Abstract

We present a new technique for porous semiconductor formation which is based on the exposure of semiconductor surfaces to gas phase etchants. The technique offers the possibility of fabricating light-emitting devices by selectively exposing a silicon surface to HF vapor. Photoluminescence measurements reveal an efficient emission at around 750 nm. FTIR analysis confirm the existence of strong hydrogen incorporation and oxidation as evidenced from the local bonding environment of hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990)
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 856 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  3. L.T. canham, W.Y. Leong, T.I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 21, 2563(1992)
    [CrossRef]
  4. H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)
  5. A.G. Cullis, L.T. Canham, and P.D.J. Calcott, J. Appl. Phys.82, 909(1997)
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Gaburro, H. You, and D. Babie, “Effect of Resistivity and current density on photoluminescence in porous silicon produced at low HF concentration,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6345 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Kalem and Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Kanemitsu, T. Futagi, T. Matsumoto, and H. Mimura, “Origin of the blue and red photoluminescence from oxidized porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B49, 14732 (1994)
  11. J. L. Gole and D. A. Dixon, “Evidence for oxide formation from the single and multiphoton excitation of a porous silicon surface or silicon nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5985 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Z. Gaburro, H. You, and D. Babie, “Effect of Resistivity and current density on photoluminescence in porous silicon produced at low HF concentration,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6345 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gole and D. A. Dixon, “Evidence for oxide formation from the single and multiphoton excitation of a porous silicon surface or silicon nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Kalem and Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Kanemitsu, T. Futagi, T. Matsumoto, and H. Mimura, “Origin of the blue and red photoluminescence from oxidized porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B49, 14732 (1994)

1993 (2)

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

L.T. canham, W.Y. Leong, T.I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 21, 2563(1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 856 (1991)
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Babie, D.

Z. Gaburro, H. You, and D. Babie, “Effect of Resistivity and current density on photoluminescence in porous silicon produced at low HF concentration,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6345 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Brandt, M.S.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Breitschwerdt, A.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Calcott, P.D.J.

A.G. Cullis, L.T. Canham, and P.D.J. Calcott, J. Appl. Phys.82, 909(1997)
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Canham, L. T.

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990)
[CrossRef]

canham, L.T.

L.T. canham, W.Y. Leong, T.I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 21, 2563(1992)
[CrossRef]

A.G. Cullis, L.T. Canham, and P.D.J. Calcott, J. Appl. Phys.82, 909(1997)
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Cox, T.I.

L.T. canham, W.Y. Leong, T.I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 21, 2563(1992)
[CrossRef]

Cullis, A.G.

A.G. Cullis, L.T. Canham, and P.D.J. Calcott, J. Appl. Phys.82, 909(1997)
[CrossRef]

Deak, P.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Dixon, D. A.

J. L. Gole and D. A. Dixon, “Evidence for oxide formation from the single and multiphoton excitation of a porous silicon surface or silicon nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fathauer, R. W.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.D.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Futagi, T.

Y. Kanemitsu, T. Futagi, T. Matsumoto, and H. Mimura, “Origin of the blue and red photoluminescence from oxidized porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B49, 14732 (1994)

Gaburro, Z.

Z. Gaburro, H. You, and D. Babie, “Effect of Resistivity and current density on photoluminescence in porous silicon produced at low HF concentration,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6345 (1998)
[CrossRef]

George, T.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Gole, J. L.

J. L. Gole and D. A. Dixon, “Evidence for oxide formation from the single and multiphoton excitation of a porous silicon surface or silicon nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gosele, U.

V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 856 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Jung, K. H.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Kalem, S.

S. Kalem and Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Kanemitsu, Y.

Y. Kanemitsu, T. Futagi, T. Matsumoto, and H. Mimura, “Origin of the blue and red photoluminescence from oxidized porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B49, 14732 (1994)

Ksendzov, A.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, V.

V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 856 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Leong, W.Y.

L.T. canham, W.Y. Leong, T.I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 21, 2563(1992)
[CrossRef]

Li, K. -H.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

Y. Kanemitsu, T. Futagi, T. Matsumoto, and H. Mimura, “Origin of the blue and red photoluminescence from oxidized porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B49, 14732 (1994)

Mimura, H.

Y. Kanemitsu, T. Futagi, T. Matsumoto, and H. Mimura, “Origin of the blue and red photoluminescence from oxidized porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B49, 14732 (1994)

Pike, W. T.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Rosenbauer,

S. Kalem and Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Rosenbauer, M.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Sarathy, J.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Shih, S.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Taylor, L.

L.T. canham, W.Y. Leong, T.I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 21, 2563(1992)
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Vasquez, R. P.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Weber, J.

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

You, H.

Z. Gaburro, H. You, and D. Babie, “Effect of Resistivity and current density on photoluminescence in porous silicon produced at low HF concentration,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6345 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046 (1990)
[CrossRef]

V. Lehmann and U. Gosele, “Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 856 (1991)
[CrossRef]

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. -H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1533 (1992)
[CrossRef]

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200 (1993)
[CrossRef]

S. Kalem and Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Letts. (1)

L.T. canham, W.Y. Leong, T.I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 21, 2563(1992)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Z. Gaburro, H. You, and D. Babie, “Effect of Resistivity and current density on photoluminescence in porous silicon produced at low HF concentration,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6345 (1998)
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gole and D. A. Dixon, “Evidence for oxide formation from the single and multiphoton excitation of a porous silicon surface or silicon nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5985 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

H.D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M.S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona, “Porous silicon and siloxene: vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B48, 8172(1993)

Y. Kanemitsu, T. Futagi, T. Matsumoto, and H. Mimura, “Origin of the blue and red photoluminescence from oxidized porous silicon,” Phys. Rev. B49, 14732 (1994)

Other (1)

A.G. Cullis, L.T. Canham, and P.D.J. Calcott, J. Appl. Phys.82, 909(1997)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig.1 .
Fig.1 .

chematic of equipment for gas phase etching of silicon

Fig.2 .
Fig.2 .

hotoluminescence emission from porous Si layer grown from gas phase etchants (100 nm/hour). The PL was excited with 514 nm line of an Ar+- ion laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

IR vibrational spectra of gas phase grown porous layer.

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