Abstract

This work reports an investigation of the fluorescent field re-emitted by an object embedded in a highly scattering media illuminated by two-interfering sources. Simulations in the frequency domain with a finite difference method solving the diffusion equation were performed. The media considered had features typical of a soft-compressed breast. An absorbing-fluorescent inhomogeneity was embedded in the center of the slab. A qualitative study of the re-emitted field was achieved. The re-emitted field was found to possess unique features characteristic of the two-interfering sources excitation, i.e. null intensity when the object was between the two sources and a 180° transition crossing this position. Those features, when performing a scan of the two sources, permitted accurate localization of the inhomogeneity. Moreover, even when the detector was not placed on the mid-plane of the two sources, the re-emitted field still exhibited the interfering characteristic pattern, which was not seen at the excitation wavelength. Thus, for such configurations, the re-emitted field still possessed the specific sensitivity of phased array emission conversely to the excitation wavelength.

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Chance & E. Conant, "A novel Tumor Imager using NIR light," in preparation.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall & B. Chance, "Concurent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Nioka, S. Colak, X. i, Y. Yan and B. Chance, "Breast tumor images of hemodynamic information using contrast agent with back projection and FFT enhancement," OSA TOPS 21 (Adv. In Optical Imaging and photon Migration (J.Fujimoto and M.Patterson eds.)) Optical Society of America, 266-270 (1998).
  11. K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance & W. Semmler, "Hydrophylic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in-vivo characterization," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 392-398 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Weissleder, CH. Tung, U. Mahmood & A. Bogdanov, "In vivo imaging with protease-activated near-infrared fluorescent probes," Nat. Biotech. 17, 375-378 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Xingde Li, B. Chance & A. Yodh, "Fluorescent heterogeneities in turbid media: limits for detection, characterization, and comparison with absorption," Appl. Opt. 37, 6833-6844 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. Abugo, Z. Gryczynski & J. Lakowicz, "Modulation sensing of fuorophores in tissue: a new approach to drug compliance monitoring," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 429-442 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. Rumsey, J. Vanderkooi & D. Wilson, "Imaging of phosphorescence: a novel method for measuring oxygen distribution in perfused tissue," Science 241, 1649-1651 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Szmacinski & J. Lakowicz, "Lifetime based sensing," in Probe Design and Chemical Sensing, J. Lakowicz ed., Vol. 4 of Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1994), 295-334.
  17. M. Patterson, B. Chance & B. Wilson, "Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Durduran, M. Holboke, J. Culver, L. Zubkov, R. Choe, D. Pattanayak, B. Chance & A. Yodh, "Tissue bulk optical properties of breast and phantoms obtained with clinical optical imager," in Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2000), 386-388.
  19. M. Keijzer, W. Star & P. Storchi, "Optical diffusion in layered media," Appl. Opt. 27, 1820-1824 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Haskell, L.Svaasand, TT. Tsay, Tc. Feng, M. McAdams & B. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. O'Leary, "Imaging with diffuse photon density waves", PhD University of Pennsylvania (1996).
  22. M. O'Leary, D. Boas, B. Chance & A. Yodh, "Reradiation and imaging of diffuse photon density waves using fluorescent inhomogeneities," J. Luminesc. 60, 281-286 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, H. Liu & S. Zhou, "Precision localization of hidden absorbers in body tissues with phased-array optical systems," Rev. Sci, Instrum. 67, 4324-4331 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. X. Intes, V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh & B. Chance, "Analytical model for phased-array diffuse optical tomography," in preparation.
  25. M.Keijzer, W.Star & P.Storchi, "Optical diffusion in layered media," Appl. Opt. 27, 1820-1824 (1988).

Other (25)

D.Kopans, "Screening for breast-cancer and mortality reduction among women 40-49 years of age," Cancer 74, 311-322, Suppl. S (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.Knuttel, J.Schmitt & J.Knutson, "Spatial localization of absorbing bodies by interfering diffuse photon-density waves," Appl. Opt. 32, 381-389 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.Lindquist, A.Pifferi, R.Berg, S.Anderson-Engels & S.Svandberg, "Reconstruction of diffuse photon-density wave interference in turbid media from time-resolved transmittance measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1674-1676 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.Schmitt, A.Knuttel & J.Knutson, "Interference of diffusive light waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1832-1843 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.Erickson, J.Reynolds & K.Webb, "Comparison of sensitivity for single-source and dual-interfering-source configurations in optical diffusion imaging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3083-3092 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, K. Kang, L.H e, J. Weng & E. Sevick, "Highly sensitive object location in tissue models with linear in-phase and anti-phase multi-element optical arrays in one and two dimensions," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 3423-3427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance & E. Conant, "A novel Tumor Imager using NIR light," in preparation.

Y. Chen, S. Zhou, C. Xie, S. Nioka, M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos, E. Anday & B. Chance, "Preliminary evaluation of dual-wavelength phased array imaging on neonatal brain function," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 206-213 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh, M. Schnall & B. Chance, "Concurent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2767-2772 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nioka, S. Colak, X. i, Y. Yan and B. Chance, "Breast tumor images of hemodynamic information using contrast agent with back projection and FFT enhancement," OSA TOPS 21 (Adv. In Optical Imaging and photon Migration (J.Fujimoto and M.Patterson eds.)) Optical Society of America, 266-270 (1998).

K. Licha, B. Riefke, V. Ntziachristos, A. Becker, B. Chance & W. Semmler, "Hydrophylic cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared tumor imaging: synthesis, photophysical properties and spectroscopic in-vivo characterization," Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 392-398 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder, CH. Tung, U. Mahmood & A. Bogdanov, "In vivo imaging with protease-activated near-infrared fluorescent probes," Nat. Biotech. 17, 375-378 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xingde Li, B. Chance & A. Yodh, "Fluorescent heterogeneities in turbid media: limits for detection, characterization, and comparison with absorption," Appl. Opt. 37, 6833-6844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Abugo, Z. Gryczynski & J. Lakowicz, "Modulation sensing of fuorophores in tissue: a new approach to drug compliance monitoring," J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 429-442 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Rumsey, J. Vanderkooi & D. Wilson, "Imaging of phosphorescence: a novel method for measuring oxygen distribution in perfused tissue," Science 241, 1649-1651 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Szmacinski & J. Lakowicz, "Lifetime based sensing," in Probe Design and Chemical Sensing, J. Lakowicz ed., Vol. 4 of Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1994), 295-334.

M. Patterson, B. Chance & B. Wilson, "Time-resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, M. Holboke, J. Culver, L. Zubkov, R. Choe, D. Pattanayak, B. Chance & A. Yodh, "Tissue bulk optical properties of breast and phantoms obtained with clinical optical imager," in Biomedical Topical Meetings, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2000), 386-388.

M. Keijzer, W. Star & P. Storchi, "Optical diffusion in layered media," Appl. Opt. 27, 1820-1824 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haskell, L.Svaasand, TT. Tsay, Tc. Feng, M. McAdams & B. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2727-2741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. O'Leary, "Imaging with diffuse photon density waves", PhD University of Pennsylvania (1996).

M. O'Leary, D. Boas, B. Chance & A. Yodh, "Reradiation and imaging of diffuse photon density waves using fluorescent inhomogeneities," J. Luminesc. 60, 281-286 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, K. Kang, L. He, H. Liu & S. Zhou, "Precision localization of hidden absorbers in body tissues with phased-array optical systems," Rev. Sci, Instrum. 67, 4324-4331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Intes, V. Ntziachristos, A. Yodh & B. Chance, "Analytical model for phased-array diffuse optical tomography," in preparation.

M.Keijzer, W.Star & P.Storchi, "Optical diffusion in layered media," Appl. Opt. 27, 1820-1824 (1988).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1:
Fig. 1:

(a) Simulated set-up map, (b) fluorescent object modeling.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

Experimental situations investigated. Green bars represent the sources and red (blue) bars represent detectors. The fluorescent object is depicted in yellow. (a) scanning of the object in the classical phased-array configuration (equivalent to a scanning of the sources-detector system), (b) detector shifted from classical position, (c) reflectance case and (d) scanning of the sources for static object and detectors.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

(1.5 MB) Movie of (a) logarithm of the amplitude at the excitation wavelength - (b) phase at the excitation wavelength - (c) logarithm of the amplitude at the fluorescent wavelength and (d) phase at the fluorescent wavelength. The object is located in the center of the media (maximum of re-emitted amplitude). The sources plane correspond to the y=0 plane and the detectors plane correspond to y=5cm plane.

Fig. 4:
Fig. 4:

Profile of the simulated field, (a) amplitude (b) phase for a scanning of the object and the middle detector (the amplitudes are processed for a better presentation).

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Profile of the simulated field, (a) amplitude (b) phase for a scanning of the object and a detector at 2cm from the null-line.

Fig. 6:
Fig. 6:

Profile of the simulated field, (a) amplitude (b) phase for a scanning of the object and a detector at 2cm from the null-line in reflectance geometry.

Fig. 7:
Fig. 7:

Profile of the simulated field, (a) amplitude (b) phase for a scanning of the two sources and two positions of the detector. Due to the normalization, the two amplitudes of the fluorescence fields overlap.

Equations (1)

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