Abstract

Atoms in intense, high-frequency laser fields exhibit the remarkable property that they can be stable against ionization. We investigate the structure of stabilized wavepackets for a two-dimensional model hydrogen atom interacting with an intense, high frequency laser pulse as a function of the laser pulse ellipticity and laser pulse rise-time. The computed wavepackets are compared with the corresponding Kramers-Henneberger (K-H) ground states. Laser pulse turn-on effects are studied by contrasting the structure of the localized part of the wavepackets and the ionizing part of the wavepackets for three different ellipticities and for various pulse turn-on times.

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  1. M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel and P. L. Knight, "Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389-486 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Joachain, M. D" orr and N. J. Kylstra, "High intensity laser-atom physics," Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys, (1999) to appear.
  3. J. Gersten and M. H. Mittleman, "The shift of atomic states by laser fields," J. Phys. B 9, 2561-2572 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Gavrila, "Atomic structure and decay in high-frequency fields," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.435-510.
  5. M. Gavrila, "Stabilization of atoms in ultra-strong laser fields," in Photon and Electron Collisions with Atoms and Molecules, edited by P. G. Burke and C. J. Joachain (Plenum Press, 1997) p.147- 158.
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Bhatt, B. Piraux and K. Burnett, "Potential scattering of electrons in the presence of intense laser fields using the Kramers-Henneberger transformation," Phys. Rev. A 37, 98-105 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. N. Bardsley, A. Sz"oke and M. Comella, "Multiphoton ionization from a short range potential by short-pulse lasers," J. Phys. B 21, 3899-3916 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Wells, I. Simbotin and M. Gavrila, "Physical Reality of Light-Induced Atomic States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3479-3482 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Schlagheck, K. Hornberger and A. Buchleitner, "Comment on 'Physical Reality of Light- Induced Atomic States', " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 664 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. C. Wells, I. Simbotin and M. Gavrila, "Wells, Simbotin and Gavrila reply," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 665 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. van Duijn, M. Gavrila and H. G. Muller, "Multiply charged negative ions of hydrogen induced by superintense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3759-3762 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Su, J. H. Eberly and J. Javanainen, "Dynamics of atomic ionization suppression and electron localization in an intense high-frequency radiation field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 862-865 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Su and J. H. Eberly, "Suppression of ionization and atomic electron localization by short intense laser-pulses," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2474-2479 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J.H. Eberly, R. Grobe, C. K. Law and Q. Su, "Numerical experiments in strong and super- strong fields," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.301-334.
  15. K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer and J. L. Krause, "Dynamic stabilization of hydrogen in an intense, high frequency, pulsed laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2601-2604 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer and J. L. Krause, "Time-dependent studies of multiphoton pro- cesses," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.247- 300.
  17. See e.g. J. Grochmalicki, M. Lewenstein and K. Rzazewski, "Stabilization of atoms in superintense laser fields: is it real?," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1038-1041 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. D�rr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. 5. The high frequency regime," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3729-3740 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. M. Potvliege and R. Shakeshaft, "Nonperturbative treatment of multiphoton ionization within the Floquet framework," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.373-434.
  20. See however H. G. Muller, "An effcient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schr�dinger equation in the velocity gauge," Laser Phys. 9, 138-148 (1999).
  21. M. Protopapas, D. G. Lappas and P. L. Knight, "Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550-4553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Patel, M. Protopapas, D. G. Lappas and P. L. Knight, "Stabilization with arbitrary laser polarizations," Phys. Rev. A 59, R2652-R2655 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. C. Reed, P. L. Knight and K. Burnett, "Suppression of ionization in superintense fields without dichotomy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1415-1418 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Pont and R. Shakeshaft, "Observability of atomic stabilization in an intense short pulse of radiation," Phys. Rev. A 44, R4110-R4113 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. See however H. G. Muller, "An effcient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schr�dinger equation in the velocity gauge," Laser Phys. 9, 138-148 (1999).

Other (25)

M. Protopapas, C. H. Keitel and P. L. Knight, "Atomic physics with super-high intensity lasers," Rep. Prog. Phys. 60, 389-486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Joachain, M. D" orr and N. J. Kylstra, "High intensity laser-atom physics," Adv. Atom. Mol. Opt. Phys, (1999) to appear.

J. Gersten and M. H. Mittleman, "The shift of atomic states by laser fields," J. Phys. B 9, 2561-2572 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Gavrila, "Atomic structure and decay in high-frequency fields," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.435-510.

M. Gavrila, "Stabilization of atoms in ultra-strong laser fields," in Photon and Electron Collisions with Atoms and Molecules, edited by P. G. Burke and C. J. Joachain (Plenum Press, 1997) p.147- 158.
[CrossRef]

R. Bhatt, B. Piraux and K. Burnett, "Potential scattering of electrons in the presence of intense laser fields using the Kramers-Henneberger transformation," Phys. Rev. A 37, 98-105 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Bardsley, A. Sz"oke and M. Comella, "Multiphoton ionization from a short range potential by short-pulse lasers," J. Phys. B 21, 3899-3916 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wells, I. Simbotin and M. Gavrila, "Physical Reality of Light-Induced Atomic States," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3479-3482 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Schlagheck, K. Hornberger and A. Buchleitner, "Comment on 'Physical Reality of Light- Induced Atomic States', " Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 664 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wells, I. Simbotin and M. Gavrila, "Wells, Simbotin and Gavrila reply," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 665 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. van Duijn, M. Gavrila and H. G. Muller, "Multiply charged negative ions of hydrogen induced by superintense laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3759-3762 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Su, J. H. Eberly and J. Javanainen, "Dynamics of atomic ionization suppression and electron localization in an intense high-frequency radiation field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 862-865 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Su and J. H. Eberly, "Suppression of ionization and atomic electron localization by short intense laser-pulses," Phys. Rev. A 43, 2474-2479 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.H. Eberly, R. Grobe, C. K. Law and Q. Su, "Numerical experiments in strong and super- strong fields," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.301-334.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer and J. L. Krause, "Dynamic stabilization of hydrogen in an intense, high frequency, pulsed laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2601-2604 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer and J. L. Krause, "Time-dependent studies of multiphoton pro- cesses," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.247- 300.

See e.g. J. Grochmalicki, M. Lewenstein and K. Rzazewski, "Stabilization of atoms in superintense laser fields: is it real?," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1038-1041 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D�rr, R. M. Potvliege, D. Proulx and R. Shakeshaft, "Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field. 5. The high frequency regime," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3729-3740 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Potvliege and R. Shakeshaft, "Nonperturbative treatment of multiphoton ionization within the Floquet framework," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, edited by M. Gavrila (Academic Press, 1992), p.373-434.

See however H. G. Muller, "An effcient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schr�dinger equation in the velocity gauge," Laser Phys. 9, 138-148 (1999).

M. Protopapas, D. G. Lappas and P. L. Knight, "Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550-4553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Patel, M. Protopapas, D. G. Lappas and P. L. Knight, "Stabilization with arbitrary laser polarizations," Phys. Rev. A 59, R2652-R2655 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Reed, P. L. Knight and K. Burnett, "Suppression of ionization in superintense fields without dichotomy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1415-1418 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pont and R. Shakeshaft, "Observability of atomic stabilization in an intense short pulse of radiation," Phys. Rev. A 44, R4110-R4113 (1991).
[CrossRef]

See however H. G. Muller, "An effcient propagation scheme for the time-dependent Schr�dinger equation in the velocity gauge," Laser Phys. 9, 138-148 (1999).

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Figures (9)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Snapshots of the magnitude squared of the wavepackets as a function of ellipticity, taken after 12 cycles of a laser pulse having angular frequency ω = 1 and peak electric field E 0 = 15. Distances (X,Y) are shown in atomic units (a.u.).

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

The K-H ground states for α 0 = 15 and ellipticities corresponding to those of Fig. 1. Distances (X,Y) are shown in atomic units (a.u.).

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Snapshots of the magnitude squared of the wavepackets taken after 10, 20 and 30 cycles of a laser pulse with turn-on times of 1, 4, 8 and 12 cycles, angular frequency ω = 1, peak electric field E 0 = 15 and linear polarization. The color scale is chosen to emphasize the structure of the localized part of the wavepackets. Distances (X,Y) are shown in atomic units (a.u.).

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Same as in Fig. 3 except the color scale is chosen to emphasize the ionizing part of the wavepackets.

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Snapshots of the magnitude squared of the wavepackets taken after 10, 20 and 30 cycles of a laser pulse with turn-on times of 1, 4, 8 and 12 cycles, angular frequency ω = 1, peak electric field E 0 = 15 and ellipticity = 0.5. The color scale is chosen to emphasize the structure of the localized part of the wavepackets. Distances (X,Y) are shown in atomic units (a.u.).

Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Same as in Fig. 5 except the color scale is chosen to emphasize the ionizing part of the wavepackets.

Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Snapshots of the magnitude squared of the wavepackets taken after 10, 20 and 30 cycles of a laser pulse with turn-on times of 1, 4, 8 and 12 cycles, angular frequency ω = 1, peak electric field E 0 = 15 and circular polarization. The color scale is chosen to emphasize the structure of the localized part of the wavepackets. Distances (X,Y) are shown in atomic units (a.u.).

Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Same as in Fig. 7 except the color scale is chosen to emphasize the ionizing part of the wavepackets.

Figure 9.
Figure 9.

(a) Norm of the wavefunction on a log scale as a function of time with laser pulse turn-on times of 1, 4, 8 and 12 cycles and linear (a), elliptical, = 0.5, (b) and circular polarization (c).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i t Ψ r t = [ 1 2 ( p 1 c A ( t ) ) 2 + V ( r ) ] Ψ r t .
A ( t ) = f ( t ) E 0 c ω ( x ̂ sin ωt + y ̂ cos ωt ) ,
α ( t ) = 1 c t dt A ( t ) ,
α 0 = E 0 ω 2 .
V ( r ) = 1 r 2 + a 2 ,
V ( r α ( t ) ) = 1 r α ( t ) 2 + a 2 .
V ( α 0 , r ) = 1 T T 2 T 2 dt 1 r α ( t ) 2 + a 2 ,
[ 1 2 p 2 + V ( α 0 , r ) ] Ψ KH ( r ) = E KH Ψ KH ( r ) ,

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