 e α l ) V ħ ω Δ N th Γ e′g′
P th ~ K ( l n ( r 1 r 2 ) + 2 ( αl ) a α ) 1 e αl

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