Abstract

Extending the cavity length of diode lasers with feedback from Bragg structures and ring resonators is highly effective for obtaining ultra-narrow laser linewidths. However, cavity length extension also decreases the free-spectral range of the cavity. This reduces the wavelength range of continuous laser tuning that can be achieved with a given phase shift of an intracavity phase tuning element. We present a method that increases the range of continuous tuning to that of a short equivalent laser cavity, while maintaining the ultra-narrow linewidth of a long cavity. Using a single-frequency hybrid integrated InP-Si3N4 diode laser with 120 nm coverage around 1540 nm, with a maximum output of 24 mW and lowest intrinsic linewidth of 2.2 kHz, we demonstrate a six-fold increased continuous and mode-hop-free tuning range of 0.22 nm (28 GHz) as compared to the free-spectral range of the laser cavity.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

M. A. Tran, D. Huang, J. Guo, T. Komljenovic, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “Ring-resonator based widely-tunable narrow-linewidth Si/InP integrated lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(2), 1–14 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (6)

D. Marpaung and J. Yao, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, M. A. Tran, J. Guo, J. Peters, T. Komljenovic, A. Malik, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “High-power sub-kHz linewidth lasers fully integrated on silicon,” Optica 6(6), 745–752 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Mak, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, E. J. Klein, D. Geskus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Linewidth narrowing via low-loss dielectric waveguide feedback circuits in hybrid integrated frequency comb lasers,” Opt. Express 27(9), 13307–13318 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kiani, H. C. Frankis, H. M. Mbonde, R. Mateman, A. Leinse, A. P. Knights, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Thulium-doped tellurium oxide waveguide amplifier with 7.6 db net gain on a silicon nitride chip,” Opt. Lett. 44(23), 5788–5791 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

S. L. Olsson, J. Cho, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Chen, P. J. Winzer, and S. Makovejs, “Probabilistically shaped PDM 4096-QAM transmission over up to 200 km of fiber using standard intradyne detection,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4522–4530 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, C. Browning, R. B. Timens, D. H. Geuzebroek, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, R. M. Oldenbeuving, R. G. Heideman, Y. Fan, K.-J. Boller, and L. P. Barry, “Characterization of Hybrid InP-TriPleX Photonic Integrated Tunable Lasers Based on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4/SiO2) Microring Resonators for Optical Coherent System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, A. Vasiliev, G. Boehm, J. Van Campenhout, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “Widely tunable 2.3 µm III-V-on-silicon Vernier lasers for broadband spectroscopic sensing,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 858–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–21 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon photonics,” APL Photonics 3(12), 126104 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

2016 (3)

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354(6312), 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–11 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 45-46, 3–160 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

D. de Felipe, Z. Zhang, W. Brinker, M. Kleinert, A. M. Novo, C. Zawadzki, M. Moehrle, and N. Keil, “Polymer-based external cavity lasers: Tuning efficiency, reliability, and polarization diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1391–1394 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K. J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

A. Tandaechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing oscillation in a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity with a complete bandgap,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 91–94 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lopez-Higuera, L. Rodriguez Cobo, A. Quintela Incera, and A. Cobo, “Fiber optic sensors in structural health monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(4), 587–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2001 (1)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 988–999 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(4), 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(1), 1–20 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Kobayashi and I. Mito, “Single frequency and tunable laser diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(11), 1623–1633 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

K. Liu and M. G. Littman, “Novel geometry for single-mode scanning of tunable lasers,” Opt. Lett. 6(3), 117–118 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Fleming and A. Mooradian, “Spectral characteristics of external-cavity controlled semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 44–59 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

1967 (1)

M. Lax, “Classical noise. V. Noise in self-sustained oscillators,” Phys. Rev. 160(2), 290–307 (1967).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

Agafonova, S. E.

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alippi, A.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9(4), 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, A. Vasiliev, G. Boehm, J. Van Campenhout, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “Widely tunable 2.3 µm III-V-on-silicon Vernier lasers for broadband spectroscopic sensing,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 858–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Buus, M.-C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).

Amin, R.

R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon photonics,” APL Photonics 3(12), 126104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

A. Tandaechanurat, S. Ishida, D. Guimard, M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, “Lasing oscillation in a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity with a complete bandgap,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 91–94 (2011).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref]

Awaji, Y.

Babikov, Y.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Baets, R.

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, A. Vasiliev, G. Boehm, J. Van Campenhout, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “Widely tunable 2.3 µm III-V-on-silicon Vernier lasers for broadband spectroscopic sensing,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 858–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Barry, L. P.

Y. Lin, C. Browning, R. B. Timens, D. H. Geuzebroek, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, R. M. Oldenbeuving, R. G. Heideman, Y. Fan, K.-J. Boller, and L. P. Barry, “Characterization of Hybrid InP-TriPleX Photonic Integrated Tunable Lasers Based on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4/SiO2) Microring Resonators for Optical Coherent System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1 (2018).
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Benelajla, M.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–21 (2018).
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Benner, D. C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bernath, P.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Birk, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bizzocchi, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. Buus, M.-C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).

Boehm, G.

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, A. Vasiliev, G. Boehm, J. Van Campenhout, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “Widely tunable 2.3 µm III-V-on-silicon Vernier lasers for broadband spectroscopic sensing,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 858–866 (2018).
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Boller, K. J.

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K. J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
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Boller, K.-J.

J. Mak, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, E. J. Klein, D. Geskus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Linewidth narrowing via low-loss dielectric waveguide feedback circuits in hybrid integrated frequency comb lasers,” Opt. Express 27(9), 13307–13318 (2019).
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C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–21 (2018).
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Y. Lin, C. Browning, R. B. Timens, D. H. Geuzebroek, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, R. M. Oldenbeuving, R. G. Heideman, Y. Fan, K.-J. Boller, and L. P. Barry, “Characterization of Hybrid InP-TriPleX Photonic Integrated Tunable Lasers Based on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4/SiO2) Microring Resonators for Optical Coherent System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1 (2018).
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Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–11 (2016).
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Y. Fan, A. van Rees, P. J. M. van der Slot, J. Mak, R. M. Oldenbeuving, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and K.-J. Boller, “Ultra-narrow linewidth hybrid integrated semiconductor laser,” ArxiV.org 1910.08141 (2019).

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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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D. Huang, M. A. Tran, J. Guo, J. Peters, T. Komljenovic, A. Malik, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “High-power sub-kHz linewidth lasers fully integrated on silicon,” Optica 6(6), 745–752 (2019).
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Briles, T. C.

Brinker, W.

D. de Felipe, Z. Zhang, W. Brinker, M. Kleinert, A. M. Novo, C. Zawadzki, M. Moehrle, and N. Keil, “Polymer-based external cavity lasers: Tuning efficiency, reliability, and polarization diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1391–1394 (2014).
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Brown, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Y. Lin, C. Browning, R. B. Timens, D. H. Geuzebroek, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, R. M. Oldenbeuving, R. G. Heideman, Y. Fan, K.-J. Boller, and L. P. Barry, “Characterization of Hybrid InP-TriPleX Photonic Integrated Tunable Lasers Based on Silicon Nitride (Si3N4/SiO2) Microring Resonators for Optical Coherent System,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1 (2018).
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J. Buus, M.-C. Amann, and D. J. Blumenthal, Tunable Laser Diodes and Related Optical Sources (Wiley, 2005).

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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Chandrasekhar, S.

Chao, R.-l.

T. Komljenovic, L. Liang, R.-l. Chao, J. Hulme, S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely-Tunable Ring-Resonator Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 7(7), 732 (2017).
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Chen, X.

Chihara, M.

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Cho, J.

Cobo, A.

Cohen, E.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. A. Coldren, “Monolithic tunable diode lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 988–999 (2000).
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Coudert, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dalir, H.

R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder modulator in silicon photonics,” APL Photonics 3(12), 126104 (2018).
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Davenport, M.

T. Komljenovic, L. Liang, R.-l. Chao, J. Hulme, S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely-Tunable Ring-Resonator Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 7(7), 732 (2017).
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de Felipe, D.

D. de Felipe, Z. Zhang, W. Brinker, M. Kleinert, A. M. Novo, C. Zawadzki, M. Moehrle, and N. Keil, “Polymer-based external cavity lasers: Tuning efficiency, reliability, and polarization diversity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(14), 1391–1394 (2014).
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de Labachelerie, M.

Dekker, R.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–21 (2018).
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Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–11 (2016).
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Devi, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Drake, T.

Drouin, B.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dutt, A.

E. Bowers, J.

T. Komljenovic, L. Liang, R.-l. Chao, J. Hulme, S. Srinivasan, M. Davenport, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely-Tunable Ring-Resonator Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Sci. 7(7), 732 (2017).
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Endo, T.

Epping, J. P.

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–21 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–11 (2016).
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Fan, Y.

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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
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M. A. Tran, D. Huang, J. Guo, T. Komljenovic, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “Ring-resonator based widely-tunable narrow-linewidth Si/InP integrated lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(2), 1–14 (2020).
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D. Huang, M. A. Tran, J. Guo, J. Peters, T. Komljenovic, A. Malik, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “High-power sub-kHz linewidth lasers fully integrated on silicon,” Optica 6(6), 745–752 (2019).
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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

Van Campenhout, J.

R. Wang, S. Sprengel, A. Vasiliev, G. Boehm, J. Van Campenhout, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, R. Baets, M.-C. Amann, and G. Roelkens, “Widely tunable 2.3 µm III-V-on-silicon Vernier lasers for broadband spectroscopic sensing,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 858–866 (2018).
[Crossref]

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J. Mak, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, E. J. Klein, D. Geskus, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Linewidth narrowing via low-loss dielectric waveguide feedback circuits in hybrid integrated frequency comb lasers,” Opt. Express 27(9), 13307–13318 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1–11 (2016).
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Y. Fan, A. van Rees, P. J. M. van der Slot, J. Mak, R. M. Oldenbeuving, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and K.-J. Boller, “Ultra-narrow linewidth hybrid integrated semiconductor laser,” ArxiV.org 1910.08141 (2019).

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C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K.-J. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–21 (2018).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic view of three lasers having the same optical amplifier section but with different cavity configurations. Laser (1) has a short cavity of length $L_{c1}$, including a gain element of length $L_a$ and a bus section of length $L_b$, which includes a phase tuning element $\phi _{ps}$. The bus section length is increased for laser (2), resulting in a cavity length $L_{c2}\gg L_{c1}$. Laser (3), includes an optical filter with bandwidth $\Delta \nu _f$ that provides for both single-mode oscillation and significant enhancement of the cavity photon lifetime. The resulting effective cavity length $L_{c3}$ is assumed to be equal to that of laser (2), while the bus waveguide is taken the same as that of laser (1). (b) The tuning behavior of the three lasers. (c) The according Schawlow-Townes linewidth for the three lasers. See text for further details.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic view of the integrated laser. Shown are the semiconductor optical amplifier with a high reflectivity coating on one facet, the phase section, the two sequential microring resonators (MRR) in a loop mirror to provide wavelength selective feedback, and a tunable coupler to direct part of the light to the output port of the laser. The output of the laser is available via a fiber that is butt-coupled to the output port. (b) Photo of the assembled hybrid laser, on top of a one Euro coin. The left part is the dielectric feedback chip with the heaters for thermal tuning, and the right part is the semiconductor amplifier chip on top of a submount.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured fiber-coupled output power of the laser as function of the amplifier current. The thermoelectric cooler was set at 20 °C and the Vernier filter to a wavelength of 1576 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Superimposed laser spectra (a) showing the optical power in a 0.1 nm resolution bandwidth when the Vernier filter is tuned in steps of 5 nm, and measured laser power in a 0.01 nm resolution bandwidth (b), showing a high SMSR of 63 dB. The spectrum shown in (b) is an average over 10 measurements to reduce the background noise level and increase the visibility of the side modes. The amplifier current is set to 300 mA.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Single-sided power spectral density of the laser frequency noise, measured with a HighFinesse linewidth analyzer (maximum bandwidth 10 MHz). The dashed line at 700 Hz$^2$/Hz indicates the average noise for the noise frequency range between 1.3 and 3.5 MHz, excluding any spurious noise frequencies.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured laser wavelength (a) and output power (b) as function of the phase section heater power. Synchronous tuning of the phase section with the Vernier filter is shown by the red crosses, while tuning only the phase section is shown by the blue circles for comparison. Mode hops are indicated with arrows.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured (red dots) and calculated (blue line) transmission through an acetylene gas cell as function of wavelength for absorption line P19 at 1536.713 nm.

Equations (12)

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F λ λ c ϕ ps = 1 π λ c 2 2 n g , a L a + 2 n g , b L b .
λ i ϕ i = Δ λ i 2 π ,
Δ λ i ( λ ) = λ 2 n g , i ( λ ) L i ,
λ c ϕ ps = Δ λ c π ,
Δ λ c ( λ ) = λ 2 2 n g , a ( λ ) L a + 2 n g , b ( λ ) L b + i n g , i ( λ ) L e , i ( λ ) ,
L e , i ( λ ) = 1 2 π λ 2 n g , i ( λ ) θ i λ ,
L e , i = L i ( 1 2 + 1 κ 2 κ 2 ) ,
λ c , i ϕ i = Δ λ c 2 π L e , i L i .
δ λ c = λ c ϕ ps δ ϕ ps + i λ c , i ϕ i δ ϕ i .
δ λ c = Δ λ c π δ ϕ ps + i n g , i L e , i Δ λ c λ c 2 δ λ c .
F λ λ c ϕ ps = 1 π λ c 2 2 n g , a L a + 2 n g , b L b .
ϕ i ϕ ps = n g , i L i n g , a L a + n g , b L b .