Abstract

Low temperature (80°C) hypersensitised hydrogen-loaded phosphosilicate optical fibre is found to be unstable, decaying progressively at room temperature. However, the hypersensitisation process linearises the grating growth characteristic curve. Further, a negative index contribution is inferred at low fluence in the presence of hydrogen.

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References

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  1. J. Canning, "Photosensitisation and photostabilisation of laser induced index changes in optical fibres," Opt. Fibre Tech. 6 275-289, (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Canning, "Contemporary Thoughts on Glass Photosensitivity and their Practical Application," Materials Forum 25 101-128, (2001)
  3. J. Canning, M. Åslund and P-F. Hu, "UV-induced absorption losses in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and in pre-sensitised optical fibres," Opt. Lett. 25 1621-1623 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Åslund, J. Canning and G. Yoffe, "Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24 1826-1828 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Åslund and J. Canning, "Annealing properties of gratings written into UV-presensitised hydrogen out-diffused optical fibre," Opt. Lett. 25 692-694 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Canning, "Improving the manufacture of fibre Bragg gratings," SPIE Vol. 3896 769-778, (1999)
  7. J. Canning and P-F. Hu, "Eliminating UV-induced losses during UV-exposure of photo-hypersensitised optical fibres," Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA6-1, (2001)
  8. K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann and R. Tam, "157nm F2 laser photosensitivity and photosensitisation in optical fibres," Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA5-1, (2001)
  9. K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann and R. Tam, "Trimming phase and birefringence errors in photosensitivity-locked planar optical circuits," Accepted for IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. (2001)
  10. J. Canning and K. Sommer, "Hypersensitisation of Rare-Earth Doped Waveguides for DFB Amplifier and Laser Applications," Accepted to Opt Lett. (2001)
  11. J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund and S. Huntington, "Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres," Adv. Mater. 13 970-973 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Canning and P-F. Hu, "Low temperature hypersensitisation of phosphosilicate waveguides in hydrogen," Opt. Lett. 26, 1230-1232 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Canning, K. Sommer and M. Englund, "Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 824-828 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer and M. Englund, "Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?" Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24-25 (2001)
  15. J. Canning, M.G. Sceats, H.G. Inglis and P.Hill, "Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibres produced by the flash condensation technique," Opt. Lett. 20, 2189-2191 (1995)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole and M.G. Sceats, "Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 2009-2011 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  17. H.I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-halide Recording Materials, Springer Series in Optical Science, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995) Vol. 66.
  18. L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell and D. N. Payne, "Photoinduced absorption change in germanosilicate preforms: evidence for the color-center model of photosensitivity," Appl. Opt. 34, 3436-3440 (1995)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos and V.A. Handerek, "Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres," 4 th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC'97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp. 200-204 (1997)
  20. V. Grubsky, D.S. Starobudov and J. Feinberg, "Mechanisms of index change induced by near-UV light in hydrogen loaded fibres," Proceedings of Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Non-Linearity, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) p.98.
  21. M. Fokine and W. Margulis, "Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation," Opt. Lett. 25, 302-304 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Wootten, B. Thomas and P. Harrowell, "Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3336-3341 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion, (Oxford Universty Press, London, 1975)
  24. P.J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibres exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  25. H.I. Inglis, "Photosensitivity in germanosilicate optical fibres," PhD. Dissertation, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Department, University of Sydney, (1997).

Other (25)

J. Canning, "Photosensitisation and photostabilisation of laser induced index changes in optical fibres," Opt. Fibre Tech. 6 275-289, (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, "Contemporary Thoughts on Glass Photosensitivity and their Practical Application," Materials Forum 25 101-128, (2001)

J. Canning, M. Åslund and P-F. Hu, "UV-induced absorption losses in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and in pre-sensitised optical fibres," Opt. Lett. 25 1621-1623 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. Åslund, J. Canning and G. Yoffe, "Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides," Opt. Lett. 24 1826-1828 (1999)
[CrossRef]

M. Åslund and J. Canning, "Annealing properties of gratings written into UV-presensitised hydrogen out-diffused optical fibre," Opt. Lett. 25 692-694 (2000)
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, "Improving the manufacture of fibre Bragg gratings," SPIE Vol. 3896 769-778, (1999)

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, "Eliminating UV-induced losses during UV-exposure of photo-hypersensitised optical fibres," Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA6-1, (2001)

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann and R. Tam, "157nm F2 laser photosensitivity and photosensitisation in optical fibres," Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling In Glass Waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BthA5-1, (2001)

K.P. Chen, P.R. Hermann and R. Tam, "Trimming phase and birefringence errors in photosensitivity-locked planar optical circuits," Accepted for IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. (2001)

J. Canning and K. Sommer, "Hypersensitisation of Rare-Earth Doped Waveguides for DFB Amplifier and Laser Applications," Accepted to Opt Lett. (2001)

J. Canning, K. Sommer, M. Englund and S. Huntington, "Direct evidence of two types of UV-induced glass changes in silicate-based optical fibres," Adv. Mater. 13 970-973 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Canning and P-F. Hu, "Low temperature hypersensitisation of phosphosilicate waveguides in hydrogen," Opt. Lett. 26, 1230-1232 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, K. Sommer and M. Englund, "Fibre gratings for high temperature sensor applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 824-828 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Hu, J. Canning, K. Sommer and M. Englund, "Phosphosilicate optical fibres: a grating host for all windows?" Proceedings of Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (OECC/IOOC 2001), Sydney, Australia, pp.24-25 (2001)

J. Canning, M.G. Sceats, H.G. Inglis and P.Hill, "Transient and permanent gratings in phosphosilicate optical fibres produced by the flash condensation technique," Opt. Lett. 20, 2189-2191 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.L.G. Carter, S.B. Poole and M.G. Sceats, "Flash-condensation technique for the fabrication of high phosphorous-content rare-earth doped fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 2009-2011 (1992)
[CrossRef]

H.I. Bjelkhagen, Silver-halide Recording Materials, Springer Series in Optical Science, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995) Vol. 66.

L. Dong, J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell and D. N. Payne, "Photoinduced absorption change in germanosilicate preforms: evidence for the color-center model of photosensitivity," Appl. Opt. 34, 3436-3440 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.W. Raine, R. Feced, S.E. Kanellopoulos and V.A. Handerek, "Measurement of stress at high spatial resolution in UV exposed fibres," 4 th Optical Fibre Measurements Conference (OFMC'97), National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, pp. 200-204 (1997)

V. Grubsky, D.S. Starobudov and J. Feinberg, "Mechanisms of index change induced by near-UV light in hydrogen loaded fibres," Proceedings of Conference on Photosensitivity and Quadratic Non-Linearity, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997) p.98.

M. Fokine and W. Margulis, "Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation," Opt. Lett. 25, 302-304 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Wootten, B. Thomas and P. Harrowell, "Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: a computer simulation study," J. Chem. Phys. 115, 3336-3341 (2001)
[CrossRef]

J. Crank, Mathematics of Diffusion, (Oxford Universty Press, London, 1975)

P.J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibres exposed to hydrogen: prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780 (1991)
[CrossRef]

H.I. Inglis, "Photosensitivity in germanosilicate optical fibres," PhD. Dissertation, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Department, University of Sydney, (1997).

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Figures (4)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Typical transmission spectrum of a grating written into hypersensitised phosphosilicate optical fibre. The resolution is 0.1nm.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

a - top) Photosensitive response curve of phosphosilicate optical fibre at various times after hydrogen loading (Time is indicated on days on the right).

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Plot of recovered fraction of normalised reflectivity after 3mins cooling inbetween temperatures during isochronal annealing for a grating written into fully-hydrogen loaded (open squares) and hypersensitised (filled squares) phosphosilicate optical fibres. Details of the isochronal annealing experiments can be found in [13].

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Normalised index change at fixed low and high fluence both as a function of out-diffusion time are shown. The normalised out-diffusion profile is also superimposed to illustrate the deviation from a simple linear proportionality between index change and hydrogen.

Equations (3)

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C t C = 2 n = 1 exp ( j n 2 D t m b 2 ) j n J 1 ( j n )
t m = t + w 2 8 D
D = ( 2.83 x 10 4 ) exp ( 40.19 kJ / mol RT ) cm 2 / s

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