Abstract

A methodology is developed for deriving consistent ocean biological and biogeochemical products from multiple satellite ocean color sensors that have slightly different sensor spectral characteristics. Specifically, the required coefficients for algorithm modifications are obtained using the hyperspectral in situ optical measurements from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) in the water off Hawaii. It is demonstrated that using the proposed approach for modifying ocean biological and biogeochemical algorithms, satellite-derived ocean property data over the global open ocean are consistent from multiple satellite sensors, although their corresponding sensor-measured normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(λ) are different. Therefore, the proposed approach allows satellite-derived ocean biological and biogeochemical products to be consistent and can therefore be routinely merged from various satellite ocean color sensors. The proposed approach can be applied to any satellite algorithms that use the input of sensor-measured nLw(λ) spectra.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

K. Mikelsons, M. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Statistical evaluation of satellite ocean color data retrievals,” Remote Sens. Environ. 237, 111601 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and M. Wang, “Filling the gaps of missing data in the merged VIIRS SNPP/NOAA-20 ocean color product using the DINEOF method,” Remote Sens. 11(2), 178 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly and P. J. Werdell, “Chlorophyll algorithms for ocean color sensors - OC4, OC5 & OC6,” Remote Sens. Environ. 229, 32–47 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Shi and M. Wang, “A blended inherent optical property algorithm for global satellite ocean color observations,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 17, 377–394 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, Z. Lee, F. Shen, M. Wang, J. Wei, L. Jiang, and Z. Shang, “An empirical algorithm to seamlessly retrieve the concentration of suspended particulate matter from water color across ocean to turbid river mouths,” Remote Sens. Environ. 235, 111491 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

X. Liu and M. Wang, “Gap filling of missing data for the VIIRS global ocean color products using the DINEOF method,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 56(8), 4464–4476 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, and K. Voss, “NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20437–20453 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Wang and S. Son, “VIIRS-derived chlorophyll-a using the ocean color index method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 182, 141–149 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Son and M. Wang, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of the photosynthetically available radiation Kd(PAR) for global open ocean and coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 250–258 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and M. Wang, “Radiometric calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands with robust characterizations and hybrid calibration coefficients,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), 9331–9342 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(18), 10,347–10,360 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(24), 13,463–13,475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, J. H. Ahn, L. Jiang, W. Shi, S. Son, Y. J. Park, and J. H. Ryu, “Ocean color products from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Opt. Express 21(3), 3835–3849 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. A. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C9), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding, “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, “Remote sensing of the ocean contributions from ultraviolet to near-infrared using the shortwave infrared bands: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1535–1547 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 241–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. Carder, C. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C2), C02017 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

2001 (3)

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Loisel and A. Morel, “Non-isotropy of the upward radiance field in typical coastal (Case 2) waters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22(2-3), 275–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 343–348 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67(3), 348–359 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (4)

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abbott, M. R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, S.

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

M. Wang, J. H. Ahn, L. Jiang, W. Shi, S. Son, Y. J. Park, and J. H. Ryu, “Ocean color products from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Opt. Express 21(3), 3835–3849 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C9), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aiken, J.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Antoine, D.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Antoine and A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1875–1916 (1999).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R.

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R. A.

Arrigo, K. R.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Bailey, S. W.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Balch, W. P.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barnes, B. B.

B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
[Crossref]

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 27(2), 145–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

Barton, I.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Berruti, B.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

Brando, V. E.

Brewin, R. J. W.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brockmann, C.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Brown, O. B.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20(9), 1681–1702 (1999).
[Crossref]

Buongiorno, A.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. W.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cannizzaro, J. P.

B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
[Crossref]

Carder, K.

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. Carder, C. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C2), C02017 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiple quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Chavez, F. P.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Choi, J. K.

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C9), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cikanek, H.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(24), 13,463–13,475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clark, D. K.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Cota, G. F.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Culver, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

d’Andon, O. H. F.

Darecki, M.

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. Carder, C. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C2), C02017 (2005).
[Crossref]

Davis, C.

Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. Carder, C. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C2), C02017 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, P. Y.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Devred, E.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doerffer, R.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Donlon, C.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dowell, M.

English, D. C.

B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
[Crossref]

Eom, J.

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C9), 1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. L.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feldman, G. C.

Femenias, P.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, M.-H.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fomferra, N.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

Foster, R.

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
[Crossref]

Foujols, T.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
[Crossref]

Franz, B. A.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. A. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5068–5082 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, A. Isaacman, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color optical property data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances: A comparison study,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 974–990 (2002).
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M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40(3), 343–348 (2001).
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M. Wang and B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: A vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 38(1), 184–197 (2000).
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C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
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H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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Gentili, B.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
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Gentili, G.

Gilerson, A.

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
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Gillotay, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
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M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(24), 13,463–13,475 (2013).
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Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Normalized water-leaving radiance: revisiting the influence of surface roughness,” Appl. Opt. 44(2), 241–248 (2005).
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M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: How much error is acceptable in the near-infrared,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82(2-3), 497–504 (2002).
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H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 63(3), 265–278 (1998).
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W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
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D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14), 17209–17217 (1997).
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H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: A preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33(3), 443–452 (1994).
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H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D9), 10909–10924 (1988).
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Goryl, P.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
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Grant, M.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
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Groom, S.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
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Harding, J. L. W.

M. Wang, S. Son, and J. L. W. Harding, “Retrieval of diffuse attenuation coefficient in the Chesapeake Bay and turbid ocean regions for satellite ocean color applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(C10), C10011 (2009).
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Harding, L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Harmel, T.

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herse, M.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
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Higurashi, A.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hirata, T.

Hlaing, S.

S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodge, F. E.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
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Hooker, S. B.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
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C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res., Part II 51(1-3), 5–42 (2004).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Horseman, A.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
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Hu, C.

B. B. Barnes, J. P. Cannizzaro, D. C. English, and C. Hu, “Validation of VIIRS and MODIS reflectance data in coastal and oceanic waters: An assessment of methods,” Remote Sens. Environ. 220, 110–123 (2019).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. A. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
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Huot, J. P.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huot, Y.

A. Morel, Y. Huot, B. Gentili, P. J. Werdell, S. B. Hooker, and B. A. Franz, “Examining the consistency of products derived from various ocean color sensors in open ocean (Case 1) waters in the perspective of a multi-sensor approach,” Remote Sens. Environ. 111(1), 69–88 (2007).
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Isaacman, A.

Jiang, L.

K. Mikelsons, M. Wang, and L. Jiang, “Statistical evaluation of satellite ocean color data retrievals,” Remote Sens. Environ. 237, 111601 (2020).
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X. Yu, Z. Lee, F. Shen, M. Wang, J. Wei, L. Jiang, and Z. Shang, “An empirical algorithm to seamlessly retrieve the concentration of suspended particulate matter from water color across ocean to turbid river mouths,” Remote Sens. Environ. 235, 111491 (2019).
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M. Wang, W. Shi, L. Jiang, and K. Voss, “NIR- and SWIR-based on-orbit vicarious calibrations for satellite ocean color sensors,” Opt. Express 24(18), 20437–20453 (2016).
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M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(18), 10,347–10,360 (2013).
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M. Wang, J. H. Ahn, L. Jiang, W. Shi, S. Son, Y. J. Park, and J. H. Ryu, “Ocean color products from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI),” Opt. Express 21(3), 3835–3849 (2013).
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M. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Liu, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “VIIRS ocean color products: A progress update,” Proc. the IEEE Int. Geosci. Remote Sens. Symposium (IGARSS), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IGARSS.2016.7730528 , 5848–5851, Beijing, China, July 5810-5815 (2016).

Johnson, B. C.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
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Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Kilcoyne, H.

M. D. Goldberg, H. Kilcoyne, H. Cikanek, and A. Mehta, “Joint Polar Satellite System: The United States next generation civilian polar-orbiting environmental satellite system,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(24), 13,463–13,475 (2013).
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Klein, U.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
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Krasemann, H.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
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Kwiatkowska, E.

G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
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Labs, D.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
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Lance, V.

M. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Liu, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “VIIRS ocean color products: A progress update,” Proc. the IEEE Int. Geosci. Remote Sens. Symposium (IGARSS), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IGARSS.2016.7730528 , 5848–5851, Beijing, China, July 5810-5815 (2016).

Laur, H.

C. Donlon, B. Berruti, A. Buongiorno, M.-H. Ferreira, P. Femenias, J. Frerick, P. Goryl, U. Klein, H. Laur, C. Mavrocordatos, J. Nieke, H. Rebhan, B. Seitz, J. Stroede, and R. Sciarra, “The Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) Sentinel-3 mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. 120, 37–57 (2012).
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Lavender, S. J.

Lee, Z.

X. Yu, Z. Lee, F. Shen, M. Wang, J. Wei, L. Jiang, and Z. Shang, “An empirical algorithm to seamlessly retrieve the concentration of suspended particulate matter from water color across ocean to turbid river mouths,” Remote Sens. Environ. 235, 111491 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, and B. A. Franz, “Chlorophyll a algorithms for oligotrophic oceans: A novel approach based on three-band reflectance difference,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C1), C01011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z. P.

Letelier, R.

W. E. Esaias, M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. L. Evans, F. E. Hodge, H. R. Gordon, W. P. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnet, “An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 36(4), 1250–1265 (1998).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Lim, H. S.

J. K. Choi, Y. J. Park, J. H. Ahn, H. S. Lim, J. Eom, and J. H. Ryu, “GOCI, the world's first geostationary ocean color observation satellite, for the monitoring of temporal variability in coastal water turbidity,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C9), 1 (2012).
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Liu, X.

X. Liu and M. Wang, “Filling the gaps of missing data in the merged VIIRS SNPP/NOAA-20 ocean color product using the DINEOF method,” Remote Sens. 11(2), 178 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Liu and M. Wang, “Gap filling of missing data for the VIIRS global ocean color products using the DINEOF method,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. 56(8), 4464–4476 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(18), 10,347–10,360 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Liu, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “VIIRS ocean color products: A progress update,” Proc. the IEEE Int. Geosci. Remote Sens. Symposium (IGARSS), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IGARSS.2016.7730528 , 5848–5851, Beijing, China, July 5810-5815 (2016).

Loisel, H.

Magnuson, A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, D. Toole, B. G. Mitchell, M. Kahru, F. P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G. F. Cota, S. B. Hooker, C. R. McClain, K. L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G. F. Moore, J. Aiken, K. R. Arrigo, R. Letelier, and M. Culver, “Ocean Colr Chlorophyll a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: Version 4,” (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2000), pp. 8–22.

Mandel, H.

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Sol. Phys. 214(1), 1–22 (2003).
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Mangin, A.

Maritorena, S.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
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P. J. Werdell, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. C. Feldman, E. Boss, V. E. Brando, M. Dowell, T. Hirata, S. J. Lavender, Z. P. Lee, H. Loisel, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, T. S. Moore, T. J. Smyth, D. Antoine, E. Devred, O. H. F. d’Andon, and A. Mangin, “Generalized ocean color inversion model for retrieving marine inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 52(10), 2019–2037 (2013).
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S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, “Optimization of a semi-analytical ocean color model for global scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(15), 2705–2714 (2002).
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A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: A reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C4), 7163–7180 (2001).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[Crossref]

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M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(18), 10,347–10,360 (2013).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
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Z. P. Lee, M. Darecki, K. Carder, C. Davis, D. Stramski, and W. Rhea, “Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C2), C02017 (2005).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Muller, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Melin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: III. A round-robin comparison on in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 271–294 (2015).
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H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, and M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: Algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54(5), 417–430 (1998).
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Wang, X.

M. Wang, L. Jiang, X. Liu, S. Son, J. Sun, W. Shi, L. Tan, K. Mikelsons, X. Wang, and V. Lance, “VIIRS ocean color products: A progress update,” Proc. the IEEE Int. Geosci. Remote Sens. Symposium (IGARSS), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IGARSS.2016.7730528 , 5848–5851, Beijing, China, July 5810-5815 (2016).

Wei, J.

X. Yu, Z. Lee, F. Shen, M. Wang, J. Wei, L. Jiang, and Z. Shang, “An empirical algorithm to seamlessly retrieve the concentration of suspended particulate matter from water color across ocean to turbid river mouths,” Remote Sens. Environ. 235, 111491 (2019).
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S. Hlaing, T. Harmel, A. Gilerson, R. Foster, A. Weidemann, R. Arnone, M. Wang, and S. Ahmed, “Evaluation of the VIIRS ocean color monitoring performance in coastal regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 139, 398–414 (2013).
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Yu, X.

X. Yu, Z. Lee, F. Shen, M. Wang, J. Wei, L. Jiang, and Z. Shang, “An empirical algorithm to seamlessly retrieve the concentration of suspended particulate matter from water color across ocean to turbid river mouths,” Remote Sens. Environ. 235, 111491 (2019).
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G. Zibordi, F. Melin, K. Voss, B. C. Johnson, B. A. Franz, E. Kwiatkowska, J. P. Huot, M. Wang, and D. Antoine, “System vicarious calibration for ocean color climate change applications: Requirements for in situ data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 361–369 (2015).
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M. Wang, X. Liu, L. Tan, L. Jiang, S. Son, W. Shi, K. Rausch, and K. Voss, “Impact of VIIRS SDR performance on ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 118(18), 10,347–10,360 (2013).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Scatter plots of MOBY-measured and sensor SRF-weighted nLw(λ) between VIIRS-N20 and VIIRS-SNPP for the VIIRS SNPP and N20 spectral bands of (a) 410 & 411 nm, 443 & 445 nm, and 486 & 489 nm and (b) 551 & 556 nm, 638 & 642 nm, and 671 & 667 nm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Scatter plots of the MOBY-measured and sensor SRF-weighted nLw(λ) between OLCI-S3A and VIIRS-SNPP for the VIIRS-SNPP and OLCI-S3A spectral bands of (a) 410 & 413 nm, 443 & 443 nm, and 486 & 490 nm and (b) 551 & 560 nm, 671 & 665 nm, 671 & 674 nm, and 671 & 681 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparisons (scatter plots) of Chl-a and Kd(490) between using the SRF-weighted VIIRS-N20 and VIIRS-SNPP MOBY in situ data for cases of with and without algorithms modifications for a specific product derived from (a) OC3V Chl-a algorithm, (b) OCI Chl-a algorithm, (c) open ocean Kd(490) algorithm, and (d) turbid water Kd(490) algorithm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Comparisons (scatter plots) of Chl-a and Kd(490) between using the SRF-weighted OLCI-S3A and VIIRS-SNPP MOBY in situ optics data for cases of with and without algorithms modifications for a specific product derived from (a) OC3V Chl-a algorithm, (b) OCI Chl-a algorithm, (c) open ocean Kd(490) algorithm, and (d) turbid water Kd(490) algorithm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparisons (scatter plots) of Chl-a and Kd(490) between using the SRF-weighted SGLI-GCOM-C and VIIRS-SNPP MOBY in situ optics data for cases of with and without algorithms modifications for a specific product derived from (a) OC3V Chl-a algorithm, (b) OCI Chl-a algorithm, (c) open ocean Kd(490) algorithm, and (d) turbid water Kd(490) algorithm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Chl-a as a function of the maximum reflectance ratio value from the MOBY in situ data for VIIRS-SNPP compared with the original and modified OC3V algorithm for the satellite sensor of (a) VIIRS-N20 and (b) OLCI-S3A.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison results of density plot for VIIRS-derived ocean color products over global oceans and inland waters (all pixels) on June 1, 2018 between VIIRS-N20 (with algorithm modifications) and VIIRS-SNPP for data product of (a) Chl-a (OCI algorithm) and (b) Kd(490).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Comparison results of VIIRS-derived ocean color products over global deep waters (depth ≥ 1 km) between VIIRS-N20 (with algorithm modifications) and VIIRS-SNPP for data product of (a) Chl-a and (b) Kd(490).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Satellite-derived global daily ocean color product images on August 14, 2018 for (a) Chl-a from VIIRS-SNPP, (b) Chl-a from VIIRS-N20, (c) Chl-a from the merged VIIRS SNPP and N20, and (d) Kd(490) from the merged VIIRS SNPP and N20.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Comparisons of OLCI-S3A- and VIIRS-SNPP-derived ocean color products (with and without algorithm modifications for OLCI-S3A) over global deep waters (depth ≥ 1 km) for (a) Chl-a and (b) Kd(490). Note that ocean color data for both VIIRS-SNPP and OLCI-S3A are derived using the MSL12 ocean color data processing system.

Tables (7)

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Table 1. Statistics in ratios (mean, median, and STD) of MOBY-measured nLw(λ) and ρwN(λ) between VIIRS-N20 and VIIRS-SNPP. The data number used is 200.

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Table 2. Coefficients needed for modifying various equations for the VIIRS-N20 Chl-a and Kd(490) algorithms, which are calculated from Table 1 with median values.

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Table 3. Statistics in ratios (mean, median, and STD) of MOBY-measured nLw(λ) and ρwN(λ) between OLCI-S3A and VIIRS-SNPP. The data number used is 512.

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Table 4. Coefficients needed for modifying various equations for the OLCI-S3A Chl-a and Kd(490) algorithms, which are calculated from Table 3 with median values.

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Table 5. Statistics in ratios (mean, median, and STD) of MOBY-measured nLw(λ) and ρwN(λ) between SGLI-GCOM-C and VIIRS-SNPP. The data number used is 193.

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Table 6. Coefficients needed for modifying various equations for the SGLI-GCOM-C Chl-a and Kd(490) algorithms, which are calculated from Table 5 with median values.

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Table 7. Statistics results in ratios (mean, median, and STD) of VIIRS-derived Chl-a and Kd(490) between VIIRS-N20 and VIIRS-SNPP for global oligotrophic waters, deep waters, and coastal/inland waters. Data number (Num) used for statistics is also shown.

Equations (24)

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C h l - a = 10 i = 0 i = 4 a i X i ,
X = m a x [ lo g 10 ( ρ w N ( M 2 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) , lo g 10 ( ρ w N ( M 3 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) ] ,
X ( N20 ) = m a x [ lo g 10 ( r 24 [ ( ρ w N ( M 2 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) ] ( N20 ) ) , lo g 10 ( r 34 [ ( ρ w N ( M 3 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) ] ( N20 ) ) ] ,
r 24 = [ ( ρ w N ( M 2 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) ] ( SNPP ) / [ ( ρ w N ( M 2 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) ] ( N20 ) and r 34 = [ ( ρ w N ( M 3 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) ] ( SNPP ) / [ ( ρ w N ( M 3 ) ρ w N ( M 4 ) ) ] ( N20 ) .
[ C h l - a ] CI ( SNPP ) = 10 216.76 × C I ( SNPP ) 0.4093 and C I ( SNPP ) = [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( SNPP ) 0.526 [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( SNPP ) 0.474 [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( SNPP ) ,
[ C h l - a ] OCI ( SNPP ) = [ C h l - a ] CI ( SNPP ) for [ r ] ( SNPP ) > 4 , [ C h l - a ] OCI ( SNPP ) = w [ C h l - a ] CI ( SNPP ) + ( 1 w ) [ C h l - a ] OC3V ( SNPP ) for 2 < [ r ] ( SNPP ) 4 , and [ C h l - a ] OCI ( SNPP ) = [ C h l - a ] OC3V ( SNPP ) for [ r ] ( SNPP ) 2 ,
w = 0.5 ( [ r ] ( SNPP ) 2 ) for 2 < [ r ] ( SNPP ) 4 , w = 0 for [ r ] ( SNPP ) 2 , and w = 1 for [ r ] ( SNPP ) > 4 with [ r ] ( SNPP ) = [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( SNPP ) .
[ C h l - a ] CI ( N20 ) = 10 216.76 × C I ( N20 ) 0.4093 , and
C I ( N20 ) = r 4 [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( N20 ) r 2 0.526 [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( N20 ) r 5 0.474 [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) ,
r 2 = [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( N20 ) , r 4 = [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( N20 ) , and r 5 = [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) .
[ C h l - a ] OCI ( N20 ) = [ C h l - a ] CI ( N20 ) for r 24 [ r ] ( N20 ) > 4 , [ C h l - a ] OCI ( N20 ) = w [ C h l - a ] CI ( N20 ) + ( 1 w ) [ C h l - a ] OC3V ( N20 ) for 2 < r 24 [ r ] ( N20 ) 4 , and [ C h l - a ] OCI ( N20 ) = [ C h l - a ] OC3V ( N20 ) for r 24 [ r ] ( N20 ) 2 ,
[ r ] ( N20 ) = [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( N20 ) [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( N20 ) , r 24 = [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( SNPP ) / [ R r s ( M 2 ) ] ( N20 ) [ R r s ( M 4 ) ] ( N20 ) ,
[ K d ( 490 ) ] ( SNPP ) = A ( [ n L w ( M 3 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ n L w ( M 4 ) ] ( SNPP ) ) B ,
[ K d ( 490 ) ] ( N20 ) = A ( c 34 × [ n L w ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) [ n L w ( M 4 ) ] ( N20 ) ) B , with
c 34 = [ n L w ( M 3 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ n L w ( M 4 ) ] ( SNPP ) / [ n L w ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) [ n L w ( M 4 ) ] ( N20 ) .
R ( λ ) = 4 n L w ( λ ) 0.52 F 0 ( λ ) + 1.7 n L w ( λ ) ,
[ R ( λ ) ] ( SNPP ) = 4 [ n L w ( λ ) ] ( SNPP ) 0.52 [ F 0 ( λ ) ] ( SNPP ) + 1.7 [ n L w ( λ ) ] ( SNPP )
[ R ( λ ) ] ( N20 ) = 4 [ n L w ( λ ) ] ( N20 ) 0.52 [ F 0 ( λ ) ] ( N20 ) × ( [ ρ w N ( λ ) ] ( N20 ) / [ ρ w N ( λ ) ] ( SNPP ) ) + 1.7 [ n L w ( λ ) ] ( N20 ) ,
[ R ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) = 4 [ n L w ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) 0.52 [ F 0 ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) × b 3 + 1.7 [ n L w ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) and
[ R ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) = 4 [ n L w ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) 0.52 [ F 0 ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) × b 5 + 1.7 [ n L w ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) ,
b 3 = [ ρ w N ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) [ ρ w N ( M 3 ) ] ( SNPP ) {and}\;  b 5 = [ ρ w N ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) [ ρ w N ( M 5 ) ] ( SNPP ) .
[ W ] ( SNPP ) = 1.175 + 4.512 [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ R r s ( M 3 ) ] ( SNPP ) for 0 .2604\;  [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( SNPP ) [ R r s ( M 3 ) ] ( SNPP ) 0.4821.
[ W ] ( N20 ) = 1.175 + r 53 4.512 [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) [ R r s ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) for 0 .2604 r 53 [ R r s ( M 5 ) ] ( N20 ) [ R r s ( M 3 ) ] ( N20 ) 0.4821 ,
r 53 = [ ( ρ w N ( M 5 ) ρ w N ( M 3 ) ) ] ( SNPP ) / [ ( ρ w N ( M 5 ) ρ w N ( M 3 ) ) ] ( N20 ) .

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