Abstract

The dynamics of Neon double ionization by 25 fs, 1.0 PW/cm2 laser pulses at 795 nm has been studied in a many particle coincidence experiment. The momentum vectors of all ejected atomic fragments (electrons and ions) have been measured using combined electron and recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy. Electron emission spectra for double and single ionization will be discussed. In both processes the mean electron energies differ considerably and high energetic electrons with energies of more than 120 eV have been observed for double ionization. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the rescattering model.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L’Huiller, L.A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 µm,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N.B. Delone and V.P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8, No. 6, 1207 (1991).
  3. M. Protopapas, C.H. Keitel, and P.L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. U. Eichmann, M. Doerr, H. Maeda, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, “Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett 84, 3550 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P.B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K.C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K.J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51, 561 (1995).
  9. J.B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D.G. Lappas, P.L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Th. Weberet al., “Recoil ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of Helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Moshammeret al., “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Kopold, W. Becker, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Routes to nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3781 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense field double ionization of Helium: Identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S.L. Haan, N. Hoekema, S. Poniatowsky, W.C. Liu, and J.H. Eberly, “Directional correlation in direct and sequential double ionization of model atoms,” Optics Express 7, 29 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21863.htm
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Th. Weberet al., “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Witzel, N.A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis,”Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Ullrichet al., “Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B. 30, 2917 (1997), Topical Review.
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K.C. Kulander, and L.F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (11)

U. Eichmann, M. Doerr, H. Maeda, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, “Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett 84, 3550 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weberet al., “Recoil ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of Helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammeret al., “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kopold, W. Becker, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Routes to nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3781 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense field double ionization of Helium: Identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.L. Haan, N. Hoekema, S. Poniatowsky, W.C. Liu, and J.H. Eberly, “Directional correlation in direct and sequential double ionization of model atoms,” Optics Express 7, 29 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21863.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weberet al., “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Witzel, N.A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis,”Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. Ullrichet al., “Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B. 30, 2917 (1997), Topical Review.
[CrossRef]

J.B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D.G. Lappas, P.L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Protopapas, C.H. Keitel, and P.L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K.C. Kulander, and L.F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K.C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K.J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51, 561 (1995).

1994 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P.B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

N.B. Delone and V.P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8, No. 6, 1207 (1991).

1983 (1)

A. L’Huiller, L.A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 µm,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, A.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Routes to nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3781 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann, M. Doerr, H. Maeda, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, “Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett 84, 3550 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolton, P.R.

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

J.B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D.G. Lappas, P.L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambidis, D.

B. Witzel, N.A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis,”Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J.

K.C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K.J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51, 561 (1995).

Corkum, P.B.

P.B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N.B.

N.B. Delone and V.P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8, No. 6, 1207 (1991).

DiMauro, L.F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K.C. Kulander, and L.F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doerr, M.

U. Eichmann, M. Doerr, H. Maeda, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, “Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett 84, 3550 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J.H.

S.L. Haan, N. Hoekema, S. Poniatowsky, W.C. Liu, and J.H. Eberly, “Directional correlation in direct and sequential double ionization of model atoms,” Optics Express 7, 29 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21863.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichmann, U.

U. Eichmann, M. Doerr, H. Maeda, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, “Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett 84, 3550 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense field double ionization of Helium: Identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faisal, F.H.M.

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3546 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D.N.

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, E.K.U.

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense field double ionization of Helium: Identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, S.L.

S.L. Haan, N. Hoekema, S. Poniatowsky, W.C. Liu, and J.H. Eberly, “Directional correlation in direct and sequential double ionization of model atoms,” Optics Express 7, 29 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21863.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoekema, N.

S.L. Haan, N. Hoekema, S. Poniatowsky, W.C. Liu, and J.H. Eberly, “Directional correlation in direct and sequential double ionization of model atoms,” Optics Express 7, 29 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21863.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagutzki, O.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keitel, C.H.

M. Protopapas, C.H. Keitel, and P.L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P.L.

M. Protopapas, C.H. Keitel, and P.L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D.G. Lappas, P.L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kopold, R.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Routes to nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3781 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krainov, V.P.

N.B. Delone and V.P. Krainov, “Energy and angular electron spectra for the tunnel ionization of atoms by strong low-frequency radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B8, No. 6, 1207 (1991).

Kulander, K.C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K.C. Kulander, and L.F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K.J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51, 561 (1995).

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huiller, A.

A. L’Huiller, L.A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 µm,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lappas, D.G.

J.B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D.G. Lappas, P.L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense field double ionization of Helium: Identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.C.

S.L. Haan, N. Hoekema, S. Poniatowsky, W.C. Liu, and J.H. Eberly, “Directional correlation in direct and sequential double ionization of model atoms,” Optics Express 7, 29 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21863.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lompre, L.A.

A. L’Huiller, L.A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 µm,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, H.

U. Eichmann, M. Doerr, H. Maeda, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, “Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett 84, 3550 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainfray, G.

A. L’Huiller, L.A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 µm,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

A. L’Huiller, L.A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 µm,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, V.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammeret al., “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N.A.

B. Witzel, N.A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis,”Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poniatowsky, S.

S.L. Haan, N. Hoekema, S. Poniatowsky, W.C. Liu, and J.H. Eberly, “Directional correlation in direct and sequential double ionization of model atoms,” Optics Express 7, 29 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/21863.htm
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Protopapas, M.

M. Protopapas, C.H. Keitel, and P.L. Knight, “Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rottke, H.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Routes to nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3781 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandner, W.

R. Kopold, W. Becker, H. Rottke, and W. Sandner, “Routes to nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3781 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann, M. Doerr, H. Maeda, W. Becker, and W. Sandner, “Collective multielectron tunneling ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett 84, 3550 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanpera, A.

J.B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D.G. Lappas, P.L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K.J.

K.C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K.J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51, 561 (1995).

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K.C. Kulander, and L.F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Ullrichet al., “Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B. 30, 2917 (1997), Topical Review.
[CrossRef]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K.C. Kulander, and L.F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L.F. DiMauro, A. Agostini, K.J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, J.B.

J.B. Watson, A. Sanpera, D.G. Lappas, P.L. Knight, and K. Burnett, “Nonsequential double ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, Th.

Th. Weberet al., “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weberet al., “Recoil ion momentum distributions for single and double ionization of Helium in strong laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witzel, B.

B. Witzel, N.A. Papadogiannis, and D. Charalambidis,”Charge-state resolved above threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2268 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599 (1993).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ion time-of-flight spectrum at a laser intensity of 1.0 PW/cm2. The different Ne1+ peaks reflect the Ne isotope abundance. The H-ions are residual gas contributions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Momentum correlation between Ne1+ ions and electrons which were registered in coincidence. Plotted are the ion and electron momentum components along the polarization of the laser field at a peak intensity of 1.0 PW/cm2. (log. Scale).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Longitudinal sum momentum of electrons and Ne1+ ions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Electron energy versus emission angle for Ne single ionization. ϑ=0 corresponds to emission along the light polarization axis. (log. Scale).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Same as Fig. 5 for double ionization. Notice the different energy scale.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Electron energy distributions for emission along (a) and perpendicular (b) to the polarization axis in double ionization.

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