Abstract

A scanning laser confocal microscope was used to visualize the human fundus (the back portion of the eyeball, as seen by means of the ophthalmoscope) in vivo from near the retinal surface to deep within the optic nerve head. Thirty-two optical sections based on reflected light were acquired, digitized and aligned to compensate for small eye movements. The registered stack of optical sections was reconstructed with three-dimensional volume rendering software and presented as a movie. The three-dimensional rendering presents a new technique to view the optic nerve. This technique is clinically important since morphological changes of the lamina cribrosa of the optic nerve may be involved in glaucoma.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Ford, Single lens, the story of the simple microscope, (Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1985), 49–50.
  2. J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, and T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous, Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).
  3. B. R. Masters, “The scanning laser ophthalmoscope: a new view on the retina,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78, 81 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ridley, “Recent methods of fundus examination including electronic ophthalmoscopy,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 72, 497–509 (1952).
  5. R. H. Webb, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York1990), 438–450.
    [Crossref]
  6. B. R. Masters, Selected Papers on Confocal Microscopy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1996).
  7. F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).
  8. F. W. Fitzke and B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of confocal sections of in vivo human fundus and optic nerve,” Curr. Eye Res. 121015–1018 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from Volume Data,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C.1989).
  10. N. S. White, “Visualization Systems for Multidimensional CLSM Images,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy,J. B. Pawley, ed., (Plenum Press, New York1990), 211–254.
  11. A. Kriete, Visualization in Biomedical Microscopies, (VCH, New York1992).
  12. O. Minet, G. Müller, and J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1998).
  13. V. Tuchin, Selected Papers on Tissue Optics, Applications in Medical Diagnostics and Therapy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1994).
  14. H. A. Quigley and E. M. Addicks, “Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99137–143 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, and N. Orzalesi, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa,” Curr. Eye Res. 17453–461 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, and N. Orzalesi, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa,” Curr. Eye Res. 17453–461 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

B. R. Masters, “The scanning laser ophthalmoscope: a new view on the retina,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78, 81 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

F. W. Fitzke and B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of confocal sections of in vivo human fundus and optic nerve,” Curr. Eye Res. 121015–1018 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

1990 (1)

N. S. White, “Visualization Systems for Multidimensional CLSM Images,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy,J. B. Pawley, ed., (Plenum Press, New York1990), 211–254.

1981 (1)

H. A. Quigley and E. M. Addicks, “Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99137–143 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

H. Ridley, “Recent methods of fundus examination including electronic ophthalmoscopy,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 72, 497–509 (1952).

Addicks, E. M.

H. A. Quigley and E. M. Addicks, “Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99137–143 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beuthan, J.

O. Minet, G. Müller, and J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1998).

Bird, A. C.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

Federman, J. L.

J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, and T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous, Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).

Fitzke, F. W.

F. W. Fitzke and B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of confocal sections of in vivo human fundus and optic nerve,” Curr. Eye Res. 121015–1018 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

Ford, B. J.

B. J. Ford, Single lens, the story of the simple microscope, (Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1985), 49–50.

Gouras, P.

J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, and T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous, Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).

Kriete, A.

A. Kriete, Visualization in Biomedical Microscopies, (VCH, New York1992).

Levoy, M.

M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from Volume Data,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C.1989).

Lonati, C.

S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, and N. Orzalesi, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa,” Curr. Eye Res. 17453–461 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marshall, J.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

Masters, B. R.

B. R. Masters, “The scanning laser ophthalmoscope: a new view on the retina,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78, 81 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Fitzke and B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of confocal sections of in vivo human fundus and optic nerve,” Curr. Eye Res. 121015–1018 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Masters, Selected Papers on Confocal Microscopy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1996).

Miglior, S.

S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, and N. Orzalesi, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa,” Curr. Eye Res. 17453–461 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minet, O.

O. Minet, G. Müller, and J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1998).

Müller, G.

O. Minet, G. Müller, and J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1998).

Orzalesi, N.

S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, and N. Orzalesi, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa,” Curr. Eye Res. 17453–461 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quigley, H. A.

H. A. Quigley and E. M. Addicks, “Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99137–143 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridley, H.

H. Ridley, “Recent methods of fundus examination including electronic ophthalmoscopy,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 72, 497–509 (1952).

Robinson, L.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

Rossetti, L.

S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, and N. Orzalesi, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa,” Curr. Eye Res. 17453–461 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, H.

J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, and T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous, Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).

Slusher, A. M.

J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, and T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous, Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).

Timberlake, G.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

Tuchin, V.

V. Tuchin, Selected Papers on Tissue Optics, Applications in Medical Diagnostics and Therapy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1994).

Vrabec, T. R.

J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, and T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous, Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York1990), 438–450.
[Crossref]

White, N. S.

N. S. White, “Visualization Systems for Multidimensional CLSM Images,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy,J. B. Pawley, ed., (Plenum Press, New York1990), 211–254.

Woon, H.

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. A. Quigley and E. M. Addicks, “Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 99137–143 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

B. R. Masters, “The scanning laser ophthalmoscope: a new view on the retina,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78, 81 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (2)

F. W. Fitzke and B. R. Masters, “Three-dimensional visualization of confocal sections of in vivo human fundus and optic nerve,” Curr. Eye Res. 121015–1018 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, and N. Orzalesi, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa,” Curr. Eye Res. 17453–461 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Light Ophthalmol. (1)

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, “Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging,” Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7–14 (1991).

Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. (1)

H. Ridley, “Recent methods of fundus examination including electronic ophthalmoscopy,” Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 72, 497–509 (1952).

Other (9)

R. H. Webb, “Scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York1990), 438–450.
[Crossref]

B. R. Masters, Selected Papers on Confocal Microscopy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1996).

M. Levoy, “Display of surfaces from Volume Data,” Ph.D. dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C.1989).

N. S. White, “Visualization Systems for Multidimensional CLSM Images,” in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy,J. B. Pawley, ed., (Plenum Press, New York1990), 211–254.

A. Kriete, Visualization in Biomedical Microscopies, (VCH, New York1992).

O. Minet, G. Müller, and J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1998).

V. Tuchin, Selected Papers on Tissue Optics, Applications in Medical Diagnostics and Therapy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1994).

B. J. Ford, Single lens, the story of the simple microscope, (Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1985), 49–50.

J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, and T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous, Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos and M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Movie of three-dimensional in vivo human fundus and optic nerve [Media 1]

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