Abstract

Nonlinear frequency conversion plays a crucial role in advancing the functionality of next-generation optical systems. Portable metrology references and quantum networks will demand highly efficient second-order nonlinear devices, and the intense nonlinear interactions of nanophotonic waveguides can be leveraged to meet these requirements. Here we demonstrate second harmonic generation (SHG) in GaAs-on-insulator waveguides with unprecedented efficiency of 40 W−1 for a single-pass device. This result is achieved by minimizing the propagation loss and optimizing phase-matching. We investigate surface-state absorption and design the waveguide geometry for modal phase-matching with tolerance to fabrication variation. A 2.0 µm pump is converted to a 1.0 µm signal in a length of 2.9 mm with a wide signal bandwidth of 148 GHz. Tunable and efficient operation is demonstrated over a temperature range of 45 °C with a slope of 0.24 nm/°C. Wafer-bonding between GaAs and SiO2 is optimized to minimize waveguide loss, and the devices are fabricated on 76 mm wafers with high uniformity. We expect this device to enable fully integrated self-referenced frequency combs and high-rate entangled photon pair generation.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

2019 (7)

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Moille, Q. Li, T. C. Briles, S.-P. Yu, T. Drake, X. Lu, A. Rao, D. Westly, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Broadband resonator-waveguide coupling for efficient extraction of octave-spanning microcombs,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4737–4740 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, J. B. Surya, X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, Y. Xu, and H. X. Tang, “Periodically poled thin-film lithium niobate microring resonators with a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 250,000%/W,” Optica 6(12), 1455–1460 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. E. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, Q. Li, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Terahertz-Rate Kerr-Microresonator Optical Clockwork,” Phys. Rev. X 9(3), 031023 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. May, M. Kues, M. Clerici, and M. Sorel, “Second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 44(6), 1339–1342 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, P. Pintus, J. D. Peters, M. Kennedy, X.-W. Guo, N. Volet, S.-P. Yu, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Strong frequency conversion in heterogeneously integrated GaAs resonators,” APL Photonics 4(3), 036103 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multifunctional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” Optica 6(9), 1246–1254 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

A. W. Bruch, X. Liu, X. Guo, J. B. Surya, Z. Gong, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “17 000%/W second-harmonic conversion efficiency in single-crystalline aluminum nitride microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(13), 131102 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, E. J. Stanton, P. A. Morton, K. Y. Yang, K. J. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Micro-resonator soliton generated directly with a diode laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(5), 1700307 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

K. A. Fedorova, G. S. Sokolovskii, P. R. Battle, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser in a PPKTP waveguide,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(11), 790–795 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Savanier, A. Andronico, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, C. Manquest, I. Favero, S. Ducci, and G. Leo, “Large second-harmonic generation at 1.55 µm in oxidized AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2955–2957 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2003 (2)

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

2000 (2)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of KNbO3 ridge waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1186–1195 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. Van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ=1.6 in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 2942–2944 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2057–2074 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. Kaminska, “EL2 defect in GaAs,” Phys. Scr. T19B, 551–557 (1987).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, “Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 14(4), 1693–1706 (1976).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

1959 (1)

W. G. Spitzer and J. M. Whelan, “Infrared Absorption and Electron Effective Mass in n-Type Gallium Arsenide,” Phys. Rev. 114(1), 59–63 (1959).
[Crossref]

Amo, A.

Andronico, A.

Arisholm, G.

Baker, C.

Battle, P. R.

K. A. Fedorova, G. S. Sokolovskii, P. R. Battle, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser in a PPKTP waveguide,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(11), 790–795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beckers, L.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of KNbO3 ridge waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1186–1195 (1998).
[Crossref]

Becouarn, L.

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Skauli, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, A. Schober, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, E. Lallier, and G. Arisholm, “Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of orientation-patterned GaAs and demonstration of highly efficient second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 628–630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beha, K.

Berger, V.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. Van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ=1.6 in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 2942–2944 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berkovitz, V.

Bhardwaj, M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bluestone, A.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boes, A.

L. Chang, A. Boes, P. Pintus, J. D. Peters, M. Kennedy, X.-W. Guo, N. Volet, S.-P. Yu, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Strong frequency conversion in heterogeneously integrated GaAs resonators,” APL Photonics 4(3), 036103 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonators,” arXiv:1909.09778 (2019).

Bowers, J. E.

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, P. Pintus, J. D. Peters, M. Kennedy, X.-W. Guo, N. Volet, S.-P. Yu, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Strong frequency conversion in heterogeneously integrated GaAs resonators,” APL Photonics 4(3), 036103 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, E. J. Stanton, P. A. Morton, K. Y. Yang, K. J. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Micro-resonator soliton generated directly with a diode laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(5), 1700307 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, A. Spott, E. J. Stanton, M. L. Davenport, L. Chang, J. D. Peters, T. C. Briles, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and J. E. Bowers, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers at 2.0- wavelength on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(2), 1600165 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonators,” arXiv:1909.09778 (2019).

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. Van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ=1.6 in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 2942–2944 (1998).
[Crossref]

Briles, T. C.

T. E. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, Q. Li, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Terahertz-Rate Kerr-Microresonator Optical Clockwork,” Phys. Rev. X 9(3), 031023 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Moille, Q. Li, T. C. Briles, S.-P. Yu, T. Drake, X. Lu, A. Rao, D. Westly, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Broadband resonator-waveguide coupling for efficient extraction of octave-spanning microcombs,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4737–4740 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, A. Spott, E. J. Stanton, M. L. Davenport, L. Chang, J. D. Peters, T. C. Briles, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and J. E. Bowers, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers at 2.0- wavelength on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(2), 1600165 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bruch, A. W.

J. Lu, J. B. Surya, X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, Y. Xu, and H. X. Tang, “Periodically poled thin-film lithium niobate microring resonators with a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 250,000%/W,” Optica 6(12), 1455–1460 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. W. Bruch, X. Liu, X. Guo, J. B. Surya, Z. Gong, L. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yan, and H. X. Tang, “17 000%/W second-harmonic conversion efficiency in single-crystalline aluminum nitride microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(13), 131102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Buchal, C.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Günter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of KNbO3 ridge waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(3), 1186–1195 (1998).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, “Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 14(4), 1693–1706 (1976).
[Crossref]

Cadiz, F.

Carlson, D. R.

T. E. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, Q. Li, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Terahertz-Rate Kerr-Microresonator Optical Clockwork,” Phys. Rev. X 9(3), 031023 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, P. Pintus, J. D. Peters, M. Kennedy, X.-W. Guo, N. Volet, S.-P. Yu, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Strong frequency conversion in heterogeneously integrated GaAs resonators,” APL Photonics 4(3), 036103 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Volet, A. Spott, E. J. Stanton, M. L. Davenport, L. Chang, J. D. Peters, T. C. Briles, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and J. E. Bowers, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers at 2.0- wavelength on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(2), 1600165 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonators,” arXiv:1909.09778 (2019).

Cheng, R.

X. Guo, C.-l. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chiles, J.

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multifunctional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” Optica 6(9), 1246–1254 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. J. Stanton, R. Daniel, J. Chiles, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Wafer bonder,” https://github.com/estanton-nist/wafer-bonder (2019).

Chowdhury, A.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choy, M. M.

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, “Accurate second-order susceptibility measurements of visible and infrared nonlinear crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 14(4), 1693–1706 (1976).
[Crossref]

Clerici, M.

Coddington, I.

Combrié, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Daniel, R.

E. J. Stanton, R. Daniel, J. Chiles, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Wafer bonder,” https://github.com/estanton-nist/wafer-bonder (2019).

Davenport, M. L.

N. Volet, A. Spott, E. J. Stanton, M. L. Davenport, L. Chang, J. D. Peters, T. C. Briles, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and J. E. Bowers, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers at 2.0- wavelength on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(2), 1600165 (2017).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

Delobel, L.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. Van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ=1.6 in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 2942–2944 (1998).
[Crossref]

Desiatov, B.

Diddams, S. A.

T. E. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, Q. Li, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Terahertz-Rate Kerr-Microresonator Optical Clockwork,” Phys. Rev. X 9(3), 031023 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multifunctional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” Optica 6(9), 1246–1254 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1(1), 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Drake, T.

G. Moille, Q. Li, T. C. Briles, S.-P. Yu, T. Drake, X. Lu, A. Rao, D. Westly, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Broadband resonator-waveguide coupling for efficient extraction of octave-spanning microcombs,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4737–4740 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Drake, T. E.

Ducci, S.

Eckardt, R. C.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

Eyres, L. A.

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Skauli, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, A. Schober, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, E. Lallier, and G. Arisholm, “Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of orientation-patterned GaAs and demonstration of highly efficient second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 628–630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. X.

R. C. Eckardt, H. Masuda, Y. X. Fan, and R. L. Byer, “Absolute and relative nonlinear optical coefficients of KDP, KD*P, BaB2O4, LiIO3, MgO:LiNbO3, and KTP measured by phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 922–933 (1990).
[Crossref]

Favero, I.

Fedorova, K. A.

K. A. Fedorova, G. S. Sokolovskii, P. R. Battle, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser in a PPKTP waveguide,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(11), 790–795 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

M. Jankowski, C. Langrock, B. Desiatov, A. Marandi, C. Wang, M. Zhang, C. R. Phillips, M. Lončar, and M. M. Fejer, “Ultrabroadband nonlinear optics in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 7(1), 40–46 (2020).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, L. Scaccabarozzi, J. S. Harris, P. S. Kuo, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficient continuous wave second harmonic generation pumped at 1.55 µm in quasi-phase-matched AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10742–10748 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Skauli, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, A. Schober, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, E. Lallier, and G. Arisholm, “Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of orientation-patterned GaAs and demonstration of highly efficient second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 628–630 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, “Highly efficient second-harmonic generation in buried waveguides formed by annealed and reverse proton exchange in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 27(3), 179–181 (2002).
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Morton, P. A.

N. Volet, X. Yi, Q.-F. Yang, E. J. Stanton, P. A. Morton, K. Y. Yang, K. J. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Micro-resonator soliton generated directly with a diode laser,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(5), 1700307 (2018).
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Nader, N.

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multifunctional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” Optica 6(9), 1246–1254 (2019).
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E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
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L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
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E. J. Stanton, R. Daniel, J. Chiles, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Wafer bonder,” https://github.com/estanton-nist/wafer-bonder (2019).

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. Van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ=1.6 in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 2942–2944 (1998).
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Nam, S. W.

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multifunctional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” Optica 6(9), 1246–1254 (2019).
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E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
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E. J. Stanton, R. Daniel, J. Chiles, N. Nader, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Wafer bonder,” https://github.com/estanton-nist/wafer-bonder (2019).

Navickaite, G.

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
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Newbury, N.

Newbury, N. R.

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multifunctional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” Optica 6(9), 1246–1254 (2019).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
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A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
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D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Oh, D. Y.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Papp, S. B.

L. Chang, A. Boes, P. Pintus, J. D. Peters, M. Kennedy, X.-W. Guo, N. Volet, S.-P. Yu, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Strong frequency conversion in heterogeneously integrated GaAs resonators,” APL Photonics 4(3), 036103 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Moille, Q. Li, T. C. Briles, S.-P. Yu, T. Drake, X. Lu, A. Rao, D. Westly, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Broadband resonator-waveguide coupling for efficient extraction of octave-spanning microcombs,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4737–4740 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. E. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, Q. Li, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Terahertz-Rate Kerr-Microresonator Optical Clockwork,” Phys. Rev. X 9(3), 031023 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, T. C. Briles, D. A. Westly, T. E. Drake, J. R. Stone, B. R. Ilic, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Stably accessing octave-spanning microresonator frequency combs in the soliton regime,” Optica 4(2), 193–203 (2017).
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S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1(1), 10–14 (2014).
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L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonators,” arXiv:1909.09778 (2019).

Parameswaran, K. R.

Parrain, D.

Peters, J.

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
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L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531–535 (2016).
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Peters, J. D.

L. Chang, A. Boes, P. Pintus, J. D. Peters, M. Kennedy, X.-W. Guo, N. Volet, S.-P. Yu, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Strong frequency conversion in heterogeneously integrated GaAs resonators,” APL Photonics 4(3), 036103 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
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N. Volet, A. Spott, E. J. Stanton, M. L. Davenport, L. Chang, J. D. Peters, T. C. Briles, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and J. E. Bowers, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers at 2.0- wavelength on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(2), 1600165 (2017).
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L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonators,” arXiv:1909.09778 (2019).

Pfeiffer, M. H.

Pfeiffer, M. H. P.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
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Pinguet, T. J.

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
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T. Skauli, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, A. Schober, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, E. Lallier, and G. Arisholm, “Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of orientation-patterned GaAs and demonstration of highly efficient second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 628–630 (2002).
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Pintus, P.

L. Chang, A. Boes, P. Pintus, J. D. Peters, M. Kennedy, X.-W. Guo, N. Volet, S.-P. Yu, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Strong frequency conversion in heterogeneously integrated GaAs resonators,” APL Photonics 4(3), 036103 (2019).
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S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1(1), 10–14 (2014).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Rafailov, E. U.

K. A. Fedorova, G. S. Sokolovskii, P. R. Battle, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser in a PPKTP waveguide,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(11), 790–795 (2012).
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S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
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Rogers, S.

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, S. Janz, L. Delobel, P. Van der Meer, P. Bravetti, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, and J. Nagle, “Second-harmonic generation at λ=1.6 in AlGaAs/Al2O3 waveguides using birefringence phase matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 2942–2944 (1998).
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Route, R. K.

Russell, P. St. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
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Sacchetto, D.

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
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Santos, E. G.

Savanier, M.

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X. Guo, C.-l. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, “Parametric down-conversion photon-pair source on a nanophotonic chip,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(5), e16249 (2017).
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L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonators,” arXiv:1909.09778 (2019).

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Shu, H.

L. Chang, W. Xie, H. Shu, Q. Yang, B. Shen, A. Boes, J. D. Peters, W. Jin, S. Liu, G. Moille, S.-P. Yu, X. Wang, K. Srinivasan, S. B. Papp, K. Vahala, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-efficient frequency comb generation in AlGaAs-on-insulator microresonators,” arXiv:1909.09778 (2019).

Sinclair, L. C.

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

Skauli, T.

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Skauli, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, A. Schober, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, J. S. Harris, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, E. Lallier, and G. Arisholm, “Measurement of the nonlinear coefficient of orientation-patterned GaAs and demonstration of highly efficient second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 628–630 (2002).
[Crossref]

Skehan, J. C.

Sokolovskii, G. S.

K. A. Fedorova, G. S. Sokolovskii, P. R. Battle, D. A. Livshits, and E. U. Rafailov, “Green-to-red tunable SHG of a quantum-dot laser in a PPKTP waveguide,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(11), 790–795 (2012).
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Sorel, M.

Spencer, D. T.

T. E. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, Q. Li, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Terahertz-Rate Kerr-Microresonator Optical Clockwork,” Phys. Rev. X 9(3), 031023 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557(7703), 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneously integrated GaAs waveguides on insulator for efficient frequency conversion,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(10), 1800149 (2018).
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Spott, A.

N. Volet, A. Spott, E. J. Stanton, M. L. Davenport, L. Chang, J. D. Peters, T. C. Briles, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and J. E. Bowers, “Semiconductor optical amplifiers at 2.0- wavelength on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(2), 1600165 (2017).
[Crossref]

Srinivasan, K.

E. J. Stanton, L. Chang, W. Xie, A. Malik, J. Peters, J. Chiles, N. Nader, G. Navickaite, D. Sacchetto, M. Zervas, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. B. Papp, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “On-chip polarization rotator for type I second harmonic generation,” APL Photonics 4(12), 126105 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Moille, Q. Li, T. C. Briles, S.-P. Yu, T. Drake, X. Lu, A. Rao, D. Westly, S. B. Papp, and K. Srinivasan, “Broadband resonator-waveguide coupling for efficient extraction of octave-spanning microcombs,” Opt. Lett. 44(19), 4737–4740 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. E. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, D. T. Spencer, D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, Q. Li, D. Westly, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Terahertz-Rate Kerr-Microresonator Optical Clockwork,” Phys. Rev. X 9(3), 031023 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Chiles, N. Nader, E. J. Stanton, D. Herman, G. Moody, J. Zhu, J. C. Skehan, B. Guha, A. Kowligy, J. T. Gopinath, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, I. Coddington, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Shainline, S. W. Nam, and R. P. Mirin, “Multifunctional integrated photonics in the mid-infrared with suspended AlGaAs on silicon,” Optica 6(9), 1246–1254 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. C. Briles, J. R. Stone, T. E. Drake, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Interlocking Kerr-microresonator frequency combs for microwave to optical synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 43(12), 2933–2936 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Highest SHG conversion efficiencies demonstrated from different waveguide material platforms for resonant (circles) and single-pass (triangles) devices. The signal bandwidth is defined by the FWHM. References: AlGaAs-OI chip [13], AlN rings [14], GaAs-OI chip [15], GaAs-OI ring [16], GaP PhC [17], LNOI [18], LNOI ring [19], LN RPE [20], OP-AlGaAs [21], ox-AlGaAs [22], PP-GaN [23], PPKTP [24], SiN/LNOI [25].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Effective indices of the signal (solid lines) and pump (dashed lines) as a function of waveguide width. Each curve represents a different waveguide height, from 140 nm with the lowest indices to 156 nm with the highest indices, in steps of 2 nm between curves. (b) SHG conversion efficiency ($\eta$) for a length of 2.9 mm plotted in circles on the left axis as a function of waveguide height for the perfectly phase-matched widths plotted in triangles on the right axis.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. FWHM of the conversion efficiency ($\eta$) for variations in the width ($\Delta w$) shown in solid blue on the left axis and the height ($\Delta h$) shown in dashed orange on the right axis.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic diagram of the waveguide cross-section. (b) Picture of the 76 mm wafer shows nearly perfect yield of the transferred GaAs film. (c) SEM showing the output waveguide facet.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental setup for SHG. The yellow connections are single-mode fibers and the blue connections are polarization-maintaining single-mode fibers. PC: polarization controller; Pol.: fiber-based linear polarizer; PD: photodetector; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer for splitting the 1 and 2 light.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured propagation loss showing the trends of a Lorentzian (dashed orange), $\lambda ^{-4}$ (dashed blue), and a linear combination of both (solid green).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) SHG spectra for various temperatures, limited by the temperature control setup. The standard error is indicated by the shaded areas. (b) Peak SHG wavelength for various temperatures with a linear fit of 0.236 nm/$^\circ$C. (c) The full spectrum of the SHG conversion efficiency at room temperature ($\sim$22 $^\circ$C), to show greater detail.

Equations (5)

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η = P 2 ω ( L ) P ω 2 ( 0 ) = 2 ω 2 ξ κ L 2 n ω 2 n 2 ω ϵ 0 c 3 ,
ξ = A 2 + B 2 ( Δ α 2 + Δ β 2 ) ( L / 2 ) 2 e ( α 2 ω / 2 + α ω ) L ,
A = sinh ( Δ α L / 2 ) cos ( Δ β L / 2 ) ,
B = cosh ( Δ α L / 2 ) sin ( Δ β L / 2 ) .
κ = | R 2 d x E x , ω 2 E y , 2 ω d x d y | 2 ( R 2 | E x , ω | 2 d x d y ) 2 R 2 | E y , 2 ω | 2 d x d y ,