Abstract

We have developed an instrument for non-invasive optical imaging of the human brain that produces on-line images with a temporal resolution of 160 ms. The imaged quantities are the temporal changes in cerebral oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations. We report real-time videos of the arterial pulsation and motor activation recorded on a 4 x 9 cm 2 area of the cerebral cortex in a healthy human subject. This approach to optical brain imaging is a powerful tool for the investigation of the spatial and temporal features of the optical signals collected on the brain.

© Optical Society of America

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  1. S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, and B. Chance, "Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Localization of Intracranial Hematomas," J. Neurosurg. 79, 43-47 (1993).
  2. Y. Hoshi, S. Mizukami, M. Tamura, "Dynamic features of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the human brain during all-night sleep revealed by near-infrared spectroscopy," Brain Research 652, 257-262 (1994).
  3. Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, "Fluctuations in the cerebral oxygenation state during the resting period in functional mapping studies of the human brain," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 35, 328-330 (1997).
  4. A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS): A New Tool to Study Hemodynamic Changes During Activation of Brain Function in Human Adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).
  5. A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).
  6. G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. M. Corballis, and E. Gratton, "Rapid Changes of Optical Parameters in the Human Brain During a Tapping Task," J. Cognitive Neuroscience 7, 446-456 (1995).
  7. H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hülsing, C. Döge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, "Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174-1183 (1996).
  8. B. Chance, Z. Zhuang, C. UnAh, and L. Lipton, "Cognition-activated low-frequency modulation of light absorption in human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 3770-3774 (1993).
  9. Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, "Detection of Dynamic Changes in Cerebral Oxygenation Coupled to Neuronal Function During Mental Work in Man," Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5-8 (1993).
  10. T. Kato, A. Kamei, S. Takashima, T. Ozaki, "Human visual cortical function during photic stimulation monitoring by means of near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 13, 516-520 (1993).
  11. J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, "Regional Changes in Cerebral Haemodynamics as a Result of a Visual Stimulus Measured by Near Infrared Spectroscopy," Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 261, 351-356 (1995).
  12. H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, H. Wenzel, R. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth and A. Villringer, "Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during substained visual stimulation - a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Proc. R Soc. Lond. B 352, 743-750 (1997).
  13. A. M. Siegel, J. J. A. Marota, and D. Boas, "Design and evaluation of a continuous-wave diffuse optical tomography system," Opt. Express 4, 287-298 (1999). http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/tocv4n8.htm
  14. B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti and R. Thomas, "A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, non-invasively, with light," Opt. Express 2, 411-423 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/framestocv2n10.htm
  15. R. M. Danen, Y. Wang, X. D. Li, W. S. Thayer and A. G. Yodh, "Regional imager for low-resolution functional imaging of the brain with diffusing near-infrared light," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 33-40 (1998).
  16. S. R. Hintz, D. A. Benaron, J. P. van Houten, J. L. Duckworth, F. W. H. Liu, S. D. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson and W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1998).
  17. S. R. Hintz, W.-F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson and D. A. Benaron, "Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: Comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging," Pediatr. Res. 45, 54-59 (1999).
  18. J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).
  19. Y. Shinohara, M. Haida, N. Shinohara, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Itoh and H. Koizumi, "Towards near-infrared imaging of the brain," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 85-89 (1997).
  20. C. Hirth, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Mühlnickl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl and A. Villringer, "Towards brain mapping combining near-infrared spectroscopy and high resolution 3D MRI," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 139-147 (1997).
  21. H. Koizumi, Y. Yamashita, A. Maki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ito, H. Itagaki, and R. Kennan, "Higher-order brain function analysis by trans-cranical dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy imaging,' J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 403-413 (1999).
  22. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, W. Rosenfeld, D. Maulik, P. G. Stubblefield, and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time," Opt. Express 4, 308-314 (1999). http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/tocv4n8.htm
  23. S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-Domain Multichannel Optical Detector for non-Invasive Tissue Spectroscopy and Oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).
  24. M. A. Franceschini, D. Wallace, B. Barbieri, S. Fantini, W. W. Mantulin, S. Pratesi, G. P. Donzelli, and E. Gratton, "Optical Study of the Skeletal Muscle During Exercise with a Second Generation Frequency-Domain Tissue Oximeter," Proc. SPIE 2979, 807-814 (1997).
  25. M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infrared transillumination," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289-294 (1988).
  26. A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Optical pathlenght measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295-304 (1995).
  27. E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka and M. Maris, "Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation," Anal. Biochem. 195, 330-351 (1991).
  28. C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. Valdueza, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Simultaneous assessment of cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics during a motor task," in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XVIII, edited by E. M. Nemoto and J. C. LaManna (Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1997), pp. 461-469.
  29. V. Toronov, M. A. Franceschini, M. Filiaci, M. Wolf, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, "Near-Infrared Study of Fluctuations in Cerebral Hemodynamics During Rest and Motor Stimulation: Spatial Mapping and Temporal Analysis," Med. Phys. (submitted).
  30. M. Kohl, C. Nolte, H. R. Heekeren, S. Horst, U. Scholz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor from near-infrared pulse signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1771-1782 (1998).
  31. G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, "Shades of Gray Matter: Noninvasive Optical Images of Human Brain Responses During Visual Stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).
  32. M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, "Influence of a Superficial Layer in the Quantitative Spectroscopic Study of Strongly Scattering Media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).
  33. M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, and S. Fantini, "Non-Invasive Optical Method to Measure Tissue and Arterial Saturation: an Application to Absolute Pulse Oximetry of the Brain," Opt. Lett. 24 (12), 829-831 (1999).

Other (33)

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, R. G. Grossman, and B. Chance, "Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Localization of Intracranial Hematomas," J. Neurosurg. 79, 43-47 (1993).

Y. Hoshi, S. Mizukami, M. Tamura, "Dynamic features of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the human brain during all-night sleep revealed by near-infrared spectroscopy," Brain Research 652, 257-262 (1994).

Y. Hoshi, M. Tamura, "Fluctuations in the cerebral oxygenation state during the resting period in functional mapping studies of the human brain," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 35, 328-330 (1997).

A. Villringer, J. Planck, C. Hock, L. Schleinkofer, and U. Dirnagl, "Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS): A New Tool to Study Hemodynamic Changes During Activation of Brain Function in Human Adults," Neurosci. Lett. 154, 101-104 (1993).

A. Maki, Y. Yamashita, Y. Ito, E. Watanabe, Y. Mayanagi, H. Koizumi, "Spatial and temporal analysis of human motor activity using noninvasive NIR topography," Med. Phys. 22, 1997-2005 (1995).

G. Gratton, M. Fabiani, D. Friedman, M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, P. M. Corballis, and E. Gratton, "Rapid Changes of Optical Parameters in the Human Brain During a Tapping Task," J. Cognitive Neuroscience 7, 446-456 (1995).

H. Obrig, C. Hirth, J. G. Junge-Hülsing, C. Döge, T. Wolf, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, "Cerebral oxygenation changes in response to motor stimulation," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1174-1183 (1996).

B. Chance, Z. Zhuang, C. UnAh, and L. Lipton, "Cognition-activated low-frequency modulation of light absorption in human brain," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 3770-3774 (1993).

Y. Hoshi and M. Tamura, "Detection of Dynamic Changes in Cerebral Oxygenation Coupled to Neuronal Function During Mental Work in Man," Neurosci. Lett. 150, 5-8 (1993).

T. Kato, A. Kamei, S. Takashima, T. Ozaki, "Human visual cortical function during photic stimulation monitoring by means of near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 13, 516-520 (1993).

J. H. Meek, C. E. Elwell, M. J. Khan, J. Romaya, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and S. Zeki, "Regional Changes in Cerebral Haemodynamics as a Result of a Visual Stimulus Measured by Near Infrared Spectroscopy," Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 261, 351-356 (1995).

H. R. Heekeren, H. Obrig, H. Wenzel, R. Eberle, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, R. Kurth and A. Villringer, "Cerebral haemoglobin oxygenation during substained visual stimulation - a near-infrared spectroscopy study," Proc. R Soc. Lond. B 352, 743-750 (1997).

A. M. Siegel, J. J. A. Marota, and D. Boas, "Design and evaluation of a continuous-wave diffuse optical tomography system," Opt. Express 4, 287-298 (1999). http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/tocv4n8.htm

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti and R. Thomas, "A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, non-invasively, with light," Opt. Express 2, 411-423 (1998). http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/framestocv2n10.htm

R. M. Danen, Y. Wang, X. D. Li, W. S. Thayer and A. G. Yodh, "Regional imager for low-resolution functional imaging of the brain with diffusing near-infrared light," Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 33-40 (1998).

S. R. Hintz, D. A. Benaron, J. P. van Houten, J. L. Duckworth, F. W. H. Liu, S. D. Spilman, D. K. Stevenson and W.-F. Cheong, "Stationary headband for clinical time-of-flight optical imaging at the bedside," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 361-369 (1998).

S. R. Hintz, W.-F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson and D. A. Benaron, "Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: Comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging," Pediatr. Res. 45, 54-59 (1999).

J. P. van Houten, D. A. Benaron, S. Spilman and D. K. Stevenson, "Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning," Pediatr. Res. 39, 470-476 (1996).

Y. Shinohara, M. Haida, N. Shinohara, F. Kawaguchi, Y. Itoh and H. Koizumi, "Towards near-infrared imaging of the brain," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 85-89 (1997).

C. Hirth, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, W. Mühlnickl, H. Obrig, U. Dirnagl and A. Villringer, "Towards brain mapping combining near-infrared spectroscopy and high resolution 3D MRI," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 413, 139-147 (1997).

H. Koizumi, Y. Yamashita, A. Maki, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ito, H. Itagaki, and R. Kennan, "Higher-order brain function analysis by trans-cranical dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy imaging,' J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 403-413 (1999).

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, D. Hueber, W. Rosenfeld, D. Maulik, P. G. Stubblefield, and M. R. Stankovic, "Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time," Opt. Express 4, 308-314 (1999). http://www.opticsexpress.org/opticsexpress/tocv4n8.htm

S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, J. S. Maier, S. A. Walker, B. Barbieri, and E. Gratton, "Frequency-Domain Multichannel Optical Detector for non-Invasive Tissue Spectroscopy and Oximetry," Opt. Eng. 34, 32-42 (1995).

M. A. Franceschini, D. Wallace, B. Barbieri, S. Fantini, W. W. Mantulin, S. Pratesi, G. P. Donzelli, and E. Gratton, "Optical Study of the Skeletal Muscle During Exercise with a Second Generation Frequency-Domain Tissue Oximeter," Proc. SPIE 2979, 807-814 (1997).

M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by near infrared transillumination," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289-294 (1988).

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, "Optical pathlenght measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295-304 (1995).

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka and M. Maris, "Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation," Anal. Biochem. 195, 330-351 (1991).

C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. Valdueza, U. Dirnagl, and A. Villringer, "Simultaneous assessment of cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics during a motor task," in Oxygen Transport to Tissue XVIII, edited by E. M. Nemoto and J. C. LaManna (Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1997), pp. 461-469.

V. Toronov, M. A. Franceschini, M. Filiaci, M. Wolf, S. Fantini, and E. Gratton, "Near-Infrared Study of Fluctuations in Cerebral Hemodynamics During Rest and Motor Stimulation: Spatial Mapping and Temporal Analysis," Med. Phys. (submitted).

M. Kohl, C. Nolte, H. R. Heekeren, S. Horst, U. Scholz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor from near-infrared pulse signals," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1771-1782 (1998).

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, "Shades of Gray Matter: Noninvasive Optical Images of Human Brain Responses During Visual Stimulation," Psychophysiology 32, 505-509 (1995).

M. A. Franceschini, S. Fantini, L. A. Paunescu, J. S. Maier, and E. Gratton, "Influence of a Superficial Layer in the Quantitative Spectroscopic Study of Strongly Scattering Media," Appl. Opt. 37, 7447-7458 (1998).

M. A. Franceschini, E. Gratton, and S. Fantini, "Non-Invasive Optical Method to Measure Tissue and Arterial Saturation: an Application to Absolute Pulse Oximetry of the Brain," Opt. Lett. 24 (12), 829-831 (1999).

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