Abstract

We discuss directional dependence in the time development of spatial wavefunctions, which includes jet formation, for two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields. Two competing scenarios for double ionization are evident: (1) both electrons emerge simultaneously from the core region and on the same side of the nucleus, and (2) the electrons detach on opposite sides but not simultaneously. The importance of the electron-electron repulsion contribution to the competing processes is investigated for various laser intensities.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Walkeret al., “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. Sheehyet al., “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M.V. Ammosov, N.B. Delone, and V.P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).
  5. S. Larochele, A. Talebpour, and S.L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 29, L197 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. H. M. Faisal and A. Becker, “Nonsequential double ionization: mechanism and model formula,” Laser Phys. 7, 684 (1997).
  8. D. Bauer, “Two-dimensional, two-electron model atom in a laser pulse: Exact treatment, single-active-electron analysis, time-dependent density-functional theory, classical calculations, and non-sequential ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3028 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. B. Watsonet al., “Nonsequential Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Burnettet al., “Multi-electron Response to Intense Laser Fields,” Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 356, 317 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Pindzola, F. Robicheaux, and P. Gavras, “Double multiphoton ionization of a model atom,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1307 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Lappas and R. Leeuwen, “Electron correlation effects in the double ionization of He,” J. Phys. B 31, L249 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W.-C. Liu, J.H. Eberly, S.L. Haan, and R. Grobe, “Correlation Effects in Two-Electron Model Atoms in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 520 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Parker, K. T. Taylor, C. W. Clark, and S. Blodgett-Ford, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of a two-electron atom,” J. Phys. B 29, L33 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Th. Weberet al., “Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Th. Weberet al., “Sequential and nonsequential contributions to double ionization in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. B 33, L127 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Th. Weberet al., “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Moshammeret al., “Momentum Distributions of Nen+Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Szymanowski, R. Panfili, W.-C. Liu, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, “Role of the correlation charge in the double ionization of two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 055401 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M.S. Pindzola, D.C. Griffin, and C. Bottcher, “Validity of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for the multiphoton ionization of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2305 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “Photoelectron spectra for a two-electron system in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2905 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Q. Su and J.H. Eberly, “Model atom for multiphoton physics,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5997 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J.H. Eberly, R. Grobe, C.K. Law, and Q. Su, “Numerical experiments in strong and super-strong fields,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila, 301 (Academic Press, Boston), 1992.
  26. R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “One-dimensional model of a negative ion and its interaction with laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4664 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S.L. Haan, R. Grobe, and J.H. Eberly, “Numerical study of autoionizing states in completely correlated two-electron systems,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 378 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “On the mechanism of strong-field double photoionization in the helium atom,” J. Phys. B 33, 433 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Dörr, “Double ionization in a one-cycle laser pulse,” Optics Express 6, 111 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/19114.htm
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Grobe, S.L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “A split-domain algorithm for time-dependent multi-electron wave functions,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 117, 200 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Heather and H. Metiu, “An efficient procedure for calculating the evolution of the wave function by fast Fourier transformmethods for systems with spatially extended wave function and localized potential,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5009 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J.H. Eberly, W.-C. Liu, and S.L. Haan, “The role of correlation in non-sequential double ionization,” in press in Multiphoton Processes, ed. by J. Keene, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander (AIP Press, New York, 2000).

2000 (7)

Th. Weberet al., “Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Weberet al., “Sequential and nonsequential contributions to double ionization in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. B 33, L127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Th. Weberet al., “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Moshammeret al., “Momentum Distributions of Nen+Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Szymanowski, R. Panfili, W.-C. Liu, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, “Role of the correlation charge in the double ionization of two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “On the mechanism of strong-field double photoionization in the helium atom,” J. Phys. B 33, 433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Dörr, “Double ionization in a one-cycle laser pulse,” Optics Express 6, 111 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/19114.htm
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. Grobe, S.L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “A split-domain algorithm for time-dependent multi-electron wave functions,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 117, 200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Liu, J.H. Eberly, S.L. Haan, and R. Grobe, “Correlation Effects in Two-Electron Model Atoms in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehyet al., “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

S. Larochele, A. Talebpour, and S.L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Burnettet al., “Multi-electron Response to Intense Laser Fields,” Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 356, 317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Lappas and R. Leeuwen, “Electron correlation effects in the double ionization of He,” J. Phys. B 31, L249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. S. Pindzola, F. Robicheaux, and P. Gavras, “Double multiphoton ionization of a model atom,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. H. M. Faisal and A. Becker, “Nonsequential double ionization: mechanism and model formula,” Laser Phys. 7, 684 (1997).

D. Bauer, “Two-dimensional, two-electron model atom in a laser pulse: Exact treatment, single-active-electron analysis, time-dependent density-functional theory, classical calculations, and non-sequential ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Watsonet al., “Nonsequential Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 29, L197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Parker, K. T. Taylor, C. W. Clark, and S. Blodgett-Ford, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of a two-electron atom,” J. Phys. B 29, L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

B. Walkeret al., “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.L. Haan, R. Grobe, and J.H. Eberly, “Numerical study of autoionizing states in completely correlated two-electron systems,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 378 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “One-dimensional model of a negative ion and its interaction with laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4664 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “Photoelectron spectra for a two-electron system in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M.S. Pindzola, D.C. Griffin, and C. Bottcher, “Validity of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for the multiphoton ionization of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Su and J.H. Eberly, “Model atom for multiphoton physics,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5997 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. Heather and H. Metiu, “An efficient procedure for calculating the evolution of the wave function by fast Fourier transformmethods for systems with spatially extended wave function and localized potential,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M.V. Ammosov, N.B. Delone, and V.P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Ammosov, M.V.

M.V. Ammosov, N.B. Delone, and V.P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer, “Two-dimensional, two-electron model atom in a laser pulse: Exact treatment, single-active-electron analysis, time-dependent density-functional theory, classical calculations, and non-sequential ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Becker, A.

F. H. M. Faisal and A. Becker, “Nonsequential double ionization: mechanism and model formula,” Laser Phys. 7, 684 (1997).

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 29, L197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blodgett-Ford, S.

J. Parker, K. T. Taylor, C. W. Clark, and S. Blodgett-Ford, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of a two-electron atom,” J. Phys. B 29, L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bottcher, C.

M.S. Pindzola, D.C. Griffin, and C. Bottcher, “Validity of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for the multiphoton ionization of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

K. Burnettet al., “Multi-electron Response to Intense Laser Fields,” Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 356, 317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S.L.

S. Larochele, A. Talebpour, and S.L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. W.

J. Parker, K. T. Taylor, C. W. Clark, and S. Blodgett-Ford, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of a two-electron atom,” J. Phys. B 29, L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N.B.

M.V. Ammosov, N.B. Delone, and V.P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Dörr, M.

M. Dörr, “Double ionization in a one-cycle laser pulse,” Optics Express 6, 111 (2000). http://www.opticsexpress.org/oearchive/source/19114.htm
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

R. Grobe, S.L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “A split-domain algorithm for time-dependent multi-electron wave functions,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 117, 200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J.H.

C. Szymanowski, R. Panfili, W.-C. Liu, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, “Role of the correlation charge in the double ionization of two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Liu, J.H. Eberly, S.L. Haan, and R. Grobe, “Correlation Effects in Two-Electron Model Atoms in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.L. Haan, R. Grobe, and J.H. Eberly, “Numerical study of autoionizing states in completely correlated two-electron systems,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 378 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “One-dimensional model of a negative ion and its interaction with laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4664 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “Photoelectron spectra for a two-electron system in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Su and J.H. Eberly, “Model atom for multiphoton physics,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5997 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Eberly, R. Grobe, C.K. Law, and Q. Su, “Numerical experiments in strong and super-strong fields,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila, 301 (Academic Press, Boston), 1992.

J.H. Eberly, W.-C. Liu, and S.L. Haan, “The role of correlation in non-sequential double ionization,” in press in Multiphoton Processes, ed. by J. Keene, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander (AIP Press, New York, 2000).

Engel, V.

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “On the mechanism of strong-field double photoionization in the helium atom,” J. Phys. B 33, 433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faisal, F. H. M.

F. H. M. Faisal and A. Becker, “Nonsequential double ionization: mechanism and model formula,” Laser Phys. 7, 684 (1997).

A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Mechanism of laser-induced double ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 29, L197 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghof, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gavras, P.

M. S. Pindzola, F. Robicheaux, and P. Gavras, “Double multiphoton ionization of a model atom,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, D.C.

M.S. Pindzola, D.C. Griffin, and C. Bottcher, “Validity of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for the multiphoton ionization of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grobe, R.

R. Grobe, S.L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “A split-domain algorithm for time-dependent multi-electron wave functions,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 117, 200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Liu, J.H. Eberly, S.L. Haan, and R. Grobe, “Correlation Effects in Two-Electron Model Atoms in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.L. Haan, R. Grobe, and J.H. Eberly, “Numerical study of autoionizing states in completely correlated two-electron systems,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 378 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “One-dimensional model of a negative ion and its interaction with laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4664 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Grobe and J.H. Eberly, “Photoelectron spectra for a two-electron system in a strong laser field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2905 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Eberly, R. Grobe, C.K. Law, and Q. Su, “Numerical experiments in strong and super-strong fields,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila, 301 (Academic Press, Boston), 1992.

Gross, E.K.U.

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “On the mechanism of strong-field double photoionization in the helium atom,” J. Phys. B 33, 433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haan, S.L.

C. Szymanowski, R. Panfili, W.-C. Liu, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, “Role of the correlation charge in the double ionization of two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grobe, S.L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “A split-domain algorithm for time-dependent multi-electron wave functions,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 117, 200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Liu, J.H. Eberly, S.L. Haan, and R. Grobe, “Correlation Effects in Two-Electron Model Atoms in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.L. Haan, R. Grobe, and J.H. Eberly, “Numerical study of autoionizing states in completely correlated two-electron systems,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 378 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Eberly, W.-C. Liu, and S.L. Haan, “The role of correlation in non-sequential double ionization,” in press in Multiphoton Processes, ed. by J. Keene, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander (AIP Press, New York, 2000).

Heather, R.

R. Heather and H. Metiu, “An efficient procedure for calculating the evolution of the wave function by fast Fourier transformmethods for systems with spatially extended wave function and localized potential,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V.P.

M.V. Ammosov, N.B. Delone, and V.P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Kulander, K. C.

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lappas, D. G.

D. G. Lappas and R. Leeuwen, “Electron correlation effects in the double ionization of He,” J. Phys. B 31, L249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Larochele, S.

S. Larochele, A. Talebpour, and S.L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Law, C.K.

J.H. Eberly, R. Grobe, C.K. Law, and Q. Su, “Numerical experiments in strong and super-strong fields,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila, 301 (Academic Press, Boston), 1992.

Leeuwen, R.

D. G. Lappas and R. Leeuwen, “Electron correlation effects in the double ionization of He,” J. Phys. B 31, L249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

M. Lein, E.K.U. Gross, and V. Engel, “On the mechanism of strong-field double photoionization in the helium atom,” J. Phys. B 33, 433 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.-C.

C. Szymanowski, R. Panfili, W.-C. Liu, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, “Role of the correlation charge in the double ionization of two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W.-C. Liu, J.H. Eberly, S.L. Haan, and R. Grobe, “Correlation Effects in Two-Electron Model Atoms in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.H. Eberly, W.-C. Liu, and S.L. Haan, “The role of correlation in non-sequential double ionization,” in press in Multiphoton Processes, ed. by J. Keene, L.F. DiMauro, R.R. Freeman, and K.C. Kulander (AIP Press, New York, 2000).

Metiu, H.

R. Heather and H. Metiu, “An efficient procedure for calculating the evolution of the wave function by fast Fourier transformmethods for systems with spatially extended wave function and localized potential,” J. Chem. Phys. 86, 5009 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

R. Moshammeret al., “Momentum Distributions of Nen+Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panfili, R.

C. Szymanowski, R. Panfili, W.-C. Liu, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, “Role of the correlation charge in the double ionization of two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J.

J. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Parker, K. T. Taylor, C. W. Clark, and S. Blodgett-Ford, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of a two-electron atom,” J. Phys. B 29, L33 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pindzola, M. S.

M. S. Pindzola, F. Robicheaux, and P. Gavras, “Double multiphoton ionization of a model atom,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pindzola, M.S.

M.S. Pindzola, D.C. Griffin, and C. Bottcher, “Validity of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for the multiphoton ionization of atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2305 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robicheaux, F.

M. S. Pindzola, F. Robicheaux, and P. Gavras, “Double multiphoton ionization of a model atom,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sheehy, B.

B. Sheehyet al., “Single- and multiple-electron dynamics in the strong-field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 3942 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, E. S.

J. Parker, E. S. Smyth, and K. T. Taylor, “Intense-field multiphoton ionization of helium,” J. Phys. B 31, L571 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Su, Q.

Q. Su and J.H. Eberly, “Model atom for multiphoton physics,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 5997 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Eberly, R. Grobe, C.K. Law, and Q. Su, “Numerical experiments in strong and super-strong fields,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila, 301 (Academic Press, Boston), 1992.

Szymanowski, C.

C. Szymanowski, R. Panfili, W.-C. Liu, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, “Role of the correlation charge in the double ionization of two-electron model atoms exposed to intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 055401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

S. Larochele, A. Talebpour, and S.L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, K. T.

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Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (709 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (809 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (899 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (857 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Animation (0.9 MB) of the time development of |Ψ(x, y)|2 for one-dimensional helium for a four-cycle pulse of intensity 6.5×1014W/cm 2 and frequency 0.1837a.u. The still image is for t=2.875 cycles and shows the jets as well as sequential ionization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Animation (1.0 MB) of the time development of |Ψ(x, y)|2 as for Fig. 1, but viewed from along the line y=x, and truncated at 10-5. The still image is for t=2.25 cycles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Logarithmic contour plots of |Ψ(x, y)|2 vs. x and y after each of the first three cycles of a 6-cycle (2+2+2 trapezoidal) pulse for C=0.9, 1.0, and 1.1. Other parameters are the same as for Figs. 1 and 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Continuation of Fig. 3, showing |Ψ(x, y)|2 vs. x and y after each of the final three cycles of a 6-cycle (2+2+2 trapezoidal) pulse for C=0.9, 1.0, and 1.1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Animation (1.7 MB) of the time development of |Ψ(x, y)|2 as for Fig. 2, but with correlation charge C=1.1 instead of 1.0. The still image shows |Ψ(x, y)|2 at t=2.25 cycles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Linear plots of |Ψ(x, y)|2 vs. x and y at t=1.875 cycles for C=1.0 and 1.1, showing only small enhancement of the sequential ionization for increased C. Laser parameters are as for Figs. 15.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Animation (1.0 MB) of the time development of |Ψ(x, y)|2 for one-dimensional helium for a four-cycle trapezoidal pulse (1+2+1) of intensity 1.0×1015 W/cm 2 and frequency 0.1837a.u.. The still image is for t=2.875 cycles, and shows both jets and sequential ionization.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Linear plots of |Ψ(x, y)|2 vs. x and y at t=2.25 cycles for C=1.0 and 1.1, and for laser parameters of Fig 7. As for the lower intensity, there is an enhancement of the double-ionization jets.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Linear plots of |Ψ(x, y)|2 vs. x and y at t=1.875 cycles for C=1.0 and 1.1, and laser parameters as in Figs. 78. Note that the vertical axis is truncated at larger values than in Fig. 8. At this intensity the sequential ionization begins to dominate the double-ionization jets.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Linear plots of |Ψ(x, y)|2 vs. x and y at t=1.875 cycles (left) and t=2.25 cycles (right) for C=1.0, and laser intensity 3.0×1014 W/cm 2. The laser frequency remains unchanged from earlier plots, and is 0.1837a.u.. The two plots have very different viewpoints.

Equations (2)

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H ( x , y ) = p x 2 2 + p y 2 2 2 x 2 + 1 2 y 2 + 1 + C ( x y ) 2 + 1 + W ( x , y , t )
W ( x , y , t ) = ( x + y ) E 0 f ( t ) sin ω t

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