Abstract

In this paper, we propose an approach to improve the performance of a broad class of watermarking schemes through attack characterization. Robust and reference watermarks are both embedded into a signal. The reference watermark is used to characterize any modifications of the resulting marked signal, so that the robust watermark can be more reliably extracted. Analysis and simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

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References

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  1. N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, "Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial Domain," Signal Process. 66, 385-403 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer and B. Macq, "Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model," Signal Process. 66, 319-335 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. I. Podilchuk and W. Zeng, "Image-Adaptive Watermarking using Visual Models," IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. 16(4), 525-539 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet and G. R. Arce, "A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548-551 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. W. Braudaway, "Protecting Publicly-Available Images with an Invisible Image Watermark," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 524-527 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, "Digital Watermarking using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2969-2972 (1998).
  7. M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi and A. H. Tewfik, "Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies," Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064-1087 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Hernandez, F. Perez-Gonzalez and J. M. Rodriguez, "The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection," Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973-2976 (1998).
  9. D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, "Towards a Telltale Watermarking Technique for Tamper-Proofing," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, 2, 409{413 (1998).
  10. D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, "Semi-Blind Image Restoration Based on Telltale Watermarking," to appear in Proc. 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, (1998).

Other (10)

N. Nikolaidis and I. Pitas, "Robust Image Watermarking in the Spatial Domain," Signal Process. 66, 385-403 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Delaigle, C. De Vleeschouwer and B. Macq, "Watermarking Algorithm Based on a Human Visual Model," Signal Process. 66, 319-335 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Podilchuk and W. Zeng, "Image-Adaptive Watermarking using Visual Models," IEEE J. Sel. Area in Commun. 16(4), 525-539 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X.-G. Xia, C. G. Boncelet and G. R. Arce, "A Multiresolution Watermark for Digital Images," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 548-551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Braudaway, "Protecting Publicly-Available Images with an Invisible Image Watermark," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing 1, 524-527 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, "Digital Watermarking using Multiresolution Wavelet Decomposition," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2969-2972 (1998).

M. D. Swanson, M. Kobayashi and A. H. Tewfik, "Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies," Proceedings of the IEEE 86(6), 1064-1087 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hernandez, F. Perez-Gonzalez and J. M. Rodriguez, "The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection," Proc. IEEE Int. Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 5, 2973-2976 (1998).

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, "Towards a Telltale Watermarking Technique for Tamper-Proofing," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, 2, 409{413 (1998).

D. Kundur and D. Hatzinakos, "Semi-Blind Image Restoration Based on Telltale Watermarking," to appear in Proc. 32nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, (1998).

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Figures (3)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Combined Reference and Robust Watermarking for Channel Characterization and Reliable Watermark Extraction. (A) The watermark embedding and extracting scenarios, (B) We consider a 2-D host image. The watermark domain coefficients are divided into localized regions Di (outlined with bold lines). Reference and robust watermark bits are alternatively embedded in each region.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

The (a) host image and (b) watermarked image used for simulations.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

The improved performance of the proposed approach.

Equations (4)

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p ̂ Ei = 1 N Σ k = 1 N v i ( k ) v ̂ i ( k )
ω ̂ ( k ) = round [ Σ i = 1 M α i ω ̂ i ( k ) ]
α i = log ( 1 p Ei p Ei ) / ( Σ i = 1 M log ( 1 p Ej p Ej ) )
P { w ̂ ( k ) } = i = 1 M ( 1 p Ei ) b ¯ i ( k ) p Ei b i ( k )

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