Abstract

Focusing light through turbid media using wavefront shaping generally requires a noninvasive guide star to provide feedback on the focusing process. Here we report a photoacoustic guide star mechanism suitable for wavefront shaping through a scattering wall that is based on the fluctuations in the photoacoustic signals generated in a micro-vessel filled with flowing absorbers. The standard deviation of photoacoustic signals generated from random distributions of particles is dependent on the illumination volume and increases nonlinearly as the illumination volume is decreased. We harness this effect to guide wavefront shaping using the standard deviation of the photoacoustic response as the feedback signal. We further demonstrate sub-acoustic resolution optical focusing through a diffuser with a genetic algorithm optimization routine.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

14 April 2020: A typographical correction was made to Ref. 27.


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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5188–5191 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. L. Li and L. V. Wang, “Speckle in photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860Y (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2017 (2)

H. Ruan, T. Haber, Y. Liu, J. Brake, J. Kim, J. M. Berlin, and C. Yang, “Focusing light inside scattering media with magnetic-particle-guided wavefront shaping,” Optica 4(11), 1337–1343 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. K. Kim, A. Adhikari, and K. Deisseroth, ““Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18(4), 222–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, “On the link between the speckle free nature of optoacoustics and visibility of structures in limited-view tomography,” J. Photoacoust. 4(4), 133–140 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ruan, M. Jang, B. Judkewitz, and C. Yang, “Iterative time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing in backscattering mode,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7156 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Tay, P. Lai, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded wavefront shaping for focusing into random media,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3918 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Weissleder and M. Nahrendorf, “Advancing biomedical imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(47), 14424–14428 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ruan, M. Jang, and C. Yang, “Optical focusing inside scattering media with time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8968 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1(4), 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (5)

Z. Guo, Z. Xu, and L. V. Wang, “Dependence of photoacoustic speckles on boundary roughness,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 046009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound-pulse-guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Conkey, A. N. Brown, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “Genetic algorithm optimization for focusing through turbid media in noisy environments,” Opt. Express 20(5), 4840–4849 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9Part1), 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

I. M. Vellekoop, E. G. van Putten, A. Lagendijk, and A. P. Mosk, “Demixing light paths inside disordered metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(1), 67–80 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

L. Li and L. V. Wang, “Speckle in photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860Y (2006).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, A.

C. K. Kim, A. Adhikari, and K. Deisseroth, ““Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18(4), 222–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aegerter, C. M.

Berlin, J. M.

Blochet, B.

Boccara, A. C.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boniface, A.

Bossy, E.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brake, J.

Brown, A. N.

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chaigne, T.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. C.

Chitnis, P. V.

Conkey, D. B.

Cui, M.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound-pulse-guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

Deán-Ben, X. L.

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, “On the link between the speckle free nature of optoacoustics and visibility of structures in limited-view tomography,” J. Photoacoust. 4(4), 133–140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deisseroth, K.

C. K. Kim, A. Adhikari, and K. Deisseroth, ““Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18(4), 222–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

DiMarzio, C. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Dougherty, T. J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dove, J. D.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiolka, R.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound-pulse-guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref]

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gateau, J.

Gigan, S.

A. Boniface, B. Blochet, J. Dong, and S. Gigan, “Noninvasive light focusing in scattering media using speckle variance optimization,” Optica 6(11), 1381–1385 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gomer, C. J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

Guo, Z.

Z. Guo, Z. Xu, and L. V. Wang, “Dependence of photoacoustic speckles on boundary roughness,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 046009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9Part1), 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haber, T.

Henderson, B. W.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[Crossref]

Horstmeyer, R.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. L.

Jang, M.

H. Ruan, M. Jang, and C. Yang, “Optical focusing inside scattering media with time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8968 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ruan, M. Jang, B. Judkewitz, and C. Yang, “Iterative time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing in backscattering mode,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7156 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jori, G.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ju, H.

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, D. B. Conkey, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “High contrast three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging through scattering media by localized optical fluence enhancement,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26671–26676 (2013).
[Crossref]

Judkewitz, B.

H. Ruan, M. Jang, B. Judkewitz, and C. Yang, “Iterative time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing in backscattering mode,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7156 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1(4), 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kane, C.

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[Crossref]

Katz, O.

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gateau, T. Chaigne, O. Katz, S. Gigan, and E. Bossy, “Improving visibility in photoacoustic imaging using dynamic speckle illumination,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5188–5191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kessel, D.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. K.

C. K. Kim, A. Adhikari, and K. Deisseroth, ““Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18(4), 222–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kong, F.

Korbelik, M.

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Lee, P. A.

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Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9Part1), 4084–4088 (2009).
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L. Li and L. V. Wang, “Speckle in photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860Y (2006).
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X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
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Liu, Y.

H. Ruan, T. Haber, Y. Liu, J. Brake, J. Kim, J. M. Berlin, and C. Yang, “Focusing light inside scattering media with magnetic-particle-guided wavefront shaping,” Optica 4(11), 1337–1343 (2017).
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C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
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B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
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Moan, J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
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Murray, T. W.

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V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
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T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
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Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
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Razansky, D.

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, “On the link between the speckle free nature of optoacoustics and visibility of structures in limited-view tomography,” J. Photoacoust. 4(4), 133–140 (2016).
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I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
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H. Ruan, T. Haber, Y. Liu, J. Brake, J. Kim, J. M. Berlin, and C. Yang, “Focusing light inside scattering media with magnetic-particle-guided wavefront shaping,” Optica 4(11), 1337–1343 (2017).
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H. Ruan, M. Jang, and C. Yang, “Optical focusing inside scattering media with time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8968 (2015).
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H. Ruan, M. Jang, B. Judkewitz, and C. Yang, “Iterative time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing in backscattering mode,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7156 (2015).
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E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1(4), 227–232 (2014).
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S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
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J. W. Tay, P. Lai, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded wavefront shaping for focusing into random media,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3918 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tay, J. W.

J. W. Tay, P. Lai, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded wavefront shaping for focusing into random media,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3918 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 126–132 (2015).
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Vellekoop, I. M.

Wang, L.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 126–132 (2015).
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Wang, L. V.

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Tay, P. Lai, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded wavefront shaping for focusing into random media,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3918 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, Z. Xu, and L. V. Wang, “Dependence of photoacoustic speckles on boundary roughness,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 046009 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9Part1), 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Li and L. V. Wang, “Speckle in photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860Y (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. M.

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
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R. Weissleder and M. Nahrendorf, “Advancing biomedical imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(47), 14424–14428 (2015).
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C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Z. Guo, Z. Xu, and L. V. Wang, “Dependence of photoacoustic speckles on boundary roughness,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 046009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

H. Ruan, T. Haber, Y. Liu, J. Brake, J. Kim, J. M. Berlin, and C. Yang, “Focusing light inside scattering media with magnetic-particle-guided wavefront shaping,” Optica 4(11), 1337–1343 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Ruan, M. Jang, and C. Yang, “Optical focusing inside scattering media with time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8968 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ruan, M. Jang, B. Judkewitz, and C. Yang, “Iterative time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing in backscattering mode,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7156 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. H. Zhou, H. Ruan, C. Yang, and B. Judkewitz, “Focusing on moving targets through scattering samples,” Optica 1(4), 227–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, E. H.

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Z. Guo, Z. Xu, and L. V. Wang, “Dependence of photoacoustic speckles on boundary roughness,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(4), 046009 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1)

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Photoacoust. (1)

X. L. Deán-Ben and D. Razansky, “On the link between the speckle free nature of optoacoustics and visibility of structures in limited-view tomography,” J. Photoacoust. 4(4), 133–140 (2016).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (1)

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9Part1), 4084–4088 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

H. Ruan, M. Jang, and C. Yang, “Optical focusing inside scattering media with time-reversed ultrasound microbubble encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8968 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. DiMarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 928 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, J. D. Dove, H. Ju, T. W. Murray, and R. Piestun, “Super-resolution photoacoustic imaging through a scattering wall,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Ntziachristos, “Going deeper than microscopy: the optical imaging frontier in biology,” Nat. Methods 7(8), 603–614 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (8)

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Ma, X. Xu, Y. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed adapted-perturbation (TRAP) optical focusing onto dynamic objects inside scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 931–936 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Lai, L. Wang, J. W. Tay, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping for enhanced optical focusing in scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 126–132 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, Y. M. Wang, R. Horstmeyer, A. Mathy, and C. Yang, “Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE),” Nat. Photonics 7(4), 300–305 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Chaigne, O. Katz, A. C. Boccara, M. Fink, E. Bossy, and S. Gigan, “Controlling light in scattering media non-invasively using the photoacoustic transmission matrix,” Nat. Photonics 8(1), 58–64 (2014).
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K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound-pulse-guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
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Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

C. K. Kim, A. Adhikari, and K. Deisseroth, ““Integration of optogenetics with complementary methodologies in systems neuroscience,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18(4), 222–235 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(20), 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, C. Kane, P. A. Lee, and A. D. Stone, “Correlations and fluctuations of coherent wave transmission through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(7), 834–837 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

R. Weissleder and M. Nahrendorf, “Advancing biomedical imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(47), 14424–14428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Li and L. V. Wang, “Speckle in photoacoustic tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6086, 60860Y (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

H. Ruan, M. Jang, B. Judkewitz, and C. Yang, “Iterative time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing in backscattering mode,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7156 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Tay, P. Lai, Y. Suzuki, and L. V. Wang, “Ultrasonically encoded wavefront shaping for focusing into random media,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3918 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Effect of spot-size on amplitude and variance of the photoacoustic response: (a) Geometry used for the numerical simulation. A pulsed laser illuminates flowing absorbers and a co-aligned ultrasonic transducer detects the particle photoacoustic emissions. (b) Five predicted photoacoustic single-shot responses from random absorbers of concentration ρ = 0.3 × 109 particles/mL for different illumination spot-sizes. (c) App as a function of illumination spot-size for several particle concentrations and (d) σN versus illumination spot-size for various particle concentrations.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental investigation of the effect of spot-size on amplitude and variance of the photoacoustic response: (a) Mean photoacoustic signals, normalized by the incident energy, detected for a for particle concentration of ρ = 0.3 × 109 particles/mL for four illumination spot-sizes and (b) σN as a function of illumination spot-size for particle concentrations of ρ = 0.3 × 109 particles/mL and ρ = 0.45 × 109 particles/mL.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. A schematic of the experimental setup. The excitation pulse is reflected from the SLM and passed through a diffuser to create a speckle pattern at the target plane. Light is absorbed by the flowing particles and the resulting photoacoustic signal is detected by a focused ultrasound transducer. The CCD camera is used to image the speckle field before and after genetic algorithm optimization.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Wavefront optimization results showing representative images of the speckle field (a) prior to wavefront optimization, (b) subsequent to wavefront optimization using App as the feedback parameter, and (c) subsequent to wavefront optimization using σm as the feedback parameter. (d) Photoacoustic mean signals produced by the initial random speckle patterns (green curves) and the final speckle patterns using App and σm feedback (black curves).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The evolution of σm (a), App (b) and σN (c) as the optimization routine iterates through 5000 phase patterns. On each plot, representative results found when using σm and App as feedback parameters for the genetic algorithm are shown.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Wavefront optimization results showing representative images of the speckle field (a) prior to wavefront optimization and (b) subsequent to wavefront optimization using σm as the feedback parameter. The dashed blue lines indicate the size of the acoustic focus (208 µm) and the speckle size is 10.3 µm. (c) Horizontal and (d) vertical cross-sections of the initial and optimized speckle field with the FWHM of the focused spot indicated.

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