Abstract

Sub-wavelength aperture arrays featuring small gaps have an extraordinary significance in enhancing the interactions of terahertz (THz) waves with matters. But it is difficult to obtain large light-substance interaction enhancement and high optical response signal detection capabilities at the same time. Here, we propose a simple terahertz bow-tie aperture arrays structure with a large electric field enhancement factor and high transmittance at the same time. The field enhancement factor can reach a high value of 1.9×104 and the transmission coefficient of around 0.8 (the corresponding normalized-to-area transmittance is about 14.3) at 0.04 µm feature gap simultaneously. The systematic simulation results show that the designed structure can enhance the intensity of electromagnetic hotspot by continuously reducing the feature gap size without affecting the intensity of the transmittance. We also visually displayed the significant advantages of extremely strong electromagnetic hot spots in local terahertz refractive index detection, which provides a potential platform and simple strategy for enhanced THz spectral detection.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2020 (1)

X. Zhu, S. Zhang, Y. Chen, H. Shi, J. Zhou, P. Tang, Y. Wang, D. Yang, L. Zhu, T. Jiang, J. Quan, J. Zhang, and H. Duan, “Near-field coupling derived plasmon-induced transparency and Fano dip in symmetry-broken terahertz metamaterials by the “sketch and peel” lithography process,” Microelectron. Eng. 220, 111155 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (10)

H. Zhu, J. Zhu, H. Xu, K. Li, C. Cai, and H. Wu, “Design and fabrication of plasmonic tuned THz detectors by periodic hole structures,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 99, 45–48 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. Lee, M. H. Choi, J. H. Son, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective detection of steroid hormones using terahertz molecule-specific sensors,” Anal. Chem. 91(10), 6844 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. He, F. Lin, F. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Investigation of phonon scattering on the tunable mechanisms of terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Nanomaterials 10(1), 39 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, and W. Shi, “Investigation of terahertz all-dielectric metamaterials,” Opt. Express 27(10), 13831–13844 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. He, F. Liu, F. Lin, G. Xiao, and W. Shi, “Tunable MoS2 modified hybrid surface plasmon waveguides,” Nanotechnology 30(12), 125201 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Shi, X. He, J. Peng, G. Xiao, F. Liu, F. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Tunable terahertz hybrid graphene-metal patterns metamaterials,” Opt. Laser Technol. 114, 28–34 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, B. Gao, M. Raglione, H. Wang, B. Li, F. Toor, M. A. Arnold, and H. Ding, “Design, fabrication, and modulation of THz bandpass metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(11), 1900071 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, J. Luo, M. Pu, Y. Guo, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, X. Li, and X. Luo, “Catenary electromagnetics for ultra-broadband lightweight absorbers and large-scale flat antennas,” Adv. Sci. 6(7), 1801691 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Pattanayak, G. Rana, R. Jain, A. Bhattacharya, S. P. Duttagupta, P. S. Gandhi, V. G. Achanta, and S. S. Prabhu, “Resonant THz transmission through asymmetric aperture array with polarization controlled resonant peaks and Q-factors,” J. Appl. Phys. 126(22), 223103 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zheng, Y. Chen, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, P. Liu, Q. Liu, K. Bi, Z. Shu, Y. Zhang, and H. Duan, “Kirigami-inspired multiscale patterning of metallic structures via predefined nanotrench templates,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 5(1), 54 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

M. Navarro-Cía, V. Pacheco-Peña, S. A. Kuznetsov, and M. Beruete, “Extraordinary THz transmission with a small beam spot: The leaky wave mechanism,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701312 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang and Z. C. Zhai, “Efficient terahertz transmission modulation in plasmonic metallic slits by a graphene ribbon array,” Appl. Opt. 57(32), 9550–9554 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

S. Mastel, M. B. Lundeberg, P. Alonso-González, Y. Gao, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, J. Hone, F. H. L. Koppens, A. Y. Nikitin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz nanofocusing with cantilevered terahertz-resonant antenna tips,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 6526–6533 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Zhu, Y. Chen, M. Zheng, Q. Xiang, Z. Tang, G. Zhang, and H. Duan, “Sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using on-demand postassembled particle-on-film structure,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 31102–31110 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Xu, L. Xie, and Y. Ying, “Mechanisms and applications of terahertz metamaterial sensing: A review,” Nanoscale 9(37), 13864–13878 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y. Chen, K. Bi, Q. Wang, M. Zheng, Q. Liu, Y. Han, J. Yang, S. Chang, G. Zhang, and H. Duan, “Rapid focused ion beam milling based fabrication of plasmonic nanoparticles and assemblies via “sketch and peel” strategy,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11228–11236 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Q. Xiang, Z. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Meng, and H. Duan, ““Sketch and peel” lithography for high-resolution multiscale patterning,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3253–3259 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, G. C. Li, Y. Chen, X. Zhu, S. D. Liu, D. Y. Lei, and H. Duan, “Pronounced Fano resonance in single gold split nanodisks with 15 nm split gaps for intensive second harmonic generation,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11105–11114 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

H. R. Park, X. Chen, N. C. Nguyen, J. Peraire, and S. H. Oh, “Nanogap-enhanced terahertz sensing of 1 nm thick (λ/106) dielectric films,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 417–424 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Toma, S. Tuccio, M. Prato, F. De Donato, A. Perucchi, P. Di Pietro, S. Marras, C. Liberale, R. Proietti Zaccaria, F. De Angelis, L. Manna, S. Lupi, E. Di Fabrizio, and L. Razzari, “Squeezing terahertz light into nanovolumes: Nanoantenna enhanced terahertz spectroscopy (NETs) of semiconductor quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 386–391 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, J. Park, Y. M. Bahk, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, H. Jeon, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz quantum plasmonics of nanoslot antennas in nonlinear regime,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6683–6688 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. R. Park, S. Namgung, X. Chen, N. C. Lindquist, V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, S. A. Maier, and S. H. Oh, “Perfect extinction of terahertz waves in monolayer graphene over 2-nm-wide metallic apertures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(5), 667–673 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China: Phys., Mech. Astron. 58(9), 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

X. Chen, H. R. Park, M. Pelton, X. Piao, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, Y. J. Kim, J. S. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, N. Park, D. S. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale nanogap arrays for extreme confinement of electromagnetic waves,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2361 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. M. Maragò, P. H. Jones, P. G. Gucciardi, G. Volpe, and A. C. Ferrari, “Optical trapping and manipulation of nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 807–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 737–748 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. L. Juan, M. Righini, and R. Quidant, “Plasmon nano-optical tweezers,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 349–356 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: A nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: Physics and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(2), 311–335 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, “A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41(8), 1049–1057 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, “Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1118–1120 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, “Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5445–5455 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. I. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. G. Etchegoin, E. C. L. Ru, and M. Meyer, “An analytic model for the optical properties of gold,” J. Chem. Phys. 125(16), 164705 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

E. Burstein, Y. J. Chen, C. Y. Chen, S. Lundquist, and E. Tosatti, ““Giant” Raman scattering by adsorbed molecules on metal surfaces,” Solid State Commun. 29(8), 567–570 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abel, B.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[Crossref]

Achanta, V. G.

A. Pattanayak, G. Rana, R. Jain, A. Bhattacharya, S. P. Duttagupta, P. S. Gandhi, V. G. Achanta, and S. S. Prabhu, “Resonant THz transmission through asymmetric aperture array with polarization controlled resonant peaks and Q-factors,” J. Appl. Phys. 126(22), 223103 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. S.

X. Chen, H. R. Park, M. Pelton, X. Piao, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, Y. J. Kim, J. S. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, N. Park, D. S. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale nanogap arrays for extreme confinement of electromagnetic waves,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahn, K. J.

X. Chen, H. R. Park, M. Pelton, X. Piao, N. C. Lindquist, H. Im, Y. J. Kim, J. S. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, N. Park, D. S. Kim, and S. H. Oh, “Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale nanogap arrays for extreme confinement of electromagnetic waves,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alonso-González, P.

S. Mastel, M. B. Lundeberg, P. Alonso-González, Y. Gao, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, J. Hone, F. H. L. Koppens, A. Y. Nikitin, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz nanofocusing with cantilevered terahertz-resonant antenna tips,” Nano Lett. 17(11), 6526–6533 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arnold, M. A.

Q. Wang, B. Gao, M. Raglione, H. Wang, B. Li, F. Toor, M. A. Arnold, and H. Ding, “Design, fabrication, and modulation of THz bandpass metamaterials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(11), 1900071 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bahk, Y. M.

J. Y. Kim, B. J. Kang, J. Park, Y. M. Bahk, W. T. Kim, J. Rhie, H. Jeon, F. Rotermund, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz quantum plasmonics of nanoslot antennas in nonlinear regime,” Nano Lett. 15(10), 6683–6688 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baida, F. I.

Beruete, M.

M. Navarro-Cía, V. Pacheco-Peña, S. A. Kuznetsov, and M. Beruete, “Extraordinary THz transmission with a small beam spot: The leaky wave mechanism,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701312 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, “Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5445–5455 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berweger, S.

C. C. Neacsu, S. Berweger, R. L. Olmon, L. V. Saraf, C. Ropers, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field localization in plasmonic superfocusing: A nanoemitter on a tip,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 592–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, A.

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S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

E. Burstein, Y. J. Chen, C. Y. Chen, S. Lundquist, and E. Tosatti, ““Giant” Raman scattering by adsorbed molecules on metal surfaces,” Solid State Commun. 29(8), 567–570 (1979).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The BTAAs structure and corresponding unit cell schematic diagram of the designed Au BTAAs structure on an adhesive substrate. The Au layer with the thickness 0.15 µm is put on an infinite substrate. The refractive index of substrate is 1.68 in 0.5∼2 THz range. Lx = 40 µm, Ly = 80 µm, Px = Py = 120 µm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The THz amplitude transmission spectra of the BTAAs structure with various single geometry variable. S = 0.2 µm. (a) different Lx. (b) different Ly. (c) different Px. (d) different Py.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The amplitude transmission spectra of the BTAAs structure with different S. Lx= 40 µm, Ly= 80 µm, Px=Py= 120 µm. (b) The corresponding positions of the transmission peak with different S in (a). (c) The maximum field enhancement factor of the xy-plane (z = 0, the red line) and the field enhancement factor of the zero-point (x = y = z = 0, the blue line) in the BTAAs structure with varying S. (d) The relationship between the field enhancement factor in the zero-point and the incident THz frequency, which is consistent with the lineshape of the corresponding amplitude transmission. S= 0.2 µm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The charge distribution of a BTAAs unit cell at the feature frequencies of 1.13 THz and 1.46 THz when S = 0.04 µm, respectively. Top surface: the interface between the Au film and the vacuum. Bottom surface: the interface between the Au film and the adhesive substrate. (b) The field distribution around the feature gap size of S = 0.04 µm. Blue solid line: the line field distribution on the x-axis (y = 0). Red solid line: the line field distribution on the y-axis (x = 0).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a-b) The normalized red-shift (Δf/f0) of the resonance peak position in BTAAs structure as the refractive index of dielectric environment increase from 1 to 5. (a) The BTAAs structure covered by a dielectric layer (infinite thickness) and filled by a dielectric bow-tie structure. (b) The BTAAs structure only filled by a dielectric bow-tie structure. Lx = 40 µm, Ly = 80 µm, Px = Py = 120 µm, h = 0.15 µm, hs= infinite.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The performance comparison with the related works

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