Abstract

A scanning laser confocal microscope was used to visualize the human fundus (the back portion of the eyeball, as seen by means of the ophthalmoscope) in vivo from near the retinal surface to deep within the optic nerve head. Thirty-two optical sections based on reflected light were acquired, digitized and aligned to compensate for small eye movements. The registered stack of optical sections was reconstructed with three-dimensional volume rendering software and presented as a movie. The three-dimensional rendering presents a new technique to view the optic nerve. This technique is clinically important since morphological changes of the lamina cribrosa of the optic nerve may be involved in glaucoma.

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References

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  1. B. J. Ford, Single lens, the story of the simple microscope, (Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1985), 49-50.
  2. J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous , Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos, M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).
  3. B. R. Masters, "The scanning laser ophthalmoscope: a new view on the retina," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78, 81 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ridley, "Recent methods of fundus examination including electronic ophthalmoscopy," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 72, 497-509 (1952).
  5. R. H. Webb, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York 1990), 438-450.
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. R. Masters, Selected Papers on Confocal Microscopy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1996).
  7. F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7-14 (1991).
  8. F. W. Fitzke, B. R. Masters, "Three-dimensional visualization of confocal sections of in vivo human fundus and optic nerve," Curr. Eye Res. 12 1015-1018 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Levoy, "Display of surfaces from Volume Data," Ph.D. dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 1989).
  10. N. S. White, "Visualization Systems for Multidimensional CLSM Images," in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed., (Plenum Press, New York 1990), 211-254.
  11. A. Kriete, Visualization in Biomedical Microscopies, (VCH, New York 1992).
  12. O. Minet, G. M,ller, J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1998).
  13. V. Tuchin, Selected Papers on Tissue Optics, Applications in Medical Diagnostics and Therapy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1994).
  14. H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, "Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 137-143 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, N. Orzalesi, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 453-461 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (15)

B. J. Ford, Single lens, the story of the simple microscope, (Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1985), 49-50.

J. L. Federman, P. Gouras, H. Schubert, A. M. Slusher, T. R. Vrabec, Retina and Vitreous , Vol. 9, Textbook of Ophthalmology, S. M. Podos, M. Yanoff, eds. (Mosby-Year Book Europe, Ltd, London, 1994).

B. R. Masters, "The scanning laser ophthalmoscope: a new view on the retina," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 78, 81 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ridley, "Recent methods of fundus examination including electronic ophthalmoscopy," Trans. Ophthalmol. Soc. U. K. 72, 497-509 (1952).

R. H. Webb, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscope," in Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Ophthalmology, B. R. Masters, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York 1990), 438-450.
[CrossRef]

B. R. Masters, Selected Papers on Confocal Microscopy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1996).

F. W. Fitzke, H. Woon, G. Timberlake, L. Robinson, J. Marshall, and A. C. Bird, "Optical modifications to a scanning laser ophthalmoscope for high magnification, narrow optical section imaging," Lasers Light Ophthalmol. 4, 7-14 (1991).

F. W. Fitzke, B. R. Masters, "Three-dimensional visualization of confocal sections of in vivo human fundus and optic nerve," Curr. Eye Res. 12 1015-1018 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Levoy, "Display of surfaces from Volume Data," Ph.D. dissertation, (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C. 1989).

N. S. White, "Visualization Systems for Multidimensional CLSM Images," in Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, J. B. Pawley, ed., (Plenum Press, New York 1990), 211-254.

A. Kriete, Visualization in Biomedical Microscopies, (VCH, New York 1992).

O. Minet, G. M,ller, J. Beuthan, Selected Papers on Optical Tomography, Fundamentals and Applications in Medicine, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1998).

V. Tuchin, Selected Papers on Tissue Optics, Applications in Medical Diagnostics and Therapy, (SPIE, The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1994).

H. A. Quigley, E. M. Addicks, "Regional differences in the structure of the lamina cribrosa and their relation to glaucomatous optic nerve damage," Arch. Ophthalmol. 99, 137-143 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Miglior, L. Rossetti, C. Lonati, N. Orzalesi, "Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy of the optic disk at the level of the lamina cribrosa," Curr. Eye Res. 17, 453-461 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Movie of three-dimensional in vivo human fundus and optic nerve [Media 1]

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