Abstract

We report on the first three-dimensional, volumetric, tomographic localization of vascular reactivity in the brain. To this end we developed a model-based iterative image reconstruction scheme that employs adjoint differentiation methods to minimize the difference between measured and predicted data. The necessary human-head geometry and optode locations were determined with a photogrammetric method. To illustrate the performance of the technique, the three-dimensional distribution of changes in the concentration of oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin during a Valsalva maneuver were visualized. The observed results are consistent with previously reported effects concerning optical responses to hemodynamic perturbations.

© Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. Van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, "Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light," J. Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 20, 469-477 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Hoshi, I. Oda, Y. Wada, Y. Ito, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, K. Ohta, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, "Visuospatial imagery is a fruitful strategy for the digit span backward task: a study with near-infrared optical tomography," Cognitive Brain Research 9, 339-342 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, Y. Mayanagi, "Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287-290 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, "On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution," Opt. Express 6, 49-57 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/18957.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Fantini, D. Huebert, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. R. Stankovic , D. Maulik, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, A. D. Kofinas, S. Drexler, R. Nair, M. A. Franceschini, D. Hueber, E. Gratton, and S. Fantini,, "Real-time optical imaging of experimental brain ischemia and hemorrhage in neonatal piglets," J. Perinat. Med. 27, 279-286 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Koizumi, Y. Yamashita, A. Maki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ito, H. Itagaki, and R. Kennan, "Higher-Order Brain Function Analysis by trans-cranial dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy imaging," J. Biomedical Opt. 4, 403-413 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Tamura, Y. Hoshi, and F. Okada, "Localized near-infrared spectroscopy and functional optical imaging of brain activity," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences. 352(1354), 737-42 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, and J. Frahm, "Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near infrared spectroscopy," J. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism 16, 817-826 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, "Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Med. Phys. 22, 1209-1217 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Gratton and M. Fabiani, "Dynamic brain imaging: Event-related optical signal (EROS) measures of the time course and localization of cognitive-related activity," Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 5, 535-563 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using non-invasive NIR topography," J. Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, "Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man," Neuroscience Lett. 150, 5-8 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. R. Hintz, W. F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Benaron, "Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging," Pediatr. Res. 45, 54-59 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 18, 262-271 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. D. Klose, and A. H. Hielscher, "Iterative reconstruction scheme for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer," Med. Phys. 26, 1698-1707 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Roy and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Truncated Newton's optimization scheme for absorption and fluorescence optical tomography: Part I Theory and formulation," Opt. Express 4, 353-371 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/9268.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, "A gradient-based optimization scheme for optical tomography," Opt. Express 2, 213-226 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/10447.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-92 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, and U. L. Osterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using DC data: simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. Abdoulaev, A. Varone and G. Zanetti, "An object oriented flow solver for the CRS4 virtual vascular project," in Proc. Of the 3rd European Conf. on Numerical Mathematics and Advanced Applications, P. Neittaanmaki, T. Tiihonen and P. Tarvainen (eds.) (World Scientific, Singapore), 407-415 (2000).
  24. J. H. Bramble, J. E. Pasciak, and J. Xu, "Parallel multilevel preconditioners," Math. Comp. 55, 1-22 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, "Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for DC optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40 (2001) in press.
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, J. B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. J. Davies, D. B. Christianson, L. C. W. Dixon, R. Roy, P. van der Zee, "Reverse differentiation and the inverse diffusion problem," Advances in Engineering Software 28, 217-221 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D.B. Christianson , A. J. Davies, L. C. W. Dixon, R. Roy, P. Van der zee, "Giving Reverse Differentiation a Helping Hand," Optimization Methods and Software 8, 53-67 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. M. Karara, Handbook of Non-topographic Photogrammetry (American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, VA, 1989).
  30. E. F. Church, Elements of Photogrammetry (Syracuse University Press, New York, 1948).
  31. G. Deng, W. Falg, "An evaluation of an off-the-shelf digital close-range photogrammetric software package," Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 67, 227-233 (2001).
  32. R. H. Bartels, J. C. Beatty, and B. A. Barsky, An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling (Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 1987).
  33. C. H. Schmitz, M. L�cker, J. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, "Performance characteristics of a silicon-photodiode-based instrument for fast functional optical tomography," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4250, 171-179 (2001).
  34. C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. Pei, A.Y. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirex, S. L. S. Barbour, R. L. Barbour, "Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 39, 6466-6486 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. F. P. Tiecks, C. Douville, S. Byrd, A. M. Lam, D. W. Newell, "Evaluation of impaired cerebral autoregulation by the Valsalva Maneuver," Stroke 27, 1177-1182 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. X. Cheng, D. A. Boas, "Systematic diffuse optical image errors resulting from uncertainty in the background optical properties," Opt. Express 4, 299-307 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/9108.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Characteristics of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim Biophys Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, "Separation of absorption and scattering heterogeneities in NIR tomographic imaging of tissues," in Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2000), pp. 339-341.
  39. Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, "Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 9, 97-109 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/33900.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. Y. Hoshi, N. Kobayashi, M. Tamura, "Interpretation of near-infrared spectroscopy signals: a study with a newly developed perfused rat brain model," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 1657-1662 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  41. F. P. Tiecks, A. M. Lam, B. F. Matta, S. Strebel, C. Douville, D. W. Newell, "Effects of the Valsalva maneuver on cerebral circulation in healthy adults," Stroke 26, 1386-1392 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. E. P. Sharpey-Schafer, P. J. Taylor, "Absent circulatory reflexes in diabetic neuritis," Lancet 1, 559-562 (1960).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. W. I. Schievink, J. M. Karemaker, L. M. Hageman, D. J. van der Werf, "Circumstances surrounding aneurismal hemorrhage," Surg. Neurol. 32, 266-272 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. J. E. Raisis, G. W. Kindt, J. E. McGillicuddy, S. L. Giannotta, "The effects of primary elevation of cerebral venous pressure on cerebral hemodynamics intracranial pressure," J. Surg. Res. 26, 101-107 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. B. F. Matta, J. Lam, P. Smileswiski, "The effect of the Valsalva maneuver on cerebral hemodynamics: a near infrared spectroscopy study," J. Neurosurgical Anesthesiology 8, 601 (1996).
  46. F. Pott, J. J. Van Lieshout, K. Ide, P. Madsen, and N. H. Secher, "Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during Valsalva mameuver in the standing position," J. Appl. Physiol. 88, 1545-1550 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  47. S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, J. F. Potter, "Critical closing pressure explains cerebral hemodynamics during the Valsalva maneuver," J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 675-680 (1999).
    [PubMed]
  48. J. E. Raisis, G. W. Kindt, J. E. McGillicuddy, S. L. Giannotta, "The effects of primary elevation of cerebral venous pressure on cerebral hemodynamics and intracranial pressure," J. Surg. Res. 26, 101-107 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinnberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. S. E. Maier, C. J. Hardy, F. A. Jolesz, "Brain and cerebrospinal fluid motion: real time quantification with M-mode MR imaging," Radiology 193, 477-483 (1994).
    [PubMed]

Other

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. Van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, "Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light," J. Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 20, 469-477 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hoshi, I. Oda, Y. Wada, Y. Ito, Y. Yamashita, M. Oda, K. Ohta, Y. Yamada, M. Tamura, "Visuospatial imagery is a fruitful strategy for the digit span backward task: a study with near-infrared optical tomography," Cognitive Brain Research 9, 339-342 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Watanabe, A. Maki, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Yamashita, H. Koizumi, Y. Mayanagi, "Noninvasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multichannel near infrared spectroscopic topography," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 287-290 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, "On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160-ms temporal resolution," Opt. Express 6, 49-57 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/18957.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fantini, D. Huebert, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, D. Maulik, and M. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical monitoring of the newborn piglet brain using continuous-wave and frequency-domain spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 1543-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Stankovic , D. Maulik, W. Rosenfeld, P. G. Stubblefield, A. D. Kofinas, S. Drexler, R. Nair, M. A. Franceschini, D. Hueber, E. Gratton, and S. Fantini,, "Real-time optical imaging of experimental brain ischemia and hemorrhage in neonatal piglets," J. Perinat. Med. 27, 279-286 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Koizumi, Y. Yamashita, A. Maki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ito, H. Itagaki, and R. Kennan, "Higher-Order Brain Function Analysis by trans-cranial dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy imaging," J. Biomedical Opt. 4, 403-413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tamura, Y. Hoshi, and F. Okada, "Localized near-infrared spectroscopy and functional optical imaging of brain activity," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London - Series B: Biological Sciences. 352(1354), 737-42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kleinschmidt, H. Obrig, M. Requardt, K. Merboldt, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, and J. Frahm, "Simultaneous recording of cerebral blood oxygenation changes during human brain activation by magnetic resonance imaging and near infrared spectroscopy," J. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism 16, 817-826 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, B. Chance, A. H. Hielscher, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, "Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy," Med. Phys. 22, 1209-1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gratton and M. Fabiani, "Dynamic brain imaging: Event-related optical signal (EROS) measures of the time course and localization of cognitive-related activity," Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 5, 535-563 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using non-invasive NIR topography," J. Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, "Detection of dynamic changes in cerebral oxygenation coupled to neuronal function during mental work in man," Neuroscience Lett. 150, 5-8 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Hintz, W. F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Benaron, "Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging," Pediatr. Res. 45, 54-59 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, K. M. Hanson, "Gradient-based iterative image reconstruction scheme for time-resolved optical tomography," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 18, 262-271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose, and A. H. Hielscher, "Iterative reconstruction scheme for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer," Med. Phys. 26, 1698-1707 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Roy and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, "Truncated Newton's optimization scheme for absorption and fluorescence optical tomography: Part I Theory and formulation," Opt. Express 4, 353-371 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/9268.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, "A gradient-based optimization scheme for optical tomography," Opt. Express 2, 213-226 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/10447.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, "The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions," Med. Phys. 22, 1779-92 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, "A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue," Med. Phys. 20, 299-309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, K. D. Paulsen, and U. L. Osterberg, "Optical image reconstruction using DC data: simulations and experiments," Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 1483-1498 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Abdoulaev, A. Varone and G. Zanetti, "An object oriented flow solver for the CRS4 virtual vascular project," in Proc. Of the 3rd European Conf. on Numerical Mathematics and Advanced Applications, P. Neittaanmaki, T. Tiihonen and P. Tarvainen (eds.) (World Scientific, Singapore), 407-415 (2000).

J. H. Bramble, J. E. Pasciak, and J. Xu, "Parallel multilevel preconditioners," Math. Comp. 55, 1-22 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, "Influence of systematic errors in reference states on image quality and on stability of derived information for DC optical imaging," Appl. Opt. 40 (2001) in press.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. Marota, J. B. Mandeville, "The accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy and imaging during focal changes in cerebral hemodynamics," Neuroimage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Davies, D. B. Christianson, L. C. W. Dixon, R. Roy, P. van der Zee, "Reverse differentiation and the inverse diffusion problem," Advances in Engineering Software 28, 217-221 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.B. Christianson , A. J. Davies, L. C. W. Dixon, R. Roy, P. Van der zee, "Giving Reverse Differentiation a Helping Hand," Optimization Methods and Software 8, 53-67 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Karara, Handbook of Non-topographic Photogrammetry (American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, VA, 1989).

E. F. Church, Elements of Photogrammetry (Syracuse University Press, New York, 1948).

G. Deng, W. Falg, "An evaluation of an off-the-shelf digital close-range photogrammetric software package," Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 67, 227-233 (2001).

R. H. Bartels, J. C. Beatty, and B. A. Barsky, An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling (Morgan Kaufman Publishers, 1987).

C. H. Schmitz, M. L�cker, J. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, "Performance characteristics of a silicon-photodiode-based instrument for fast functional optical tomography," in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue IV, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. Tromberg, M. Tamura, E. M. Sevick-Muraca, Proc. SPIE 4250, 171-179 (2001).

C. H. Schmitz, H. L. Graber, H. Luo, I. Arif, J. Hira, Y. Pei, A.Y. Bluestone, S. Zhong, R. Andronica, I. Soller, N. Ramirex, S. L. S. Barbour, R. L. Barbour, "Instrumentation and calibration protocol for imaging dynamic features in dense-scattering media by optical tomography," Appl. Opt. 39, 6466-6486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Tiecks, C. Douville, S. Byrd, A. M. Lam, D. W. Newell, "Evaluation of impaired cerebral autoregulation by the Valsalva Maneuver," Stroke 27, 1177-1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Cheng, D. A. Boas, "Systematic diffuse optical image errors resulting from uncertainty in the background optical properties," Opt. Express 4, 299-307 (1999), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/9108.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wray, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Characteristics of the near infrared absorption spectra of cytochrome aa3 and hemoglobin for the noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation," Biochim Biophys Acta 933, 184-192 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. O. McBride, B. W. Pogue, U. L. Osterberg, K. D. Paulsen, "Separation of absorption and scattering heterogeneities in NIR tomographic imaging of tissues," in Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2000), pp. 339-341.

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, "Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography," Opt. Express 9, 97-109 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/33900.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hoshi, N. Kobayashi, M. Tamura, "Interpretation of near-infrared spectroscopy signals: a study with a newly developed perfused rat brain model," J. Appl. Physiol. 90, 1657-1662 (2001).
[PubMed]

F. P. Tiecks, A. M. Lam, B. F. Matta, S. Strebel, C. Douville, D. W. Newell, "Effects of the Valsalva maneuver on cerebral circulation in healthy adults," Stroke 26, 1386-1392 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Sharpey-Schafer, P. J. Taylor, "Absent circulatory reflexes in diabetic neuritis," Lancet 1, 559-562 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. I. Schievink, J. M. Karemaker, L. M. Hageman, D. J. van der Werf, "Circumstances surrounding aneurismal hemorrhage," Surg. Neurol. 32, 266-272 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Raisis, G. W. Kindt, J. E. McGillicuddy, S. L. Giannotta, "The effects of primary elevation of cerebral venous pressure on cerebral hemodynamics intracranial pressure," J. Surg. Res. 26, 101-107 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Matta, J. Lam, P. Smileswiski, "The effect of the Valsalva maneuver on cerebral hemodynamics: a near infrared spectroscopy study," J. Neurosurgical Anesthesiology 8, 601 (1996).

F. Pott, J. J. Van Lieshout, K. Ide, P. Madsen, and N. H. Secher, "Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during Valsalva mameuver in the standing position," J. Appl. Physiol. 88, 1545-1550 (2000).
[PubMed]

S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, J. F. Potter, "Critical closing pressure explains cerebral hemodynamics during the Valsalva maneuver," J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 675-680 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. E. Raisis, G. W. Kindt, J. E. McGillicuddy, S. L. Giannotta, "The effects of primary elevation of cerebral venous pressure on cerebral hemodynamics and intracranial pressure," J. Surg. Res. 26, 101-107 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, H. Rinnberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 879-896 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Maier, C. J. Hardy, F. A. Jolesz, "Brain and cerebrospinal fluid motion: real time quantification with M-mode MR imaging," Radiology 193, 477-483 (1994).
[PubMed]

Supplementary Material (3)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Patient with distribution of markers on forehead with overlaid mesh; optodes (red) surface information (blue/green/red), the sources are located at positions 3,6,10, and 13.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time series of the experimental protocol at 760nm: 3 epochs - consisting of a Valsalva maneuver followed by a rest period (between dashed black lines).

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Time series for first Valsalva maneuver epoch for source 3 (flat red trace) at 760nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(1.6MB) Time-series reconstruction showing change in deoxyhemoglobin in units of mM during the Valsalva maneuver; Coronal view (upper left), Parasagittal view (upper right), Horizontal view (lower left), scale (lower right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(1.6MB) Time-series reconstruction showing change in oxyhemoglobin in units of mM during the Valsalva maneuver; Coronal view (upper left), Parasagittal view (upper right), Horizontal view (lower left), scale (lower right).

Fig 6.
Fig 6.

(1.6MB) Time-series reconstruction showing change in blood volume as reflected by total hemoglobin in units of mM during the Valsalva maneuver; Coronal view (upper left), Parasagittal view (upper right), Horizontal view (lower left), scale (lower right).

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A i , j e = D φ i φ j + μ a φ i φ j d Ω e
Φ = s d ( M s , d P s , d ) 2 σ s , d 2 ,
Φ = s d [ ( M s , d pert ( t ) M s , d ref P s , d ( ξ 0 ) ) P s , d ( ξ n ) ] 2 ( M s , d pert ( t ) M s , d ref P s , d ( ξ 0 ) ) 2
Φ μ a r = 2 s , d ( ( φ s ( x d ) M s , d ) M s , d 2 · φ s ( x d ) μ a r ) .
φ s ( x r ) μ a r = P r T φ s μ a .
Φ μ a r = 2 s ( ( s ( φ s ( x r ) M s , d ) ( M s , d ) 2 P r T ) φ s μ a ) .
A φ s μ a = A μ a φ s
φ s μ a = A 1 A μ a φ s
Φ μ a r = 2 s ( d ( φ s ( x r ) M s , d ) ( M s , d ) 2 · P r T A 1 ) A μ a φ s .
( φ s * ) T d ( φ s ( x r ) M s , d ) ( M s , d ) 2 · P d T A 1
φ μ a r = 2 s ( φ s * ) T A μ a φ s .
Φ μ a r = 2 s el i , j A i , j e μ a r φ i φ j *
Φ μ a r = el i , j { 2 A i , j e μ a r s φ i φ j * } .
Φ μ a r = el i , j A i , j e μ a r { s 2 φ i φ j * } .
A i , j e μ a r = μ a r μ a r φ i φ j d Ω e
= μ a r k = 1 4 φ i φ j I ( μ a 1 , μ a 2 , μ a 3 , μ a 4 ) x = x k
I ( μ a 1 , μ a 2 , μ a 3 , μ a 4 ) = l = 1 4 μ a l φ l
So I μ a k = φ k and therefore : A i , j e μ a r = k = 1 4 i , j = 1 4 φ i φ j φ k
Δ μ a λ = ε Hb O 2 λ Δ [ Hb O 2 ] + ε Hb λ Δ [ Hb ]
Δ [ Hb ] meas = ε Hb O 2 λ 2 Δ μ a λ 1 ε Hb O 2 λ 1 Δ μ a λ 2 ε Hb λ 1 ε Hb O 2 λ 2 ε Hb λ 2 ε Hb O 2 λ 1 ,
Δ [ HbO 2 ] meas = ε Hb λ 1 Δ μ a λ 2 ε Hb λ 2 Δ μ a λ 1 ε Hb λ 1 ε HbO 2 λ 2 ε Hb λ 2 ε HbO 2 λ 1 .
x i = 1 2 n k = i n k = i + n x k .

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