Abstract

In this paper, we propose an approach to improve the performance of a broad class of watermarking schemes through attack characterization. Robust and reference watermarks are both embedded into a signal. The reference watermark is used to characterize any modifications of the resulting marked signal, so that the robust watermark can be more reliably extracted. Analysis and simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, “Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial Domain,” Signal Process. 66, 385–403 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer, and B. Macq, “Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model,” Signal Process. 66, 319–335 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. I. Podilchuk and W. Zeng, “Image-Adaptive Watermarking using Visual Models,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. 16(4), 525–539 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet, and G. R. Arce, “A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548–551 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. W. Braudaway, “Protecting Publicly-Available Images with an Invisible Image Watermark,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 524–527 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Digital Watermarking using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2969–2972 (1998).
  7. M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. H. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies,” Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064–1087 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. R. Hernández, F. Pérez-González, and J. M. Rodriguez, “The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973–2976 (1998).
  9. D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Towards a Telltale Watermarking Technique for Tamper-Proofing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing,  2, 409–413 (1998).
  10. D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Semi-Blind Image Restoration Based on Telltale Watermarking,” to appear in Proc. 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, (1998).

1998 (7)

N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, “Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial Domain,” Signal Process. 66, 385–403 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer, and B. Macq, “Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model,” Signal Process. 66, 319–335 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. I. Podilchuk and W. Zeng, “Image-Adaptive Watermarking using Visual Models,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. 16(4), 525–539 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Digital Watermarking using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2969–2972 (1998).

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. H. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies,” Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064–1087 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. R. Hernández, F. Pérez-González, and J. M. Rodriguez, “The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973–2976 (1998).

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Towards a Telltale Watermarking Technique for Tamper-Proofing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing,  2, 409–413 (1998).

1997 (2)

X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet, and G. R. Arce, “A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548–551 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. W. Braudaway, “Protecting Publicly-Available Images with an Invisible Image Watermark,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 524–527 (1997).
[Crossref]

Arce, G. R.

X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet, and G. R. Arce, “A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548–551 (1997).
[Crossref]

Boncelet, C. G.

X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet, and G. R. Arce, “A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548–551 (1997).
[Crossref]

Braudaway, G. W.

G. W. Braudaway, “Protecting Publicly-Available Images with an Invisible Image Watermark,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 524–527 (1997).
[Crossref]

De Vleeschouwer, C.

J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer, and B. Macq, “Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model,” Signal Process. 66, 319–335 (1998).
[Crossref]

Delaigle, J. F.

J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer, and B. Macq, “Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model,” Signal Process. 66, 319–335 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hatzinakos, D.

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Digital Watermarking using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2969–2972 (1998).

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Towards a Telltale Watermarking Technique for Tamper-Proofing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing,  2, 409–413 (1998).

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Semi-Blind Image Restoration Based on Telltale Watermarking,” to appear in Proc. 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, (1998).

Hernández, J. R.

J. R. Hernández, F. Pérez-González, and J. M. Rodriguez, “The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973–2976 (1998).

Kobayashi, M.

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. H. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies,” Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064–1087 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kundur, D.

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Digital Watermarking using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2969–2972 (1998).

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Towards a Telltale Watermarking Technique for Tamper-Proofing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing,  2, 409–413 (1998).

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Semi-Blind Image Restoration Based on Telltale Watermarking,” to appear in Proc. 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, (1998).

Macq, B.

J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer, and B. Macq, “Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model,” Signal Process. 66, 319–335 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nikolaidis, N.

N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, “Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial Domain,” Signal Process. 66, 385–403 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pérez-González, F.

J. R. Hernández, F. Pérez-González, and J. M. Rodriguez, “The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973–2976 (1998).

Pitas, I.

N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, “Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial Domain,” Signal Process. 66, 385–403 (1998).
[Crossref]

Podilchuk, C. I.

C. I. Podilchuk and W. Zeng, “Image-Adaptive Watermarking using Visual Models,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. 16(4), 525–539 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, J. M.

J. R. Hernández, F. Pérez-González, and J. M. Rodriguez, “The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973–2976 (1998).

Swanson, M. D.

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. H. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies,” Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064–1087 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tewfik, A. H.

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. H. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies,” Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064–1087 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xia, X.-G.

X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet, and G. R. Arce, “A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548–551 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zeng, W.

C. I. Podilchuk and W. Zeng, “Image-Adaptive Watermarking using Visual Models,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. 16(4), 525–539 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. (1)

C. I. Podilchuk and W. Zeng, “Image-Adaptive Watermarking using Visual Models,” IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. 16(4), 525–539 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (1)

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Digital Watermarking using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2969–2972 (1998).

Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (3)

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Towards a Telltale Watermarking Technique for Tamper-Proofing,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing,  2, 409–413 (1998).

X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet, and G. R. Arce, “A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548–551 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. W. Braudaway, “Protecting Publicly-Available Images with an Invisible Image Watermark,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 524–527 (1997).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (1)

J. R. Hernández, F. Pérez-González, and J. M. Rodriguez, “The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973–2976 (1998).

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi, and A. H. Tewfik, “Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies,” Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064–1087 (1998).
[Crossref]

Signal Process. (2)

N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, “Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial Domain,” Signal Process. 66, 385–403 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer, and B. Macq, “Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model,” Signal Process. 66, 319–335 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, “Semi-Blind Image Restoration Based on Telltale Watermarking,” to appear in Proc. 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, (1998).

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Figures (3)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Combined Reference and Robust Watermarking for Channel Characterization and Reliable Watermark Extraction. (A) The watermark embedding and extracting scenarios, (B) We consider a 2-D host image. The watermark domain coefficients are divided into localized regions Di (outlined with bold lines). Reference and robust watermark bits are alternatively embedded in each region.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

The (a) host image and (b) watermarked image used for simulations.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

The improved performance of the proposed approach.

Equations (4)

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p ̂ Ei = 1 N Σ k = 1 N v i ( k ) v ̂ i ( k )
ω ̂ ( k ) = round [ Σ i = 1 M α i ω ̂ i ( k ) ]
α i = log ( 1 p Ei p Ei ) / ( Σ i = 1 M log ( 1 p Ej p Ej ) )
P { w ̂ ( k ) } = i = 1 M ( 1 p Ei ) b ¯ i ( k ) p Ei b i ( k )

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