Abstract

We have examined noise behavior and polarization correlations in the output of a pulsed, multitransverse-mode, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). We have measured the output of the laser simultaneously in two orthogonal, linear polarizations as a function of drive current for pulse widths of 3 ns, 10 ns, and 30 ns. We present joint probability distributions for the number of detected photoelectrons in each of the two polarization-resolved outputs. The joint distributions indicate that the correlations can be quite complicated, and are not completely described by a single number (i.e., the correlation coefficient). Furthermore, we find that the number of lasing modes appears to be the most important parameter in determining the degree of polarization correlation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. J. Chang-Hasnam, “Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Past, Present, and Future, G. P. Agrawal, ed. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1995), pp. 145–180.
  2. F. Koyama, K. Mont, and K. Iga, “Intensity noise and polarization stability of GaAlAs-GaAs surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410–1416 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. D.C. Kilper, P.A. Roos, J.L. Carlsten, and K.L. Lear, “Squeezed light generated by a microcavity laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R3323–R3326 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. M.P. vanExter, M.B. Willemsen, and J.P. Woerdman, “Polarization fluctuations in vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4191–4205 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Elsäßer, “Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284–3295 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. M.B. Willemsen, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, “Correlated fluctuations in the polarization modes of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4105–4113 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2141–2143 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and performance of free-space optical links based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 703–705 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. T.W.S. Garrison, M. Beck, and D.H. Christensen, “Noise behavior of pulsed vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2124–2130 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. K.D. Choquette, R.P. Schneider, and K.L. Lear, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 661–666 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J.V. Molony, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728–1739 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K.A. Shore, “Polarization behavior of birefringent multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 557–559 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. While quantum mechanics states that losses can significantly effect correlations between optical fields, we find that the measured noise levels of our fields are more than an order of magnitude above the shot-noise level. This means that the fields are well described by classical mechanics, and we do not anticipate that this additional loss will impact the results described here.
  18. J.P. Hermier, A. Bramati, A.Z. Khoury, E. Giacobino, J.P. Poizat, T.J. Chang, and P. Grangier, “Spatial quantum noise of semiconductor lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2140–2146 (1999).
    [Crossref]

1999 (4)

J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Elsäßer, “Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284–3295 (1999).
[Crossref]

M.B. Willemsen, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, “Correlated fluctuations in the polarization modes of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4105–4113 (1999).
[Crossref]

T.W.S. Garrison, M. Beck, and D.H. Christensen, “Noise behavior of pulsed vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2124–2130 (1999).
[Crossref]

J.P. Hermier, A. Bramati, A.Z. Khoury, E. Giacobino, J.P. Poizat, T.J. Chang, and P. Grangier, “Spatial quantum noise of semiconductor lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2140–2146 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
[Crossref]

M.P. vanExter, M.B. Willemsen, and J.P. Woerdman, “Polarization fluctuations in vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4191–4205 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D.C. Kilper, P.A. Roos, J.L. Carlsten, and K.L. Lear, “Squeezed light generated by a microcavity laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R3323–R3326 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K.A. Shore, “Polarization behavior of birefringent multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 557–559 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and performance of free-space optical links based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 703–705 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (4)

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

K.D. Choquette, R.P. Schneider, and K.L. Lear, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J.V. Molony, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

F. Koyama, K. Mont, and K. Iga, “Intensity noise and polarization stability of GaAlAs-GaAs surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410–1416 (1991).
[Crossref]

Auen, K.

J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Elsäßer, “Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284–3295 (1999).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

Bramati, A.

Carlsten, J.L.

D.C. Kilper, P.A. Roos, J.L. Carlsten, and K.L. Lear, “Squeezed light generated by a microcavity laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R3323–R3326 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, T.J.

Chang-Hasnam, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnam, “Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Past, Present, and Future, G. P. Agrawal, ed. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1995), pp. 145–180.

Choquette, K.D.

K.D. Choquette, R.P. Schneider, and K.L. Lear, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Christensen, D.H.

Danckaert, J.

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

Degen, C.

J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Elsäßer, “Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284–3295 (1999).
[Crossref]

Elsäßer, W.

J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Elsäßer, “Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284–3295 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J.V. Molony, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabrysch, M.

G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Garrison, T.W.S.

Giacobino, E.

Giacomelli, G.

G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Giudici, M

M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grangier, P.

Gulden, K.H.

G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hatori, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, Y.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hermier, J.P.

Iga, K.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Koyama, K. Mont, and K. Iga, “Intensity noise and polarization stability of GaAlAs-GaAs surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410–1416 (1991).
[Crossref]

Khoury, A.Z.

Kilper, D.C.

D.C. Kilper, P.A. Roos, J.L. Carlsten, and K.L. Lear, “Squeezed light generated by a microcavity laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R3323–R3326 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koyama, F.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Koyama, K. Mont, and K. Iga, “Intensity noise and polarization stability of GaAlAs-GaAs surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410–1416 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kuksenkov, D.V.

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and performance of free-space optical links based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 703–705 (1996).
[Crossref]

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kyvkin, B.

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lear, K.L.

D.C. Kilper, P.A. Roos, J.L. Carlsten, and K.L. Lear, “Squeezed light generated by a microcavity laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R3323–R3326 (1997).
[Crossref]

K.D. Choquette, R.P. Schneider, and K.L. Lear, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Martin, F.

G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Menoni, C.S.

M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
[Crossref]

Molony, J.V.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J.V. Molony, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mont, K.

F. Koyama, K. Mont, and K. Iga, “Intensity noise and polarization stability of GaAlAs-GaAs surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410–1416 (1991).
[Crossref]

Moser, M.

G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mukaihara, T.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ohnoki, N.

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

Panajotov, K.

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peeters, M.

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pesquera, L.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K.A. Shore, “Polarization behavior of birefringent multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 557–559 (1997).
[Crossref]

Poizat, J.P.

Rocca, J.J.

M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
[Crossref]

Roos, P.A.

D.C. Kilper, P.A. Roos, J.L. Carlsten, and K.L. Lear, “Squeezed light generated by a microcavity laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R3323–R3326 (1997).
[Crossref]

San Miguel, M.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J.V. Molony, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, R.P.

K.D. Choquette, R.P. Schneider, and K.L. Lear, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shore, K.A.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K.A. Shore, “Polarization behavior of birefringent multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 557–559 (1997).
[Crossref]

Swirhun, S.

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and performance of free-space optical links based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 703–705 (1996).
[Crossref]

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Temkin, H.

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and performance of free-space optical links based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 703–705 (1996).
[Crossref]

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tredicce, J.R.

M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
[Crossref]

Valle, A.

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K.A. Shore, “Polarization behavior of birefringent multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 557–559 (1997).
[Crossref]

van Exter, M.P.

M.B. Willemsen, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, “Correlated fluctuations in the polarization modes of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4105–4113 (1999).
[Crossref]

vanExter, M.P.

M.P. vanExter, M.B. Willemsen, and J.P. Woerdman, “Polarization fluctuations in vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4191–4205 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vaschenko, G.

M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
[Crossref]

Veretennicoff, I.

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

Vey, J.-L.

J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Elsäßer, “Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284–3295 (1999).
[Crossref]

Willemsen, M.B.

M.B. Willemsen, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, “Correlated fluctuations in the polarization modes of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4105–4113 (1999).
[Crossref]

M.P. vanExter, M.B. Willemsen, and J.P. Woerdman, “Polarization fluctuations in vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4191–4205 (1998).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J.P.

M.B. Willemsen, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, “Correlated fluctuations in the polarization modes of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4105–4113 (1999).
[Crossref]

M.P. vanExter, M.B. Willemsen, and J.P. Woerdman, “Polarization fluctuations in vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4191–4205 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and relative intensity noise in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2141–2143 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Koyama, K. Mont, and K. Iga, “Intensity noise and polarization stability of GaAlAs-GaAs surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1410–1416 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

K.D. Choquette, R.P. Schneider, and K.L. Lear, “Gain-dependent polarization properties of vertical cavity lasers,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 661–666 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (2)

A. Valle, L. Pesquera, and K.A. Shore, “Polarization behavior of birefringent multitransverse mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 557–559 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Panajotov, B. Kyvkin, J. Danckaert, M. Peeters, H. Thienpont, and I. Veretennicoff, “Polarization switching in VCSEL’s due to thermal lensing,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 10, 6–8 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Mukaihara, N. Ohnoki, Y. Hayashi, N. Hatori, F. Koyama, and K. Iga, “Excess intensity noise originated from polarization fluctuation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1113–1115 (1995).
[Crossref]

D.V. Kuksenkov, H. Temkin, and S. Swirhun, “Polarization instability and performance of free-space optical links based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 703–705 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Comm. (2)

M Giudici, J.R. Tredicce, G. Vaschenko, J.J. Rocca, and C.S. Menoni, “Spatio-temporal dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Opt. Comm. 158, 313–321 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Giacomelli, F. Martin, M. Gabrysch, K.H. Gulden, and M. Moser, “Polarization competition and noise properties of VCSELs,” Opt. Comm. 146, 136–140 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Elsäßer, “Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284–3295 (1999).
[Crossref]

M.B. Willemsen, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, “Correlated fluctuations in the polarization modes of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 4105–4113 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.C. Kilper, P.A. Roos, J.L. Carlsten, and K.L. Lear, “Squeezed light generated by a microcavity laser,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R3323–R3326 (1997).
[Crossref]

M.P. vanExter, M.B. Willemsen, and J.P. Woerdman, “Polarization fluctuations in vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 4191–4205 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J.V. Molony, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1728–1739 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. J. Chang-Hasnam, “Vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” in Semiconductor Lasers: Past, Present, and Future, G. P. Agrawal, ed. (American Institute of Physics, Melville, N.Y., 1995), pp. 145–180.

While quantum mechanics states that losses can significantly effect correlations between optical fields, we find that the measured noise levels of our fields are more than an order of magnitude above the shot-noise level. This means that the fields are well described by classical mechanics, and we do not anticipate that this additional loss will impact the results described here.

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (1376 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (595 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (979 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (847 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plot of the mean (a) and variance (b) of the number of photoelectrons as a function of drive current for 10 ns pulses. Data is shown for the individual polarizations and the total output. Arrows indicate current values where new modes turn on, and are labeled by the polarization of the new mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distributions at a drive current of 3.3 mA (one mode lasing) for 10 ns pulses: a) joint distribution p(n 0, n 90), b) distribution for the 90° output, c) distribution for the 0° output, d) distribution for the total output.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

[a) 1.4 MB, b) 600 KB] Animation of P(n 0, n 90) as a function of drive current for 10 ns pulses: a) closeup of the shape of the distributions, b) all distributions shown on the same scale.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The correlation coefficient and polarization splitting ratio are plotted as a function of laser drive current for 10 ns pulses. Arrows indicate current values where new modes turn on, and are labeled by the polarization of the new mode.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

[a) 980 KB, b) 850 KB] Animation of P(n 0, n 90) as a function of drive current: a) 3 ns duration pulses, b) 30 ns duration pulses.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The correlation coefficient (a) and the polarization splitting ratio (b) are plotted as a function of normalized drive current for three different pulse durations.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The relative noise is plotted as a function of normalized drive current for three different pulse durations.

Equations (5)

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n 0 n 90 P ( n 0 , n 90 ) δ n 0 δ n 90 = 1 ,
P ( n 90 ) = n 0 P ( n 0 , n 90 ) δ n 0 .
C 0,90 = ( n 0 n 0 ) ( n 90 n 90 ) σ 0 σ 90 = n 0 n 90 n 0 n 90 σ 0 σ 90 ,
M = n 90 n 0 .
RN = ( Δ n t ) 2 n t 2 .

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