Abstract

Graphene has emerged as a promising solution for on-chip ultrafast photodetection for its advantages of easy integration, high mobility, adjustable chemical potential, and wide operation wavelength range. In order to realize high-performance photodetectors, it is very important to achieve efficient light absorption in the active region. In this work, a compact and high-speed hybrid silicon/graphene photodetector is proposed and demonstrated by utilizing an ultra-thin silicon photonic waveguide integrated with a loop mirror. With this design, the graphene absorption rate for the fundamental mode of TE polarization is improved by ∼5 times compared to that in the conventional hybrid silicon/graphene waveguide with hco=220 nm. One can achieve 80% light absorption ratio within the active-region length of only 20 µm for the present silicon/graphene waveguide photodetector at 1550 nm. For the fabricated device, the responsivity is about 25 mA/W under 0.3V bias voltage and the 3-dB bandwidth is about 17 GHz. It is expected to achieve very high bandwidth by introducing high-quality Al2O3 insulator layers and reducing the graphene channel length in the future.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (2)

J. Guo, J. Li, C. Liu, Y. Yin, W. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Fu, H. Yu, Y. Xu, Y. Shi, Y. Ma, S. Gao, L. Tong, and D. Dai, “High-performance silicon-graphene hybrid plasmonic waveguide photodetectors beyond 1.55 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 29 (2020).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2019 (4)

Y. Gao, G. Zhou, H. K. Tsang, and C. Shu, “High-speed van der Waals heterostructure tunneling photodiodes integrated on silicon nitride waveguides,” Optica 6(4), 514–517 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Ma, Y. Salamin, B. Baeuerle, A. Josten, W. Heni, A. Emboras, and J. Leuthold, “Plasmonically Enhanced Graphene Photodetector Featuring 100 Gbit/s Data Reception, High Responsivity, and Compact Size,” ACS Photonics 6(1), 154–161 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. S. Amiri, M. M. Ariannejad, V. J. Sorger, and P. Yupapin, “Silicon microring resonator waveguide-based graphene photodetector,” Microsyst. Technol. 25(1), 319–328 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Y. Yin, J. Guo, C. Liu, and D. Dai, “A silicon-graphene hybrid waveguide photodetector with a 3dB-bandwidth of 17 GHz,” Proc. SPIE 11184, 111840K (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

V. Shautsova, T. Sidiropoulos, X. Xiao, N. A. Güsken, N. C. G. Black, A. M. Gilbertson, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, L. F. Cohen, and R. F. Oulton, “Plasmon induced thermoelectric effect in graphene,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 5190 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, G. Zhou, N. Zhao, H. K. Tsang, and C. Shu, “High-performance chemical vapor deposited graphene-on-silicon nitride waveguide photodetectors,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1399–1402 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, H. K. Tsang, and C. Shu, “A silicon nitride waveguide-integrated chemical vapor deposited graphene photodetector with 38 GHz bandwidth,” Nanoscale 10(46), 21851–21856 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Gurram, S. Omar, S. Zihlmann, P. Makk, Q. C. Li, Y. F. Zhang, C. Schönenberger, and B. J. van Wees, “Spin transport in two-layer-CVD-hBN/graphene/hBN heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 97(4), 045411 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

D. Schall D, C. Porschatis, M. Otto, and D. Neumaier, “Graphene photodetectors with a bandwidth> 76 GHz fabricated in a 6″ wafer process line,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50(12), 124004 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Fang and W. Hu, “Photogating in low dimensional photodetectors,” Adv. Sci. 4(12), 1700323 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, L. Zhou, R. Li, J. Xie, L. Lu, K. Wu, and J. Chen, “Continuously tunable ultra-thin silicon waveguide optical delay line,” Optica 4(5), 507–515 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Li and D. Dai, “Low-loss and low-crosstalk multi-channel mode (de) multiplexer with ultrathin silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 42(12), 2370–2373 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14411 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

H. Zhou, T. Gu, J. F. McMillan, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, G. Feng, S. Zhou, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced photoresponsivity in graphene-silicon slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 111106 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Z. Cheng, Z. Chen, X. Wan, B. Zhu, H. K. Tsang, C. Shu, and J. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene-on-silicon slot waveguide photodetectors,” Nanoscale 8(27), 13206–13211 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Casalino, G. Coppola, R. M. De La Rue, and D. F. Logan, “State-of-the-art all-silicon sub-bandgap photodetectors at telecom and datacom wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(6), 895–921 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. Martinez, and F. Wang, “Optical modulators with 2D layered materials,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 227–238 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Goykhman, U. Sassi, B. Desiatov, N. Mazurski, S. Milana, D. de Fazio, A. Eiden, J. Khurgin, J. Shappir, U. Levy, and A. C. Ferrari, “On-chip integrated, silicon–graphene plasmonic Schottky photodetector with high responsivity and avalanche photogain,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3005–3013 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Schuler, D. Schall, D. Neumaier, L. Dobusch, O. Bethge, B. Schwarz, M. Krall, and T. Mueller, “Controlled generation of a p–n junction in a waveguide integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7107–7112 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Ye and J. Yu, “Germanium epitaxy on silicon,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(2), 024601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, P. Rauter, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “High-responsivity mid-infrared graphene detectors with antenna-enhanced photocarrier generation and collection,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3749–3754 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Freitag M, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

L. He, Y. He, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultrathin silicon-on-insulator grating couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2247–2249 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. D. Franklin, S. J. Han, A. A. Bol, and V. Perebeinos, “Double contacts for improved performance of graphene transistors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(1), 17–19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

M. C. Lemme, F. H. L. Koppens, A. L. Falk, M. S. Rudner, H. Park, L. S. Levitov, and C. M. Marcus, “Gate-activated photoresponse in a graphene p–n junction,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4134–4137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Lee, C. G. Kang, U. J. Jung, J. J. Kim, H. J. Hwang, H.-J. Chung, S. Seo, R. Choi, and B. H. Lee, “Fast transient charging at the graphene/SiO2 interface causing hysteretic device characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(18), 183508 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. John, D. Dai, M.-C. Tien, J. S. Barton, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3163–3174 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Pirkle, J. Chan, A. Venugopal, D. Hinojos, C. W. Magnuson, S. McDonnell, L. Colombo, E. M. Vogel, R. S. Ruoff, and R. M. Wallace, “The effect of chemical residues on the physical and electrical properties of chemical vapor deposited graphene transferred to SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 122108 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan T, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. I. Bolotin, K. J. Sikes, Z. Jiang, M. Klima, G. Fudenberg, J. Hone, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun. 146(9-10), 351–355 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Meric, M. Y. Han, A. F. Young, B. Ozyilmaz, P. Kim, and K. L. Shepard, “Current saturation in zero-bandgap, top-gated graphene field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(11), 654–659 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Amiri, I. S.

I. S. Amiri, M. M. Ariannejad, V. J. Sorger, and P. Yupapin, “Silicon microring resonator waveguide-based graphene photodetector,” Microsyst. Technol. 25(1), 319–328 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ariannejad, M. M.

I. S. Amiri, M. M. Ariannejad, V. J. Sorger, and P. Yupapin, “Silicon microring resonator waveguide-based graphene photodetector,” Microsyst. Technol. 25(1), 319–328 (2019).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Three-dimensional schematic configuration of the proposed hybrid silicon-graphene photodetector based on an ultra-thin silicon waveguide with a loop mirror reflector; (b) Cross-section of the hybrid silicon-graphene waveguide; (c) Mode profile of the present ultrathin silicon waveguide.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Calculated graphene absorption coefficient in the proposed hybrid silicon-graphene as the silicon-core thickness hco varies. Insets: the fundamental mode of TE polarization for the cases with different thicknesses; (b) Calculated modal-field profiles and (c) the absorption along the graphene sheet for the cases with different core-thicknesses (hco=50, 70, 150, 220 nm). Here the mode power is normalized to be 1 mW, and the width of the waveguide is 1µm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic configuration of a loop mirror; (b) Calculated reflection of the designed loop mirror in the band of 1500-1600 nm. Inset: simulated light propagation in the designed Y-branch for the loop mirror.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Microscopy images for the fabricated graphene photodetectors (e.g., samples S1 and S2). (a) Sample S1 with a loop mirror; (b) an enlarged view for the graphene absorption region of sample S1; (c) Sample S2 without a loop mirror; (d) an enlarged view for the graphene absorption region of sample S2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Setup for characterizing the fabricated graphene photodetectors.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental results of the ultrathin silicon/graphene waveguide photodetectors. (a) Measured photocurrent as the bias voltage varies from −0.3 V to 0.3 V with different optical powers. (b) Measured photocurrent and responsivity for sample S1 operating with 0.3 V bias voltage and different optical powers. Measured responsivity for sample S1 (c) and sample S2 (d) operating with a bias voltage varying from −0.3 V to 0.3 V and different optical powers.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. High frequency characterization of the ultrathin waveguide graphene photodetectors. (a) Experimental setup for the high-frequency measurement. (b) Normalized response of S21 for sample S1 and sample S2 under the same condition. Here Vb=0. Inset: the equivalent circuit model for graphene photodetector. (c) Measured and fitted results for the reflection S11 for sample S1. Inset, calculated response S21 from the equivalent circuit model.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters for the equivalent circuit extracted from the measured S11 and the 3dB-bandwdith BW3dB estimated from the equivalent circuit model.

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