Abstract

Compared to far-field ptychography, near-field ptychography can reduce the requirement on the detector dynamic range, while it is able to cover a larger field of view with a fewer number of sample scans. However, its spatial resolution is limited by the detector pixel size. Here, we utilize a pixel-super-resolved approach to overcome this limitation. The method has been applied to four types of experiment configurations using planar and divergent illuminations together with two different cameras with highly contrast specifications. The proposed method works effectively for up-sampling up to 6 times. Meanwhile, it can achieve ∼5.9-fold and ∼3.1-fold resolution improvement over the 6.5-μm and 2.4-μm detector pixel size. We also demonstrate the precisely quantitative phase imaging capability of the method by using a phase resolution target. The presented method is believed to have great potential in X-ray tomography and on-chip flow cytometry.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (1)

2018 (8)

P. Ferrand, A. Baroni, M. Allain, and V. Chamard, “Quantitative imaging of anisotropic material properties with vectorial ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 43(4), 763–766 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, Y. Han, P. Deb, H. Gao, S. Xie, P. Purohit, M. W. Tate, J. Park, S. M. Gruner, V. Elser, and D. A. Muller, “Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution,” Nature 559(7714), 343–349 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. R. Lupini, M. P. Oxley, and S. V. Kalinin, “Pushing the limits of electron ptychography,” Science 362(6413), 399–400 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. G. Lozano, G. T. Martinez, L. Jin, P. D. Nellist, and P. G. Bruce, “Low-Dose Aberration-Free Imaging of Li-Rich Cathode Materials at Various States of Charge Using Electron Ptychography,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6850–6855 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, R. Rajeev, I. Mochi, A. Kleibert, C. A. F. Vaz, and Y. Ekinci, “Beam drift and partial probe coherence effects in EUV reflective-mode coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 12242–12256 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. McDermott and A. Maiden, “Near-field ptychographic microscope for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25471–25480 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Q. Chen, J. Li, J. Sun, and C. Zuo, “Lensfree dynamic super-resolved phase imaging based on active micro-scanning,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3714–3717 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Sun, Q. Chen, J. Li, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive pixel-super-resolved lensfree in-line digital holography for wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11777 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, “Pixel super-resolution using wavelength scanning,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(4), e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, Z. Göröcs, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22738 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 15(3), 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Clare, M. Stockmar, M. Dierolf, I. Zanette, and F. Pfeiffer, “Characterization of near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19728–19742 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, M. Hubert, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, S. Allner, A. Fehringer, I. Zanette, J. Villanova, J. Laurencin, P. Cloetens, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “X-ray nanotomography using near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12720–12731 (2015).
[Crossref]

A.-L. Robisch, K. Kröger, A. Rack, and T. Salditt, “Near-field ptychography using lateral and longitudinal shifts,” New J. Phys. 17(7), 073033 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14690 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (5)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Claus, D. J. Robinson, D. G. Chetwynd, Y. Shuo, W. T. Pike, J. J. De, J. T. Garcia, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, P. Cloetens, I. Zanette, B. Enders, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1927 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6S), 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-comamala, A. Diaz, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

B. R. Masters, “Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 029901 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Bartels, M. Priebe, R. N. Wilke, S. P. Kruger, K. Giewekemeyer, S. Kalbfleisch, C. Olendrowitz, M. Sprung, and T. Salditt, “Low-dose three-dimensional hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells,” Opt. Nanoscopy 1(1), 10 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

K. Giewekemeyer, S. P. Krüger, S. Kalbfleisch, M. Bartels, C. Beta, and T. Salditt, “X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 023804 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(4), 604–612 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108(5), 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and Related Diffractive Imaging Methods,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. C. Mayo, P. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Chen, P. B. Catrysse, A. El Gamal, and B. A. Wandell, “How small should pixel size be?” Proc. SPIE 3965, 451–459 (2000).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. IRE 37(1), 10–21 (1949).
[Crossref]

Allain, M.

Allner, S.

Baroni, A.

Bartels, M.

M. Bartels, M. Priebe, R. N. Wilke, S. P. Kruger, K. Giewekemeyer, S. Kalbfleisch, C. Olendrowitz, M. Sprung, and T. Salditt, “Low-dose three-dimensional hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells,” Opt. Nanoscopy 1(1), 10 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Giewekemeyer, S. P. Krüger, S. Kalbfleisch, M. Bartels, C. Beta, and T. Salditt, “X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 023804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bean, R.

Beta, C.

K. Giewekemeyer, S. P. Krüger, S. Kalbfleisch, M. Bartels, C. Beta, and T. Salditt, “X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 023804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bhartiya, A.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bishara, W.

Bonnin, A.

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Braeken, D.

Bruce, P. G.

J. G. Lozano, G. T. Martinez, L. Jin, P. D. Nellist, and P. G. Bruce, “Low-Dose Aberration-Free Imaging of Li-Rich Cathode Materials at Various States of Charge Using Electron Ptychography,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6850–6855 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108(5), 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cacho-Nerin, F.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Catrysse, P. B.

T. Chen, P. B. Catrysse, A. El Gamal, and B. A. Wandell, “How small should pixel size be?” Proc. SPIE 3965, 451–459 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chamard, V.

Chen, B.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-comamala, A. Diaz, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

J. Zhang, Q. Chen, J. Li, J. Sun, and C. Zuo, “Lensfree dynamic super-resolved phase imaging based on active micro-scanning,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3714–3717 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Sun, Q. Chen, J. Li, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive pixel-super-resolved lensfree in-line digital holography for wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11777 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

T. Chen, P. B. Catrysse, A. El Gamal, and B. A. Wandell, “How small should pixel size be?” Proc. SPIE 3965, 451–459 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, Y. Han, P. Deb, H. Gao, S. Xie, P. Purohit, M. W. Tate, J. Park, S. M. Gruner, V. Elser, and D. A. Muller, “Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution,” Nature 559(7714), 343–349 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chetwynd, D. G.

D. Claus, D. J. Robinson, D. G. Chetwynd, Y. Shuo, W. T. Pike, J. J. De, J. T. Garcia, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

Clare, R.

M. Stockmar, M. Hubert, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, S. Allner, A. Fehringer, I. Zanette, J. Villanova, J. Laurencin, P. Cloetens, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “X-ray nanotomography using near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12720–12731 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clare, R. M.

Claus, D.

D. Claus, D. J. Robinson, D. G. Chetwynd, Y. Shuo, W. T. Pike, J. J. De, J. T. Garcia, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cloetens, P.

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, M. Hubert, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, S. Allner, A. Fehringer, I. Zanette, J. Villanova, J. Laurencin, P. Cloetens, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “X-ray nanotomography using near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12720–12731 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Pogany, A.

S. C. Mayo, P. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

Priebe, M.

M. Bartels, M. Priebe, R. N. Wilke, S. P. Kruger, K. Giewekemeyer, S. Kalbfleisch, C. Olendrowitz, M. Sprung, and T. Salditt, “Low-dose three-dimensional hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells,” Opt. Nanoscopy 1(1), 10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Purohit, P.

Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, Y. Han, P. Deb, H. Gao, S. Xie, P. Purohit, M. W. Tate, J. Park, S. M. Gruner, V. Elser, and D. A. Muller, “Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution,” Nature 559(7714), 343–349 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rack, A.

A.-L. Robisch, K. Kröger, A. Rack, and T. Salditt, “Near-field ptychography using lateral and longitudinal shifts,” New J. Phys. 17(7), 073033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rajeev, R.

P. Helfenstein, R. Rajeev, I. Mochi, A. Kleibert, C. A. F. Vaz, and Y. Ekinci, “Beam drift and partial probe coherence effects in EUV reflective-mode coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 12242–12256 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 15(3), 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reinhard, E.

E. Reinhard, G. Ward, S. Pattanaik, P. Debevec, and W. Heidrich, High Dynamic Range Imaging: Acquisition, Display, and Image-based Lighting, (Morgan Kaufmann, 2010).

Reumers, V.

Robinson, D. J.

D. Claus, D. J. Robinson, D. G. Chetwynd, Y. Shuo, W. T. Pike, J. J. De, J. T. Garcia, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Robinson, I. K.

Robinsona, I. K.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Robisch, A.-L.

A.-L. Robisch, K. Kröger, A. Rack, and T. Salditt, “Near-field ptychography using lateral and longitudinal shifts,” New J. Phys. 17(7), 073033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rodenburg, J. M.

D. Claus, D. J. Robinson, D. G. Chetwynd, Y. Shuo, W. T. Pike, J. J. De, J. T. Garcia, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-comamala, A. Diaz, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(4), 604–612 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and Related Diffractive Imaging Methods,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

Salditt, T.

A.-L. Robisch, K. Kröger, A. Rack, and T. Salditt, “Near-field ptychography using lateral and longitudinal shifts,” New J. Phys. 17(7), 073033 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bartels, M. Priebe, R. N. Wilke, S. P. Kruger, K. Giewekemeyer, S. Kalbfleisch, C. Olendrowitz, M. Sprung, and T. Salditt, “Low-dose three-dimensional hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells,” Opt. Nanoscopy 1(1), 10 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Giewekemeyer, S. P. Krüger, S. Kalbfleisch, M. Bartels, C. Beta, and T. Salditt, “X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 023804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sarahan, M. C.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schramm, S. M.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schwenkea, J.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. IRE 37(1), 10–21 (1949).
[Crossref]

Shuo, Y.

D. Claus, D. J. Robinson, D. G. Chetwynd, Y. Shuo, W. T. Pike, J. J. De, J. T. Garcia, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sprung, M.

M. Bartels, M. Priebe, R. N. Wilke, S. P. Kruger, K. Giewekemeyer, S. Kalbfleisch, C. Olendrowitz, M. Sprung, and T. Salditt, “Low-dose three-dimensional hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells,” Opt. Nanoscopy 1(1), 10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stagg, M. D.

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stahl, R.

Stevenson, A. W.

S. C. Mayo, P. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stockmar, M.

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Clare, M. Stockmar, M. Dierolf, I. Zanette, and F. Pfeiffer, “Characterization of near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19728–19742 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, M. Hubert, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, S. Allner, A. Fehringer, I. Zanette, J. Villanova, J. Laurencin, P. Cloetens, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “X-ray nanotomography using near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12720–12731 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, P. Cloetens, I. Zanette, B. Enders, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1927 (2013).
[Crossref]

Su, T. W.

Sun, J.

J. Zhang, Q. Chen, J. Li, J. Sun, and C. Zuo, “Lensfree dynamic super-resolved phase imaging based on active micro-scanning,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3714–3717 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Sun, Q. Chen, J. Li, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive pixel-super-resolved lensfree in-line digital holography for wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11777 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tate, M. W.

Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, Y. Han, P. Deb, H. Gao, S. Xie, P. Purohit, M. W. Tate, J. Park, S. M. Gruner, V. Elser, and D. A. Muller, “Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution,” Nature 559(7714), 343–349 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thibault, P.

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, M. Hubert, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, S. Allner, A. Fehringer, I. Zanette, J. Villanova, J. Laurencin, P. Cloetens, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “X-ray nanotomography using near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12720–12731 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, P. Cloetens, I. Zanette, B. Enders, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1927 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vaz, C. A. F.

Vila-comamala, J.

Villanova, J.

Wagner, U.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wandell, B. A.

T. Chen, P. B. Catrysse, A. El Gamal, and B. A. Wandell, “How small should pixel size be?” Proc. SPIE 3965, 451–459 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ward, G.

E. Reinhard, G. Ward, S. Pattanaik, P. Debevec, and W. Heidrich, High Dynamic Range Imaging: Acquisition, Display, and Image-based Lighting, (Morgan Kaufmann, 2010).

Watanabe, T.

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6S), 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilke, R. N.

M. Bartels, M. Priebe, R. N. Wilke, S. P. Kruger, K. Giewekemeyer, S. Kalbfleisch, C. Olendrowitz, M. Sprung, and T. Salditt, “Low-dose three-dimensional hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells,” Opt. Nanoscopy 1(1), 10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. C. Mayo, P. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xie, S.

Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, Y. Han, P. Deb, H. Gao, S. Xie, P. Purohit, M. W. Tate, J. Park, S. M. Gruner, V. Elser, and D. A. Muller, “Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution,” Nature 559(7714), 343–349 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yurt, A.

Yusuf, M.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zanette, I.

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Clare, M. Stockmar, M. Dierolf, I. Zanette, and F. Pfeiffer, “Characterization of near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19728–19742 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, M. Hubert, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, S. Allner, A. Fehringer, I. Zanette, J. Villanova, J. Laurencin, P. Cloetens, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “X-ray nanotomography using near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12720–12731 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, P. Cloetens, I. Zanette, B. Enders, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1927 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-comamala, A. Diaz, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(4), 604–612 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Q. Chen, J. Li, J. Sun, and C. Zuo, “Lensfree dynamic super-resolved phase imaging based on active micro-scanning,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3714–3717 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Sun, Q. Chen, J. Li, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive pixel-super-resolved lensfree in-line digital holography for wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11777 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, Z. Göröcs, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22738 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, “Pixel super-resolution using wavelength scanning,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(4), e16060 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zuo, C.

J. Zhang, Q. Chen, J. Li, J. Sun, and C. Zuo, “Lensfree dynamic super-resolved phase imaging based on active micro-scanning,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3714–3717 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Sun, Q. Chen, J. Li, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive pixel-super-resolved lensfree in-line digital holography for wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11777 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. (1)

J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychography and Related Diffractive Imaging Methods,” Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 150, 87–184 (2008).
[Crossref]

IUCrJ (1)

M. Yusuf, F. Zhang, B. Chen, A. Bhartiya, K. Cunnea, U. Wagner, F. Cacho-Nerin, J. Schwenkea, and I. K. Robinsona, “Procedures for cryogenic X-ray ptychographic imaging of biological samples,” IUCrJ 4(2), 147–151 (2017).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. R. Masters, “Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 029901 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS (1)

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic extreme-ultraviolet mask metrology,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 15(3), 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. C. Mayo, P. Miller, S. W. Wilkins, T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, D. Paganin, D. J. Parry, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Quantitative X-ray projection microscopy: phase-contrast and multi-spectral imaging,” J. Microsc. 207(2), 79–96 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D. Claus, D. J. Robinson, D. G. Chetwynd, Y. Shuo, W. T. Pike, J. J. De, J. T. Garcia, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Dual wavelength optical metrology using ptychography,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035702 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Harada, M. Nakasuji, Y. Nagata, T. Watanabe, and H. Kinoshita, “Phase imaging of extreme-ultraviolet mask using coherent extreme-ultraviolet scatterometry microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(6S), 06GB02 (2013).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, A. Feizi, Z. Göröcs, and A. Ozcan, “Pixel super-resolution using wavelength scanning,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(4), e16060 (2016).
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Nano Lett. (1)

J. G. Lozano, G. T. Martinez, L. Jin, P. D. Nellist, and P. G. Bruce, “Low-Dose Aberration-Free Imaging of Li-Rich Cathode Materials at Various States of Charge Using Electron Ptychography,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6850–6855 (2018).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Gao, P. Wang, F. Zhang, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, X. Pan, and A. I. Kirkland, “Electron ptychographic microscopy for three-dimensional imaging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 163 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray ptychography,” Nat. Photonics 12(1), 9–17 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, Y. Han, P. Deb, H. Gao, S. Xie, P. Purohit, M. W. Tate, J. Park, S. M. Gruner, V. Elser, and D. A. Muller, “Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution,” Nature 559(7714), 343–349 (2018).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

A.-L. Robisch, K. Kröger, A. Rack, and T. Salditt, “Near-field ptychography using lateral and longitudinal shifts,” New J. Phys. 17(7), 073033 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, I. Peterson, J. Vila-comamala, A. Diaz, R. Bean, B. Chen, A. Menzel, I. K. Robinson, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Translation position determination in ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13592–13606 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12634–12644 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, M. Hubert, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, S. Allner, A. Fehringer, I. Zanette, J. Villanova, J. Laurencin, P. Cloetens, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “X-ray nanotomography using near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12720–12731 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. M. Clare, M. Stockmar, M. Dierolf, I. Zanette, and F. Pfeiffer, “Characterization of near-field ptychography,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19728–19742 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, R. Rajeev, I. Mochi, A. Kleibert, C. A. F. Vaz, and Y. Ekinci, “Beam drift and partial probe coherence effects in EUV reflective-mode coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 26(9), 12242–12256 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. McDermott and A. Maiden, “Near-field ptychographic microscope for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25471–25480 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, A. Yurt, R. Stahl, A. Lambrechts, V. Reumers, D. Braeken, and L. Lagae, “Pixel super-resolution for lens-free holographic microscopy using deep learning neural networks,” Opt. Express 27(10), 13581–13595 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Nanoscopy (1)

M. Bartels, M. Priebe, R. N. Wilke, S. P. Kruger, K. Giewekemeyer, S. Kalbfleisch, C. Olendrowitz, M. Sprung, and T. Salditt, “Low-dose three-dimensional hard x-ray imaging of bacterial cells,” Opt. Nanoscopy 1(1), 10 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. Giewekemeyer, S. P. Krüger, S. Kalbfleisch, M. Bartels, C. Beta, and T. Salditt, “X-ray propagation microscopy of biological cells using waveguides as a quasipoint source,” Phys. Rev. A 83(2), 023804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

M. Stockmar, I. Zanette, M. Dierolf, B. Enders, R. Clare, F. Pfeiffer, P. Cloetens, A. Bonnin, and P. Thibault, “X-Ray near-field ptychography for optically thick specimens,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3(1), 014005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Proc. IRE (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. IRE 37(1), 10–21 (1949).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

T. Chen, P. B. Catrysse, A. El Gamal, and B. A. Wandell, “How small should pixel size be?” Proc. SPIE 3965, 451–459 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (4)

A. M. Maiden, M. C. Sarahan, M. D. Stagg, S. M. Schramm, and M. J. Humphry, “Quantitative electron phase imaging with high sensitivity and an unlimited field of view,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14690 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Luo, Y. Zhang, Z. Göröcs, A. Feizi, and A. Ozcan, “Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22738 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Sun, Q. Chen, J. Li, and C. Zuo, “Adaptive pixel-super-resolved lensfree in-line digital holography for wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11777 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Stockmar, P. Cloetens, I. Zanette, B. Enders, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and P. Thibault, “Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1927 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “High-resolution scanning X-ray diffraction microscopy,” Science 321(5887), 379–382 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. R. Lupini, M. P. Oxley, and S. V. Kalinin, “Pushing the limits of electron ptychography,” Science 362(6413), 399–400 (2018).
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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: Diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348(6234), 530–535 (2015).
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Ultramicroscopy (2)

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, and F. Pfeiffer, “Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine,” Ultramicroscopy 108(5), 481–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109(10), 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

E. Reinhard, G. Ward, S. Pattanaik, P. Debevec, and W. Heidrich, High Dynamic Range Imaging: Acquisition, Display, and Image-based Lighting, (Morgan Kaufmann, 2010).

D. M. Paganin, Coherent X-ray Optics (Oxford series on synchrotron radiation), (Oxford University, 2006).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of near-field ptychography with planar illumination (a) and divergent illumination (b). The sample is mounted on an XYZ stage and two types of detectors are used to record the diffraction patterns.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Flowchart for one loop of the pixel-super-resolved ePIE algorithm, in which only one diffraction pattern is used. An entire iteration is constituted by J loops of this process. The utilization sequence of diffraction patterns is sj, one randomly shuffled order.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) One of the measured diffraction patterns by using the camera with 6.5 μm pixels and 16-bit dynamic range. (b, c) The retrieved amplitude and phase of the structured pinhole. (d, e) The retrieved amplitude and phase of the illumination probe.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The reconstructed amplitude of the resolution target from the configuration with planar illumination and scientific camera. (a1-d1), (a2-d2), (a3-d3), and (a4-d4) The results reconstructed without (m = 1) and with up-sampling (m = 2, 4, 6) for different datasets.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The convergence curve under different numbers of diffraction patterns and different up-sampling ratios by using the pixel-super-resolved ePIE. (a-d) The curves for 100, 60, 30 and 10 diffraction patterns, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) One of the measured diffraction patterns by using the camera with 2.4 μm pixels and 12-bit dynamic range. (b, c) The retrieved amplitude and phase of the structured pinhole. (d, e) The retrieved amplitude and phase of the illumination probe.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The reconstructed amplitude of the resolution target from the configuration with planar illumination and industrial camera. (a1-d1), (a2-d2), (a3-d3), and (a4-d4) The results reconstructed without (m = 1) and with up-sampling (m = 2, 4, 6) for different datasets.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The reconstructed amplitude of the resolution target from the configuration with divergent illumination and scientific camera. (a1-c1), (a2-c2), (a3-c3), and (a4-c4) The results reconstructed without (m = 1) and with up-sampling (m = 2, 4) for different datasets.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The reconstructed amplitude of the USAF 1951 resolution target using divergent illumination and scientific camera. The results retrieved without up-sampling (a1-c1), with up-sampling ratio m = 2 (a3-c3), and ratio m = 4 (a4-c4).
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Quantitative phase reconstruction via near-field ptychography. (a) The recovered phase of one of the stars in QPT. (b) The zoom-in of the central square area in (a). (c) Phase profile along the red dash line in (b). The thickness of the star is 55.5 nm, and the refractive index of the target material is 1.52.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters for four different experiment configurations

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Table 2. The maximum effective m and resolution improvement of four configurations

Equations (6)

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M = z 1 + z 2 z 1 ,
I j ( x j , y j ) = | AS z e f f [ ϕ ( x j , y j ) ] | 2 ,
ψ j r m ( x j , y j ) = | AS z e f f [ P j r m O j r m ] | 2 ,
ψ ^ j r m ( x j , y j ) = ( 1 α ) ψ j r m ( x j , y j ) + α ψ j r m ( x j , y j ) ( I S j u / I S j u A ψ j r m ( x j , y j ) m A ψ j r m ( x j , y j ) m ) m ,
α i t e r = { α i t e r 1 / 2 , [ ε ( α i t e r 1 ) ε ( α i t e r ) ] / [ ε ( α i t e r 1 ) ε ( α i t e r ) ] ε ( α i t e r ) < η ε ( α i t e r ) < η α i t e r , o t h e r w i s e ,
E i t e r  =  j ( I S j u A ψ j r m ( x j , y j ) m ) 2 j I S j u .

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