Abstract

An interferometric quantum cryptographic system at 1550nm wavelength using gated InGaAs Avalanche Photo Diodes as single-photon receivers is demonstrated for a transmission distance up to 40 km.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” Los Alamos e-print archive quant-ph/9904038, submitted to J. of Mod. Opt.
  3. P. D. Townsend, “Simultaneous quantum cryptographic key distribution and conventional data transmission over installed fiber using wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 188–189 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. M. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656–1659 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Ribordy, J. T. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin. “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes asgated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 683121–3124 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, “Quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys.B 67, 743–748 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. M. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656–1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, “Quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys.B 67, 743–748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. T. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin. “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes asgated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. D. Townsend, “Simultaneous quantum cryptographic key distribution and conventional data transmission over installed fiber using wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 188–189 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 683121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechman-Pasquinucci, H.

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, “Quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys.B 67, 743–748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 683121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bessete, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J. D.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J. T.

Gisin, N.

G. Ribordy, J. T. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin. “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes asgated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, “Quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys.B 67, 743–748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. M. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656–1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guinnard, O.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, T.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, R.

R. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” Los Alamos e-print archive quant-ph/9904038, submitted to J. of Mod. Opt.

Huttner, B.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazurenko, Y.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. M. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656–1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merolla, J.-M.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. M. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656–1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, G. L.

R. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” Los Alamos e-print archive quant-ph/9904038, submitted to J. of Mod. Opt.

Muller, A.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, C. G.

R. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” Los Alamos e-print archive quant-ph/9904038, submitted to J. of Mod. Opt.

Rhodes, W. M.

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. M. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656–1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, “Quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys.B 67, 743–748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. T. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin. “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes asgated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salvail, L.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smolin, J.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, “Simultaneous quantum cryptographic key distribution and conventional data transmission over installed fiber using wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 188–189 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, “Quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys.B 67, 743–748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. T. Gautier, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin. “Performance of InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes asgated-mode photon counters,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2272–2277 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Muller, T. Herzog, B. Huttner, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Plug and play” systems for quantumcryptography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys.B (1)

H. Zbinden, H. Bechman-Pasquinucci, N. Gisin, and G. Ribordy, “Quantum cryptography,” Appl. Phys.B 67, 743–748 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elec. Lett. (1)

G. Ribordy, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, and H. Zbinden, “Automated ‘plug & play’ quantum key distribution,” Elec. Lett. 34, 2116–2117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. D. Townsend, “Simultaneous quantum cryptographic key distribution and conventional data transmission over installed fiber using wavelength division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 188–189 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryptology (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessete, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–23 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J.-M. Merolla, Y. Mazurenko, J.-P. Goedgebuer, and W. M. Rhodes, “Single-photon interference in sidebands of phase-modulated light for quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1656–1659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two non-orthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 683121–3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical quantum key distribution over a 48-km optical fiber network,” Los Alamos e-print archive quant-ph/9904038, submitted to J. of Mod. Opt.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Noise-Equivalent-Power (NEP), as a function of temperature for the InGaAs APD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of the experimentally implemented “Plug and Play” quantum cryptography interferometric system. The symbols are explained in the text.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

In (a) QBER as a function of transmission distance L. The marks are the experimentally obtained results for 10, 20, 40 km transmission distance. Dark counts probability per gate pulse Pd =2*10-4, photon number average μ=0.1, quantum efficiency η=18%, fiber loss α=0.2 dB/km and visibility of 98%. In (b), QBER for a dark counts probability Pd =2*10-5 and a visibility of 99.5%.

Equations (1)

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QBER = ( 1 V c ) 10 αL / 10 ημ / 2 + P d 2 P d + 10 αL / 10 ημ

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