Abstract

A broadband, multichannel, single-mode, planar waveguide based spectrometer was developed for probing molecular monolayers. A protein sub-monolayer (thickness h ≅ 3 nm, imaginary part of refractive index kl ≤ 0.01) immobilized on the waveguide surface was characterized by the waveguide attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrometer. A sensitivity enhancement of 4 orders of magnitude, compared to conventional transmission measurements, has been experimentally achieved in the characterization of ultra-thin films. In addition, polarized spectroscopic measurements at the TE and TM waveguide modes were implemented to determine the average orientation angle of the adsorbed molecules. The work developed here is a new research tool for the investigation of some fundamental aspects of molecular films and a novel platform to develop new technological devices of high sensitivity and selectivity such as biosensors.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. N. Parikh and D. L. Allara, “Quantitative determination of molecular structure in multilayer thin films of biaxial and lower symmetry from photon spectroscopies. I. Reflection infrared vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 927–945 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. D. Andrade and V. Hlady, “Protein adsorption and materials biocompatibility: a tutorial review and suggested hypotheses,” Advances in Polymer Science 79, 1–63 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  4. O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic sensors in biomedical sciences,” Pure & Appl. Chem. 59, 663–672 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. E. Dessey, “Waveguides as chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 61, 1079A–1094A (1989).
  6. M. A. Arnold, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 64, 1015A–1025A (1992).
  7. S. S. Saavedra and W. M. Reichert, “In situ quantitation of protein adsorption density by integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection spectrometry,” Langmuir 7, 995–999 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. E. Plowman, M. D. Garrison, D. S. Walker, and W. M. Reichert, “Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 243, 610–615, (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. S. Goldman, P. L. White, and N. C. Anheir, “Miniaturized spectrometer employing planar waveguides and grating couplers for chemical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4583–4589 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, and S. S. Saavedra, “70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6180–6186 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, and S. S. Saavedra, “Achromatic prism-coupler for planar waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 136, 320–326 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. B. Mendes, “Broadband attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in the optical waveguide regime,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 1997.
  16. L. Li and J. Brazas, “A method for achromatically coupling a beam of light into a waveguide,” U.S. patent 5,420,947 (30 May 1995).
  17. S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
    [Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, and S. S. Saavedra, “Achromatic prism-coupler for planar waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 136, 320–326 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, and S. S. Saavedra, “70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6180–6186 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

T. E. Plowman, M. D. Garrison, D. S. Walker, and W. M. Reichert, “Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 243, 610–615, (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

M. A. Arnold, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 64, 1015A–1025A (1992).

A. N. Parikh and D. L. Allara, “Quantitative determination of molecular structure in multilayer thin films of biaxial and lower symmetry from photon spectroscopies. I. Reflection infrared vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 927–945 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. S. Saavedra and W. M. Reichert, “In situ quantitation of protein adsorption density by integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection spectrometry,” Langmuir 7, 995–999 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

R. E. Dessey, “Waveguides as chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 61, 1079A–1094A (1989).

1987 (2)

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic sensors in biomedical sciences,” Pure & Appl. Chem. 59, 663–672 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. D. Andrade and V. Hlady, “Protein adsorption and materials biocompatibility: a tutorial review and suggested hypotheses,” Advances in Polymer Science 79, 1–63 (1986).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
[Crossref]

Allara, D. L.

A. N. Parikh and D. L. Allara, “Quantitative determination of molecular structure in multilayer thin films of biaxial and lower symmetry from photon spectroscopies. I. Reflection infrared vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 927–945 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Andrade, J. D.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. D. Andrade and V. Hlady, “Protein adsorption and materials biocompatibility: a tutorial review and suggested hypotheses,” Advances in Polymer Science 79, 1–63 (1986).
[Crossref]

Anheir, N. C.

Arnold, M. A.

M. A. Arnold, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 64, 1015A–1025A (1992).

Azumi, R.

K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Brazas, J.

L. Li and J. Brazas, “A method for achromatically coupling a beam of light into a waveguide,” U.S. patent 5,420,947 (30 May 1995).

Burke, J. J.

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, and S. S. Saavedra, “Achromatic prism-coupler for planar waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 136, 320–326 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, and S. S. Saavedra, “70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6180–6186 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandross, E. A.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dessey, R. E.

R. E. Dessey, “Waveguides as chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 61, 1079A–1094A (1989).

Dunphy, D. R.

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fisher, J.

J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
[Crossref]

Garoff, S.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Garrison, M. D.

T. E. Plowman, M. D. Garrison, D. S. Walker, and W. M. Reichert, “Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 243, 610–615, (1994).
[Crossref]

Goldman, D. S.

Hlady, V.

J. D. Andrade and V. Hlady, “Protein adsorption and materials biocompatibility: a tutorial review and suggested hypotheses,” Advances in Polymer Science 79, 1–63 (1986).
[Crossref]

Israelachvili, J.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. E.

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, and S. S. Saavedra, “70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6180–6186 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, and S. S. Saavedra, “Achromatic prism-coupler for planar waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 136, 320–326 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, and S. S. Saavedra, “70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6180–6186 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li and J. Brazas, “A method for achromatically coupling a beam of light into a waveguide,” U.S. patent 5,420,947 (30 May 1995).

Matsuda, N.

K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, M.

K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, T. J.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mendes, S. B.

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, and S. S. Saavedra, “Achromatic prism-coupler for planar waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 136, 320–326 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, and S. S. Saavedra, “70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6180–6186 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Mendes, “Broadband attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in the optical waveguide regime,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 1997.

Murray, R.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mwarania, E. K.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

O’Dwyer, K.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Parikh, A. N.

A. N. Parikh and D. L. Allara, “Quantitative determination of molecular structure in multilayer thin films of biaxial and lower symmetry from photon spectroscopies. I. Reflection infrared vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 927–945 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pease, R. F.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Piraud, C.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Plowman, T. E.

T. E. Plowman, M. D. Garrison, D. S. Walker, and W. M. Reichert, “Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 243, 610–615, (1994).
[Crossref]

Rabolt, J. F.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Reichert, W. M.

T. E. Plowman, M. D. Garrison, D. S. Walker, and W. M. Reichert, “Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 243, 610–615, (1994).
[Crossref]

S. S. Saavedra and W. M. Reichert, “In situ quantitation of protein adsorption density by integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection spectrometry,” Langmuir 7, 995–999 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rieckoff, K. E.

J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
[Crossref]

Saavedra, S. S.

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, and S. S. Saavedra, “Achromatic prism-coupler for planar waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 136, 320–326 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, and S. S. Saavedra, “70-nm-bandwidth achromatic waveguide coupler,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6180–6186 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Saavedra and W. M. Reichert, “In situ quantitation of protein adsorption density by integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection spectrometry,” Langmuir 7, 995–999 (1991).
[Crossref]

Santo, R.

J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
[Crossref]

Schiffrin, D. J.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Swalen, J. D.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
[Crossref]

Tacke, M.

J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
[Crossref]

Takatsu, A.

K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Walker, D. S.

T. E. Plowman, M. D. Garrison, D. S. Walker, and W. M. Reichert, “Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 243, 610–615, (1994).
[Crossref]

White, P. L.

Wilkinson, J. S.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic sensors in biomedical sciences,” Pure & Appl. Chem. 59, 663–672 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wynne, K. J.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

Advances in Polymer Science (1)

J. D. Andrade and V. Hlady, “Protein adsorption and materials biocompatibility: a tutorial review and suggested hypotheses,” Advances in Polymer Science 79, 1–63 (1986).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

R. E. Dessey, “Waveguides as chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 61, 1079A–1094A (1989).

M. A. Arnold, “Fiber-optic chemical sensors,” Anal. Chem. 64, 1015A–1025A (1992).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Lett. (1)

K. Kato, A. Takatsu, N. Matsuda, R. Azumi, and M. Matsumoto, “A slab-optical-waveguide absorption spectroscopy of Langmuir-Blodgett films with a white light excitation source,” Chem. Lett.437–438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Helt. Chim. Acta (1)

J. D. Swalen, M. Tacke, R. Santo, K. E. Rieckoff, and J. Fisher, “Spectra of organic molecules in thin films,” Helt. Chim. Acta 61, 960–977 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. N. Parikh and D. L. Allara, “Quantitative determination of molecular structure in multilayer thin films of biaxial and lower symmetry from photon spectroscopies. I. Reflection infrared vibrational spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 927–945 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Light. Tech. (1)

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O’Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Light. Tech. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (3)

J. D. Swalen, D. L. Allara, J. D. Andrade, E. A. Chandross, S. Garoff, J. Israelachvili, T. J. McCarthy, R. Murray, R. F. Pease, J. F. Rabolt, K. J. Wynne, and H. Yu, “Molecular monolayers and films,” Langmuir 3, 932–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. S. Saavedra and W. M. Reichert, “In situ quantitation of protein adsorption density by integrated optical waveguide attenuated total reflection spectrometry,” Langmuir 7, 995–999 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, J. E. Lee, D. R. Dunphy, and S. S. Saavedra, “Broad-band attenuated total reflection spectroscopy of a hydrated protein film on a single mode planar waveguide,” Langmuir 12, 3374–3376 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Comm. (1)

S. B. Mendes, L. Li, J. J. Burke, and S. S. Saavedra, “Achromatic prism-coupler for planar waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 136, 320–326 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pure & Appl. Chem. (1)

O. S. Wolfbeis, “Fiber-optic sensors in biomedical sciences,” Pure & Appl. Chem. 59, 663–672 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. E. Plowman, M. D. Garrison, D. S. Walker, and W. M. Reichert, “Surface sensitivity of SiON integrated optical waveguides (IOWs) examined by IOW-attenuated total reflection spectrometry and IOW-Raman spectroscopy,” Thin Solid Films 243, 610–615, (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

S. B. Mendes, “Broadband attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in the optical waveguide regime,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 1997.

L. Li and J. Brazas, “A method for achromatically coupling a beam of light into a waveguide,” U.S. patent 5,420,947 (30 May 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig: 1:
Fig: 1:

The single-mode, broadband, multichannel, planar waveguide based spectrometer. Xe lamp of 150 W, L1 = 10 cm focal length lens, Ir1, Ir2 = iris, Pol = linear polarizer, L2 = 17 cm focal length lens, Pr = prism of LaSF3 and φ = 52.2°, G1, G2, G3 = diffraction gratings, S = fused silica substrate, CCD = thermo-electrically cooled, charge-coupled array detector, L3 = 25.4 mm focal length cylindrical lens. Grating parameters: G1, period = 1.921 μm, depth = 0.34 μm; G2, period = 2.252 μm, depth = 0.12 μm; G3, period = 0.3 μm, depth = 0.12 μm. The distance between the input and output grating couplers is L = 8 mm.

Fig. 2:
Fig. 2:

Schematic representation of the waveguide structure with an absorbing dichroic molecular layer (refractive index nl - i fr kl and thickness h) on the surface of the guiding film.

Fig. 3:
Fig. 3:

Sensitivity vs. waveguide thickness. For the calculations, it was assumed: propagation length L = 1 cm, wavelength λ = 550 nm, waveguide index of refraction nw = 1.56, substrate index of refraction ns = 1.46, real part of the adsorbed layer index of refraction nl = 1.33, cladding index of refraction nc = 1.33. The molecular film is assumed isotropic (fx = fy = fz = 1). The results are for the lowest order waveguide mode and they are independent of the adlayer thickness, h, and absorption coefficient, kl .

Fig. 4:
Fig. 4:

Mismatch in the effective index of couplers and waveguides as described in [13].

Fig. 5:
Fig. 5:

Output intensity of two laser lines for spectral resolution characterization.

Fig. 6:
Fig. 6:

Performance test with a 600-nm bandpass filter measured in a transmission mode by the waveguide based spectrometer shown in Fig. 1 and a conventional transmission spectrophotometer (Cary 5-G).

Fig. 7:
Fig. 7:

Spectrum of cytochrome c adsorbed to the waveguide glass surface acquired.

Fig. 8:
Fig. 8:

Dichroic ratio over a broad spectral range for cytochrome c immobilized on a glass surface.

Equations (4)

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A TE = 4 π k l h λ ln 10 { 2 n l f y ( n w 2 N TE 2 ) N TE ( n w 2 n c 2 ) L t eff , TE }
A TM = 4 π k l h λ ln 10 { 2 n l n w 2 ( n w 2 N TM 2 ) [ f x ( N TM 2 n c 2 ) + f z ( n c n l ) 4 N TM 2 ] N TM [ n w 4 ( N TM 2 n c 2 ) + n c 4 ( n w 2 N TM 2 ) ] L t eff , TM }
Δλ res λ = Λα π ,
Δλ det f .

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