Abstract

This article summarizes the developing understanding of coherent atomic excitation, as gained through a collaboration of J. H. Eberly with the Laser Isotope Separation Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, particularly aspects of coherence, population trapping, multilevel multiphoton excitation sequences, analytic solutions to multistate excitation chains, the quasicontinuum, pulse propagation, and noise. In addition to the discovery of several curious and unexpected properties of coherent excitation, mentioned here, the collaboration provided an excellent example of unexpected benefits from investment into basic research.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, and M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser FocusSept. 1982, 49–54 (1982).
  2. J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, and J. I. Davis, “Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,”IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. V. Ambartzumian and V. S. Letokhov, “Selective two-step (STS) photoionization of atoms and photodissociation of molecules by laser radiation,”Appl. Opt. 11, 354–8 (1972).
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  4. N. V. Karlov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Laser isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 19, 285–300 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. S. Letokhov, “Laser selective photophysics and photochemistry,”Prog. Optics 16, 1–69 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell, and D. C. Cartwright, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,”in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O. Scully, and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),
  8. B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, N.Y., 1990).
  9. P. T. Greenland, “Laser Isotope Separation,”Contemporary Physics 31, 405–424 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
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  12. J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny, and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, “Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323–6 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. R. Ackerhalt and J. H. Eberly, “Coherence versus incoherence in stepwise laser excitation of atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1705–10 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore, “Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 277–82 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. W. Shore and J. Ackerhalt, “Dynamics of multilevel laser excitation: Three-level atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 15, 1640–1646 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems,”Phys. Rev. A 19, 248–262 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, N.Y., 1975)
  18. P. Avan and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Two-level atom saturated by a fluctuating resonant laser beam. Calculation of the fluorescence spectrum,”J. Phys. B 10, 155–170 (1977).
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  19. P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, “Population trapping and dispersion in a three-level system,”J. Phys. B 15, 561–73 (1982).
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  20. J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatic following in multilevel systems,”Phys. Rev. 29, 690–7 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,”Prog. Optics 35, 259–356 (1996).
  22. B. W. Shore, “Inaccessible populations in multistep ionization,”ed. (LLNL TAMP memo (unpublished), 1976).
  23. R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, “Double optical resonance,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498–1512 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, “Coherent trapping of atomic populations,”Opt. Letts. 3, 218–220 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Non-absorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in three-level optical pumping,”Nuov. Cim. Letts. 17, 333–338 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe, and K. Bergmann, “Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741–44 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann, and K. Bergmann, “Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results,”J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363–76 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  28. K. Bergmann and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer,”in Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping ed. H. L. Dai and R. W. Field (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995),
    [Crossref]
  29. K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,”Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1023 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  30. B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula, and I. Bialynicki-Birula, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038–47 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965)
  33. Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048–2054 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  34. B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Analytic approximations in multi-level excitation theory,”Opt. Comm. 24, 83–88 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  35. R. J. Cook and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules III. An analytically soluble periodic case,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 539–544 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  36. B. W. Shore and M. A. Johnson, “Effects of hyperfine structure on coherent excitation,”Phys. Rev. A 23, 1608–1610 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, “Reduction of degenerate two-level excitation to independent two-state systems,”Phys. Rev. A 27, 906–912 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder, and B. J. Dalton, “Laser-induced continuum structure,”Phys. Reports 190, 1–61 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  39. B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Modeling propagation of coherent optical pulses through molecular vapor,”in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81 ed. C. B. Collins (STS Press, McLean, Va., 1981),
  40. J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden, and J. H. Eberly, “Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum,”J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936–46 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  41. E. Kyrola and J. H. Eberly, “Quasicontinuum effects in molecular excitation,”J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1841–54 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  42. B. W. Shore, “Coherence in the quasi-continuum model,”Chem. Phys. Letts. 99, 240 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  43. M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567–83 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond, and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses,”Opt. Comm. 36, 313–16 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  45. J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki, and B. W. Shore, “The influence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule,”Opt. Comm. 35, 76–80 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  46. B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media,”in Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators ed. J. Chandra and A. C. Scott (North-Holland, N.Y., 1983).
  47. J. H. Eberly, “Atomic relaxation in the presence of intense partially coherent radiation fields,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1387–90 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  48. G. S. Agarwal, “Exact solution for the influence of laser temporal fluctuations on resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1383–86 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  49. P. Zoller, “Ac Stark splitting in double optical resonance and resonance fluorescence by a non-monochromatic chaotic field,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 1019–1031 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  50. C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Processes (Springer, Heidelberg, 1985).
  51. A. I. Burshtein, “External relaxation,”Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 908–917 (1963).
  52. A. I. Burshtein and Y. S. Oseledchik, “Relaxation in a system subjected to suddenly changing perturbations in the presence of correlation between successive values of the perturbation,”Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 716–724 (1967).
  53. J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz, and B. W. Shore, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381–2388 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  54. K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency fluctuations and nonexponential correlations,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390–2398 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  55. K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions,” JOSA B1, 398–405 (1984).
  56. Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Effect of coherent continuum-continuum relaxation and saturation in multiphoton ionization,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 53, 1810–1813 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  57. Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Multiphoton absorption above ionization threshold by atoms in strong laser fields,”JOSA B 2, 486–493 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  58. Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Variation of above-threshold ionisation power law behavior,”J. Phys. B 18, L287–L291 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  59. F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite, and M. Clement, “Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m,”J. Phys. B 14, L677–81 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  60. B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight, “Enhancement of high optical harmonics by excess-photon ionisation,” J. Phys. B 20, 413–423 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  61. K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe,”Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–26 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  62. B. W. Shore and K. C. Kulander, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. I. Propagation effects,”J. Mod. Opt. 36, 857–876 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  63. K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. II. Single-atom spectrum for xenon,”JOSA B 7, 502–8 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  64. J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  65. J. H. Eberly and K. C. Kulander, “Atomic stabilization by super-intense lasers,”Science 262, 1229–33 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,”Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,”Prog. Optics 35, 259–356 (1996).

1993 (1)

J. H. Eberly and K. C. Kulander, “Atomic stabilization by super-intense lasers,”Science 262, 1229–33 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. II. Single-atom spectrum for xenon,”JOSA B 7, 502–8 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. T. Greenland, “Laser Isotope Separation,”Contemporary Physics 31, 405–424 (1990).
[Crossref]

U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann, and K. Bergmann, “Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results,”J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder, and B. J. Dalton, “Laser-induced continuum structure,”Phys. Reports 190, 1–61 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (4)

J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe, and K. Bergmann, “Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741–44 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe,”Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–26 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Shore and K. C. Kulander, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. I. Propagation effects,”J. Mod. Opt. 36, 857–876 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight, “Enhancement of high optical harmonics by excess-photon ionisation,” J. Phys. B 20, 413–423 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (3)

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Multiphoton absorption above ionization threshold by atoms in strong laser fields,”JOSA B 2, 486–493 (1985).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Variation of above-threshold ionisation power law behavior,”J. Phys. B 18, L287–L291 (1985).
[Crossref]

E. Kyrola and J. H. Eberly, “Quasicontinuum effects in molecular excitation,”J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1841–54 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (6)

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, and J. I. Davis, “Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,”IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatic following in multilevel systems,”Phys. Rev. 29, 690–7 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz, and B. W. Shore, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381–2388 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency fluctuations and nonexponential correlations,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390–2398 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions,” JOSA B1, 398–405 (1984).

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Effect of coherent continuum-continuum relaxation and saturation in multiphoton ionization,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 53, 1810–1813 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

B. W. Shore, “Coherence in the quasi-continuum model,”Chem. Phys. Letts. 99, 240 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, “Reduction of degenerate two-level excitation to independent two-state systems,”Phys. Rev. A 27, 906–912 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden, and J. H. Eberly, “Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum,”J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936–46 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, “Population trapping and dispersion in a three-level system,”J. Phys. B 15, 561–73 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (4)

B. W. Shore and M. A. Johnson, “Effects of hyperfine structure on coherent excitation,”Phys. Rev. A 23, 1608–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567–83 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond, and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses,”Opt. Comm. 36, 313–16 (1981).
[Crossref]

F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite, and M. Clement, “Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m,”J. Phys. B 14, L677–81 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki, and B. W. Shore, “The influence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule,”Opt. Comm. 35, 76–80 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny, and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, “Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323–6 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (3)

J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems,”Phys. Rev. A 19, 248–262 (1979).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules III. An analytically soluble periodic case,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 539–544 (1979).
[Crossref]

P. Zoller, “Ac Stark splitting in double optical resonance and resonance fluorescence by a non-monochromatic chaotic field,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 1019–1031 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (3)

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Analytic approximations in multi-level excitation theory,”Opt. Comm. 24, 83–88 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, “Coherent trapping of atomic populations,”Opt. Letts. 3, 218–220 (1978).
[Crossref]

V. S. Letokhov, “Laser selective photophysics and photochemistry,”Prog. Optics 16, 1–69 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (6)

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

P. Avan and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Two-level atom saturated by a fluctuating resonant laser beam. Calculation of the fluorescence spectrum,”J. Phys. B 10, 155–170 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore, “Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 277–82 (1977).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and J. Ackerhalt, “Dynamics of multilevel laser excitation: Three-level atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 15, 1640–1646 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula, and I. Bialynicki-Birula, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038–47 (1977).
[Crossref]

Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048–2054 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (6)

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Non-absorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in three-level optical pumping,”Nuov. Cim. Letts. 17, 333–338 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, “Atomic relaxation in the presence of intense partially coherent radiation fields,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1387–90 (1976).
[Crossref]

G. S. Agarwal, “Exact solution for the influence of laser temporal fluctuations on resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1383–86 (1976).
[Crossref]

R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, “Double optical resonance,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498–1512 (1976).
[Crossref]

N. V. Karlov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Laser isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 19, 285–300 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt and J. H. Eberly, “Coherence versus incoherence in stepwise laser excitation of atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1705–10 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1967 (1)

A. I. Burshtein and Y. S. Oseledchik, “Relaxation in a system subjected to suddenly changing perturbations in the presence of correlation between successive values of the perturbation,”Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 716–724 (1967).

1963 (1)

A. I. Burshtein, “External relaxation,”Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 908–917 (1963).

Ackerhalt, J.

B. W. Shore and J. Ackerhalt, “Dynamics of multilevel laser excitation: Three-level atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 15, 1640–1646 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ackerhalt, J. R.

J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems,”Phys. Rev. A 19, 248–262 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore, “Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 277–82 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt and J. H. Eberly, “Coherence versus incoherence in stepwise laser excitation of atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1705–10 (1976).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. S. Agarwal, “Exact solution for the influence of laser temporal fluctuations on resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1383–86 (1976).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite, and M. Clement, “Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m,”J. Phys. B 14, L677–81 (1981).
[Crossref]

Aldridge, J. P.

J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell, and D. C. Cartwright, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,”in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O. Scully, and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),

Allen, L.

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, N.Y., 1975)

Ambartzumian, R. V.

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,”Prog. Optics 35, 259–356 (1996).

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Non-absorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in three-level optical pumping,”Nuov. Cim. Letts. 17, 333–338 (1976).
[Crossref]

Avan, P.

P. Avan and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Two-level atom saturated by a fluctuating resonant laser beam. Calculation of the fluorescence spectrum,”J. Phys. B 10, 155–170 (1977).
[Crossref]

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

Belenov, E. M.

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, K.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,”Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann, and K. Bergmann, “Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results,”J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe, and K. Bergmann, “Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741–44 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bergmann and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer,”in Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping ed. H. L. Dai and R. W. Field (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995),
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bialynicka-Birula, Z.

J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula, and I. Bialynicki-Birula, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038–47 (1977).
[Crossref]

Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048–2054 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bialynicki-Birula, I.

Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048–2054 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula, and I. Bialynicki-Birula, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038–47 (1977).
[Crossref]

Birely, J. H.

J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell, and D. C. Cartwright, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,”in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O. Scully, and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),

Bowden, C. M.

J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden, and J. H. Eberly, “Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum,”J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936–46 (1982).
[Crossref]

Burshtein, A. I.

A. I. Burshtein and Y. S. Oseledchik, “Relaxation in a system subjected to suddenly changing perturbations in the presence of correlation between successive values of the perturbation,”Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 716–724 (1967).

A. I. Burshtein, “External relaxation,”Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 908–917 (1963).

Cantrell, C. D.

J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell, and D. C. Cartwright, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,”in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O. Scully, and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),

Cartwright, D. C.

J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell, and D. C. Cartwright, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,”in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O. Scully, and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),

Clement, M.

F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite, and M. Clement, “Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m,”J. Phys. B 14, L677–81 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

P. Avan and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Two-level atom saturated by a fluctuating resonant laser beam. Calculation of the fluorescence spectrum,”J. Phys. B 10, 155–170 (1977).
[Crossref]

Cook, R. J.

R. J. Cook and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules III. An analytically soluble periodic case,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 539–544 (1979).
[Crossref]

Dalton, B. J.

P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder, and B. J. Dalton, “Laser-induced continuum structure,”Phys. Reports 190, 1–61 (1990).
[Crossref]

Damiao, A. J.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. I.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, and J. I. Davis, “Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,”IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, and M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser FocusSept. 1982, 49–54 (1982).

Deng, Z.

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Variation of above-threshold ionisation power law behavior,”J. Phys. B 18, L287–L291 (1985).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Multiphoton absorption above ionization threshold by atoms in strong laser fields,”JOSA B 2, 486–493 (1985).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Effect of coherent continuum-continuum relaxation and saturation in multiphoton ionization,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 53, 1810–1813 (1984).
[Crossref]

Destro, M. G.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Drummond, P. D.

M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond, and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses,”Opt. Comm. 36, 313–16 (1981).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

J. H. Eberly and K. C. Kulander, “Atomic stabilization by super-intense lasers,”Science 262, 1229–33 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Kyrola and J. H. Eberly, “Quasicontinuum effects in molecular excitation,”J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1841–54 (1985).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Multiphoton absorption above ionization threshold by atoms in strong laser fields,”JOSA B 2, 486–493 (1985).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Variation of above-threshold ionisation power law behavior,”J. Phys. B 18, L287–L291 (1985).
[Crossref]

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Effect of coherent continuum-continuum relaxation and saturation in multiphoton ionization,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 53, 1810–1813 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency fluctuations and nonexponential correlations,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390–2398 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions,” JOSA B1, 398–405 (1984).

J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz, and B. W. Shore, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381–2388 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatic following in multilevel systems,”Phys. Rev. 29, 690–7 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden, and J. H. Eberly, “Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum,”J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936–46 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond, and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses,”Opt. Comm. 36, 313–16 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567–83 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki, and B. W. Shore, “The influence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule,”Opt. Comm. 35, 76–80 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny, and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, “Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323–6 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems,”Phys. Rev. A 19, 248–262 (1979).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Analytic approximations in multi-level excitation theory,”Opt. Comm. 24, 83–88 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula, and I. Bialynicki-Birula, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038–47 (1977).
[Crossref]

Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048–2054 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, “Atomic relaxation in the presence of intense partially coherent radiation fields,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1387–90 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt and J. H. Eberly, “Coherence versus incoherence in stepwise laser excitation of atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1705–10 (1976).
[Crossref]

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, N.Y., 1975)

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media,”in Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators ed. J. Chandra and A. C. Scott (North-Holland, N.Y., 1983).

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Modeling propagation of coherent optical pulses through molecular vapor,”in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81 ed. C. B. Collins (STS Press, McLean, Va., 1981),

Emmett, J. L.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, and J. I. Davis, “Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,”IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[Crossref]

Fabre, F.

F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite, and M. Clement, “Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m,”J. Phys. B 14, L677–81 (1981).
[Crossref]

Feynman, R. P.

R. P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965)

Gardiner, C. W.

C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Processes (Springer, Heidelberg, 1985).

Gaubatz, U.

U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann, and K. Bergmann, “Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results,”J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe, and K. Bergmann, “Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741–44 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gray, H. R.

H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, “Coherent trapping of atomic populations,”Opt. Letts. 3, 218–220 (1978).
[Crossref]

Greenland, P. T.

P. T. Greenland, “Laser Isotope Separation,”Contemporary Physics 31, 405–424 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hibbs, A. R.

R. P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965)

Hioe, F. T.

J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe, and K. Bergmann, “Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741–44 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatic following in multilevel systems,”Phys. Rev. 29, 690–7 (1984).
[Crossref]

Holtz, J. Z.

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, and M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser FocusSept. 1982, 49–54 (1982).

III,

J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell, and D. C. Cartwright, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,”in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O. Scully, and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),

Isakov, V. A.

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

Javanainen, J.

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

Johnson, M. A.

B. W. Shore and M. A. Johnson, “Effects of hyperfine structure on coherent excitation,”Phys. Rev. A 23, 1608–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

Karlov, N. V.

N. V. Karlov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Laser isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 19, 285–300 (1976).
[Crossref]

Knight, P. L.

P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder, and B. J. Dalton, “Laser-induced continuum structure,”Phys. Reports 190, 1–61 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight, “Enhancement of high optical harmonics by excess-photon ionisation,” J. Phys. B 20, 413–423 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, “Population trapping and dispersion in a three-level system,”J. Phys. B 15, 561–73 (1982).
[Crossref]

Konopnicki, M. A.

J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki, and B. W. Shore, “The influence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule,”Opt. Comm. 35, 76–80 (1980).
[Crossref]

Konopnicki, M. J.

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567–83 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond, and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses,”Opt. Comm. 36, 313–16 (1981).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W. F.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, and J. I. Davis, “Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,”IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, A.

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuklinski, J. R.

J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe, and K. Bergmann, “Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741–44 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

J. H. Eberly and K. C. Kulander, “Atomic stabilization by super-intense lasers,”Science 262, 1229–33 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. II. Single-atom spectrum for xenon,”JOSA B 7, 502–8 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and K. C. Kulander, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. I. Propagation effects,”J. Mod. Opt. 36, 857–876 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe,”Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–26 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kyrola, E.

E. Kyrola and J. H. Eberly, “Quasicontinuum effects in molecular excitation,”J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1841–54 (1985).
[Crossref]

Lauder, M. A.

P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder, and B. J. Dalton, “Laser-induced continuum structure,”Phys. Reports 190, 1–61 (1990).
[Crossref]

Letokhov, V. S.

Markin, E. P.

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

Mirage, A.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Morris, J. R.

J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, “Reduction of degenerate two-level excitation to independent two-state systems,”Phys. Rev. A 27, 906–912 (1983).
[Crossref]

Narozhny, N. B.

J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny, and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, “Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323–6 (1980).
[Crossref]

Neri, J. W.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oraevskii, A. N.

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

Oreg, J.

J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatic following in multilevel systems,”Phys. Rev. 29, 690–7 (1984).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orriols, G.

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Non-absorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in three-level optical pumping,”Nuov. Cim. Letts. 17, 333–338 (1976).
[Crossref]

Oseledchik, Y. S.

A. I. Burshtein and Y. S. Oseledchik, “Relaxation in a system subjected to suddenly changing perturbations in the presence of correlation between successive values of the perturbation,”Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 716–724 (1967).

Petite, G.

F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite, and M. Clement, “Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m,”J. Phys. B 14, L677–81 (1981).
[Crossref]

Prokhorov, A. M.

N. V. Karlov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Laser isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 19, 285–300 (1976).
[Crossref]

Radmore, P. M.

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, “Population trapping and dispersion in a three-level system,”J. Phys. B 15, 561–73 (1982).
[Crossref]

Riva, R.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, N. A. S.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Romanenko, V. I.

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

Roso-Franco, L.

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rudecki, P.

U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann, and K. Bergmann, “Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results,”J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny, and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, “Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323–6 (1980).
[Crossref]

Schiemann, S.

U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann, and K. Bergmann, “Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results,”J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwab, C.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shore, B. W.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,”Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. II. Single-atom spectrum for xenon,”JOSA B 7, 502–8 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe,”Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–26 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Shore and K. C. Kulander, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. I. Propagation effects,”J. Mod. Opt. 36, 857–876 (1989).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight, “Enhancement of high optical harmonics by excess-photon ionisation,” J. Phys. B 20, 413–423 (1987).
[Crossref]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions,” JOSA B1, 398–405 (1984).

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency fluctuations and nonexponential correlations,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390–2398 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz, and B. W. Shore, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381–2388 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, “Reduction of degenerate two-level excitation to independent two-state systems,”Phys. Rev. A 27, 906–912 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore, “Coherence in the quasi-continuum model,”Chem. Phys. Letts. 99, 240 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and M. A. Johnson, “Effects of hyperfine structure on coherent excitation,”Phys. Rev. A 23, 1608–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki, and B. W. Shore, “The influence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule,”Opt. Comm. 35, 76–80 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules III. An analytically soluble periodic case,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 539–544 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems,”Phys. Rev. A 19, 248–262 (1979).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Analytic approximations in multi-level excitation theory,”Opt. Comm. 24, 83–88 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula, and I. Bialynicki-Birula, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038–47 (1977).
[Crossref]

Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048–2054 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore, “Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 277–82 (1977).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and J. Ackerhalt, “Dynamics of multilevel laser excitation: Three-level atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 15, 1640–1646 (1977).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, N.Y., 1990).

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bergmann and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer,”in Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping ed. H. L. Dai and R. W. Field (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995),
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore, “Inaccessible populations in multistep ionization,”ed. (LLNL TAMP memo (unpublished), 1976).

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media,”in Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators ed. J. Chandra and A. C. Scott (North-Holland, N.Y., 1983).

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Modeling propagation of coherent optical pulses through molecular vapor,”in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81 ed. C. B. Collins (STS Press, McLean, Va., 1981),

Silveira, C. A. B.

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Spaeth, M. L.

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, and M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser FocusSept. 1982, 49–54 (1982).

Stroud, C. R.

H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, “Coherent trapping of atomic populations,”Opt. Letts. 3, 218–220 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, “Double optical resonance,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498–1512 (1976).
[Crossref]

Su, Q.

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

Theuer, H.

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,”Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Whitley, R. M.

H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, “Coherent trapping of atomic populations,”Opt. Letts. 3, 218–220 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, “Double optical resonance,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498–1512 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wodkiewicz, K.

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency fluctuations and nonexponential correlations,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390–2398 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz, and B. W. Shore, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381–2388 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions,” JOSA B1, 398–405 (1984).

Yeh, J. J.

J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden, and J. H. Eberly, “Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum,”J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936–46 (1982).
[Crossref]

Zoller, P.

P. Zoller, “Ac Stark splitting in double optical resonance and resonance fluorescence by a non-monochromatic chaotic field,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 1019–1031 (1979).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Letts. (1)

B. W. Shore, “Coherence in the quasi-continuum model,”Chem. Phys. Letts. 99, 240 (1983).
[Crossref]

Contemporary Physics (1)

P. T. Greenland, “Laser Isotope Separation,”Contemporary Physics 31, 405–424 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quant. Elec. (1)

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, and J. I. Davis, “Laser R & D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,”IEEE J. Quant. Elec. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

U. Gaubatz, P. Rudecki, S. Schiemann, and K. Bergmann, “Population transfer between molecular vibrational levels. A new concept and experimental results,”J. Chem. Phys. 92, 5363–76 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. J. Yeh, C. M. Bowden, and J. H. Eberly, “Interrupted coarse-grained theory of unimolecular relaxation and stimulated recurrences in photoexcitation of a quasicontinuum,”J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5936–46 (1982).
[Crossref]

E. Kyrola and J. H. Eberly, “Quasicontinuum effects in molecular excitation,”J. Chem. Phys. 82, 1841–54 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

B. W. Shore and K. C. Kulander, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. I. Propagation effects,”J. Mod. Opt. 36, 857–876 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (5)

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Variation of above-threshold ionisation power law behavior,”J. Phys. B 18, L287–L291 (1985).
[Crossref]

F. Fabre, P. Agostini, G. Petite, and M. Clement, “Angular distribution in above-threshold ionisation of Xe at 0.53 mu m,”J. Phys. B 14, L677–81 (1981).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight, “Enhancement of high optical harmonics by excess-photon ionisation,” J. Phys. B 20, 413–423 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Avan and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Two-level atom saturated by a fluctuating resonant laser beam. Calculation of the fluorescence spectrum,”J. Phys. B 10, 155–170 (1977).
[Crossref]

P. M. Radmore and P. L. Knight, “Population trapping and dispersion in a three-level system,”J. Phys. B 15, 561–73 (1982).
[Crossref]

JOSA (1)

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Pre-Gaussian noise in strong laser-atom interactions,” JOSA B1, 398–405 (1984).

JOSA B (3)

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Multiphoton absorption above ionization threshold by atoms in strong laser fields,”JOSA B 2, 486–493 (1985).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Generation of optical harmonics by intense pulses of laser radiation. II. Single-atom spectrum for xenon,”JOSA B 7, 502–8 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, J. Javanainen, K. C. Kulander, B. W. Shore, and L. Roso-Franco, “High-order harmonic generation during multiphoton ionization of gases,”JOSA B 6, 1289–98 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nuov. Cim. Letts. (1)

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Non-absorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in three-level optical pumping,”Nuov. Cim. Letts. 17, 333–338 (1976).
[Crossref]

Opt. Comm. (3)

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Analytic approximations in multi-level excitation theory,”Opt. Comm. 24, 83–88 (1978).
[Crossref]

M. J. Konopnicki, P. D. Drummond, and J. H. Eberly, “Theory of lossless propagation of simultaneous different-wavelength optical pulses,”Opt. Comm. 36, 313–16 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, M. A. Konopnicki, and B. W. Shore, “The influence of propagation on off-resonant excitation of a model molecule,”Opt. Comm. 35, 76–80 (1980).
[Crossref]

Opt. Letts. (1)

H. R. Gray, R. M. Whitley, and C. R. Stroud, “Coherent trapping of atomic populations,”Opt. Letts. 3, 218–220 (1978).
[Crossref]

Phys. Reports (1)

P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder, and B. J. Dalton, “Laser-induced continuum structure,”Phys. Reports 190, 1–61 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Oreg, F. T. Hioe, and J. H. Eberly, “Adiabatic following in multilevel systems,”Phys. Rev. 29, 690–7 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (15)

J. R. Ackerhalt and J. H. Eberly, “Coherence versus incoherence in stepwise laser excitation of atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1705–10 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore, “Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 277–82 (1977).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and J. Ackerhalt, “Dynamics of multilevel laser excitation: Three-level atoms,”Phys. Rev. A 15, 1640–1646 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. R. Ackerhalt, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Statistical broadening and population loss in strongly excited three-level systems,”Phys. Rev. A 19, 248–262 (1979).
[Crossref]

Z. Bialynicka-Birula, I. Bialynicki-Birula, J. H. Eberly, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-Level atoms and molecules. II. Analytic solutions,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2048–2054 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, B. W. Shore, Z. Bialynicka-Birula, and I. Bialynicki-Birula, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules I. Numerical experiments,”Phys. Rev. A 16, 2038–47 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook and B. W. Shore, “Coherent dynamics of N-level atoms and molecules III. An analytically soluble periodic case,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 539–544 (1979).
[Crossref]

B. W. Shore and M. A. Johnson, “Effects of hyperfine structure on coherent excitation,”Phys. Rev. A 23, 1608–1610 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. R. Morris and B. W. Shore, “Reduction of degenerate two-level excitation to independent two-state systems,”Phys. Rev. A 27, 906–912 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. R. Kuklinski, U. Gaubatz, F. T. Hioe, and K. Bergmann, “Adiabatic population transfer in a three-level system driven by delayed laser pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 40, 6741–44 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Whitley and C. R. Stroud, “Double optical resonance,”Phys. Rev. A 14, 1498–1512 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. J. Konopnicki and J. H. Eberly, “Simultaneous propagation of short different-wavelength optical pulses,”Phys. Rev. A 24, 2567–83 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. Zoller, “Ac Stark splitting in double optical resonance and resonance fluorescence by a non-monochromatic chaotic field,”Phys. Rev. A 20, 1019–1031 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, K. Wodkiewicz, and B. W. Shore, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Phase telegraph noise,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2381–2388 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Wodkiewicz, B. W. Shore, and J. H. Eberly, “Noise in strong laser-atom interactions: Frequency fluctuations and nonexponential correlations,”Phys. Rev. A 30, 2390–2398 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. C. Kulander and B. W. Shore, “Calculations of multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064-nm radiation in Xe,”Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 524–26 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Letts. (4)

Z. Deng and J. H. Eberly, “Effect of coherent continuum-continuum relaxation and saturation in multiphoton ionization,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 53, 1810–1813 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, “Atomic relaxation in the presence of intense partially coherent radiation fields,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1387–90 (1976).
[Crossref]

G. S. Agarwal, “Exact solution for the influence of laser temporal fluctuations on resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Letts. 37, 1383–86 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, N. B. Narozhny, and J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, “Periodic spontaneous collapse and revival in a simple quantum model,”Phys. Rev. Letts. 44, 1323–6 (1980).
[Crossref]

Prog. Optics (2)

E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,”Prog. Optics 35, 259–356 (1996).

V. S. Letokhov, “Laser selective photophysics and photochemistry,”Prog. Optics 16, 1–69 (1978).
[Crossref]

Progress in Nuclear Energy (1)

C. Schwab, A. J. Damiao, C. A. B. Silveira, J. W. Neri, M. G. Destro, N. A. S. Rodrigues, R. Riva, and A. Mirage, “Laser techniques applied to isotope separation of uranium,”Progress in Nuclear Energy 33, 217–264 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

K. Bergmann, H. Theuer, and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer among quantum states of atoms and molecules,”Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1003–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

J. H. Eberly and K. C. Kulander, “Atomic stabilization by super-intense lasers,”Science 262, 1229–33 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. I. Burshtein and Y. S. Oseledchik, “Relaxation in a system subjected to suddenly changing perturbations in the presence of correlation between successive values of the perturbation,”Sov. Phys. JETP 24, 716–724 (1967).

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

A. I. Burshtein, “External relaxation,”Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 908–917 (1963).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (2)

N. V. Karlov and A. M. Prokhorov, “Laser isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 19, 285–300 (1976).
[Crossref]

N. G. Basov, E. M. Belenov, V. A. Isakov, E. P. Markin, A. N. Oraevskii, and V. I. Romanenko, “New methods of isotope separation,”Sov. Phys. Usp. 20, 209–25 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (12)

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, and M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser FocusSept. 1982, 49–54 (1982).

“Atomic vapor laser isotope separation program: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, first session, on the status of the Department of Energy’s atomic vapor laser isotope separation program, September 24, 1991,”(U.S. G.P.O. For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, Washington, 1991).

J. P. Aldridge, III, J. H. Birely, C. D. Cantrell, and D. C. Cartwright, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser isotope separation,”in Laser Photochemistry, Tunable Lasers and Other Topics ed. S. F. Jacobs, M. Sargent, III, M. O. Scully, and C. T. Walker (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976),

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, N.Y., 1990).

B. W. Shore, “Inaccessible populations in multistep ionization,”ed. (LLNL TAMP memo (unpublished), 1976).

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two Level Atoms (Dover, N.Y., 1975)

B. W. Shore, K. Bergmann, A. Kuhn, S. Schiemann, J. Oreg, and J. H. Eberly, “Laser-induced population transfer in multistate systems: a compartive study,”Phys. Rev. A45, (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bergmann and B. W. Shore, “Coherent population transfer,”in Molecular Dynamics and Spectroscopy by Stimulated Emission Pumping ed. H. L. Dai and R. W. Field (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995),
[Crossref]

R. P. Feynman and A. R. Hibbs, Quantum Mechanics and Path Integrals (McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1965)

C. W. Gardiner, Handbook of Stochastic Processes (Springer, Heidelberg, 1985).

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media,”in Coupled Nonlinear Oscillators ed. J. Chandra and A. C. Scott (North-Holland, N.Y., 1983).

B. W. Shore and J. H. Eberly, “Modeling propagation of coherent optical pulses through molecular vapor,”in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’81 ed. C. B. Collins (STS Press, McLean, Va., 1981),

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of resonant laser excitation of a chain of N energy levels, followed by ionization. Excitation energy increases upwards. Vertical red arrows indicate connections induced by various lasers. Horizontal arrow indicates (ionization) probability loss.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time dependence of resonant excitation probability P e(t) for lossless two-level atom. Monotonic green curve is for rate equations, oscillatory red curve is for the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (oscillation frequency is the Rabi frequency).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time dependence of resonant excitation probabilities Pn (t) for two-level atom with loss from upper level. Curves are marked with level number n. Times are in units of the loss rate; the Rabi frequency is twice this rate. The diagram at the left shows the laser-induced excitation linkage between the two levels. All population is eventually lost.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time dependence of resonant excitation probabilities Pn (t) for three-level lambda system, with loss from level 2, for population initially all in level 1. Curves are marked with level number n. Times are in units of the loss rate; the Rabi frequencies are each twice this rate. The diagram at the left shows the laser-induced excitation linkages between the three levels. After a long time one fourth the population resides in level 1 and another fourth in level 3; only half has been lost.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example of linkages of linearly polarized light between magnetic sublevels of a transition between angular momentum J=1 and J=0. (a) Using a coordinate system in which the z (quantization) axis lies along the electric field. (b) Using a coordinate system in which the electric field direction is taken as the x axis, and the light is considered a coherent superposition of right- and left-circular polarization. This is an example of the lambda system of Fig. 4; it is equivalent to the linkage of (a).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Examples of resonant N-level linkages in a lossless excitation chain. From left to right N=2, 3, 4 and 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Example of linkage pattern such as would be found with degenerate hyperfine interaction, F=5/2 to F=3/2. (b) Equivalent system is four independent two-state systems, and two unconnected (“dark”) states.

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