Abstract

We report on evanescently coupled Ge waveguide photodetectors that are grown on top of Si rib waveguides. A Ge waveguide detector with a width of 7.4μm and length of 50 μm demonstrated an optical bandwidth of 31.3 GHz at -2V for 1550nm. In addition, a responsivity of 0.89 A/W at 1550 nm and dark current of 169 nA were measured from this detector at -2V. A higher responsivity of 1.16 A/W was also measured from a longer Ge waveguide detector (4.4 × 100 μm2), with a corresponding bandwidth of 29.4 GHz at -2V. An open eye diagram at 40 Gb/s is also shown.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 660-668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Rong, Richard Jones, Ansheng Liu, Oded Cohen, Dani Hak, Alexander Fang and Mario Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M, Paniccia and J. Bower, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, "Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L.C. Kimerling and J. Michel, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Vivien, M. Rouviere, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal and S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Express 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Gunn, G. Masini, J. Witzens and G. Capellini, "CMOS Photonics using Germanium Photodetectors," SiGe and Ge: Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. 3, 17-24 (2006).
  10. H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Reed and A. Knights, Silicon Photonics, (Wiley, 93-97, 2004).
  12. I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knigha, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnston, S. Day, I. Luff, H. Tsang, and M. Asghari, "Tapered Silicon Waveguides for Low Insertion Loss Highly-Efficient High-speed Electronic Variable Optical Attenuators," Optical Fiber Communications Conference 1, 249-251 (2003).
  13. J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110-1-3 (2005).

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

A. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M, Paniccia and J. Bower, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, "Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, G. Masini, J. Witzens and G. Capellini, "CMOS Photonics using Germanium Photodetectors," SiGe and Ge: Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. 3, 17-24 (2006).

2005 (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Richard Jones, Ansheng Liu, Oded Cohen, Dani Hak, Alexander Fang and Mario Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Assanto, G.

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Capellini, G.

C. Gunn, G. Masini, J. Witzens and G. Capellini, "CMOS Photonics using Germanium Photodetectors," SiGe and Ge: Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. 3, 17-24 (2006).

Cassan, E.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, "Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

Colace, L.

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J.

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dosunmu, O.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, "Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

El Melhaoui, L.

Fang, A.

Fedeli, J.

Giziewicz, W.

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, G. Masini, J. Witzens and G. Capellini, "CMOS Photonics using Germanium Photodetectors," SiGe and Ge: Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. 3, 17-24 (2006).

Hong, C.

Izhaky, N.

Jones, R.

Kimerling, L. C.

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.C.

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Liao, L.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

Liu, J.

Luan, H.

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mangeney, J.

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

C. Gunn, G. Masini, J. Witzens and G. Capellini, "CMOS Photonics using Germanium Photodetectors," SiGe and Ge: Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. 3, 17-24 (2006).

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Morse, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, "Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, Richard Jones, Ansheng Liu, Oded Cohen, Dani Hak, Alexander Fang and Mario Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rouviere, M.

Rubin, D.

Sarid, G.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, "Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

Wada, K.

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

C. Gunn, G. Masini, J. Witzens and G. Capellini, "CMOS Photonics using Germanium Photodetectors," SiGe and Ge: Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. 3, 17-24 (2006).

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, G. Sarid, and Y. Chetrit, "Performance of Ge-on-Si p-i-n photodetectors for standard receiver modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2442-2444 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. (1)

C. Gunn, G. Masini, J. Witzens and G. Capellini, "CMOS Photonics using Germanium Photodetectors," SiGe and Ge: Materials, Processing and Devices, ECS Trans. 3, 17-24 (2006).

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Richard Jones, Ansheng Liu, Oded Cohen, Dani Hak, Alexander Fang and Mario Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. Luan, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, G. Masini, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "High efficiency photodetectors based on high quality epitaxial germanium grown on silicon substrates," Opt. Mater. 17, 71-73 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Reed and A. Knights, Silicon Photonics, (Wiley, 93-97, 2004).

I. Day, I. Evans, A. Knigha, F. Hopper, S. Roberts, J. Johnston, S. Day, I. Luff, H. Tsang, and M. Asghari, "Tapered Silicon Waveguides for Low Insertion Loss Highly-Efficient High-speed Electronic Variable Optical Attenuators," Optical Fiber Communications Conference 1, 249-251 (2003).

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011110-1-3 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic layout for the Ge detector integrated with a passive waveguide. (b) Cross-section schematic of the Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetector. (c) Cross-section SEM image of the Ge waveguide photodetector (7.4μm × 50μm) after processing.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Measured dark current and photocurrent with input optical power of 126μW at 1550nm for detector 7.4μm × 50μm and 4.4μm × 100μm. (b) Responsivity versus wavelength for detector 7.4μm × 50μm, and detector 4.4μm × 100μm, respectively, at -2V.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured frequency response for detector 4.4μm × 100μm and 7.4μm × 50μm at -2V, and the inset shows optical bandwidth versus supply voltage for both detectors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured eye diagram at 40Gb/s for detector 7.4μm × 50μm at -5V.

Metrics