Abstract

We present a scanning light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system incorporating an individual Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector for depth and intensity imaging in the short-wavelength infrared region. The time-correlated single-photon counting technique was used to determine the return photon time-of-flight for target depth information. In laboratory demonstrations, depth and intensity reconstructions were made of targets at short range, using advanced image processing algorithms tailored for the analysis of single–photon time-of-flight data. These laboratory measurements were used to predict the performance of the single-photon LIDAR system at longer ranges, providing estimations that sub-milliwatt average power levels would be required for kilometer range depth measurements.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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References

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2019 (4)

R. Tobin, A. Halimi, A. McCarthy, M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and G. S. Buller, “Three-dimensional single-photon imaging through obscurants,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4590–4611 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Vines, K. Kuzmenko, J. Kirdoda, D. C. Dumas, M. M. Mirza, R. W. Millar, D. J. Paul, and G. S. Buller, “High performance planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche detectors,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1086 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Bayesian 3d reconstruction of complex scenes from single-photon lidar data,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 12(1), 521–550 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, N. Mellado, A. McCarthy, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Real-time 3D reconstruction from single-photon lidar data using plug-and-play point cloud denoisers,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 4984 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

N. J. Martinez, M. Gehl, C. T. Derose, A. L. Starbuck, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and P. S. Davids, “Single photon detection in a waveguide-coupled Ge-on-Si lateral avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Express 25(14), 16130–16139 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Rapp and V. K. Goyal, “A few photons among many: Unmixing signal and noise for photon-efficient active imaging,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(3), 445–459 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. M. Pawlikowska, A. Halimi, R. A. Lamb, and G. S. Buller, “Single-photon three-dimensional imaging at up to 10 kilometers range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11919–11931 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, E. Wu, C. Pang, B. Du, Y. Tao, H. Peng, H. Zeng, and G. Wu, “Multi-beam single-photon-counting three-dimensional imaging lidar,” Opt. Express 25(9), 10189–10195 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Halimi, A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Object depth profile and reflectivity restoration from sparse single-photon data acquired in underwater environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(3), 472–484 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Tobin, A. Halimi, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, K. J. McEwan, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth profiling of camouflaged targets using single-photon detection,” Opt. Eng. 57(3), 031303 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Lidar waveform-based analysis of depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 25(5), 1935–1946 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, F. Xu, D. Venkatraman, R. Lussana, F. Villa, F. Zappa, V. K. Goyal, F. N. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient imaging with a single-photon camera,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12046 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Shin, F. Xu, F. N. Wong, J. H. Shapiro, and V. K. Goyal, “Computational multi-depth single-photon imaging,” Opt. Express 24(3), 1873–1888 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 5–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. E. Warburton, A. M. Wallace, J. Moffat, Y. Petillot, and G. S. Buller, “Underwater depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33911–33926 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. M. Wallace, A. McCarthy, C. J. Nichol, X. Ren, S. Morak, D. Martinez-Ramirez, I. H. Woodhouse, and G. S. Buller, “Design and evaluation of multispectral lidar for the recovery of arboreal parameters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 52(8), 4942–4954 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller, B. C. Wilson, and R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Niclass, M. Soga, H. Matsubara, S. Kato, and M. Kagami, “A 100-m Range 10-Frame/s 340 ( 96-Pixel Time-of-Flight Depth Sensor in 0.18-mu m CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(2), 559–572 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. R. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, N. J. Pilgrim, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, and G. S. Buller, “Ge-on-Si Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Detectors: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Characterization at Wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 25(6), 063001 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1174–1182 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Geiger-Mode Operation of Ge-on-Si Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. S. Buller and R. Collins, “Single-photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. G. Tanner, C. Natarajan, V. Pottapenjara, J. O’Connor, R. Warburton, R. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. Dorenbos, and E. B. Ureña, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, “Mapping the world in 3D,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 429–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and A. Simoni, “A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54(1), 4–12 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2266–2268 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. S. Buller and A. Wallace, “Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting and point-by-point acquisition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 1006–1015 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P.-A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(9), 1847–1854 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

A. Y. Loudon, P. A. Hiskett, G. S. Buller, R. T. Carline, D. C. Herbert, W. Leong, and J. G. Rarity, “Enhancement of the infrared detection efficiency of silicon photon-counting avalanche photodiodes by use of silicon germanium absorbing layers,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 219–221 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, and B. E. Player, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 351–370 (2002).

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 335–349 (2002).

2001 (1)

M.-C. Amann, T. M. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. A. Myllylae, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of unusual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40(1), 10–20 (2001).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, and L. Lewis, “Terrestrial solar spectral data sets,” Sol. Energy 30(6), 563–573 (1983).
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M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, and B. E. Player, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 351–370 (2002).

Allred, P.

R. E. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. R. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, N. J. Pilgrim, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, and G. S. Buller, “Ge-on-Si Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Detectors: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Characterization at Wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3807–3813 (2013).
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Altmann, Y.

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, N. Mellado, A. McCarthy, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Real-time 3D reconstruction from single-photon lidar data using plug-and-play point cloud denoisers,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 4984 (2019).
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J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Bayesian 3d reconstruction of complex scenes from single-photon lidar data,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 12(1), 521–550 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Lidar waveform-based analysis of depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 25(5), 1935–1946 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Halimi, Y. Altmann, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Restoration of intensity and depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” in Proceedings of 24th European Signal Processing Conference, (EUSIPCO2016).

Amann, M.-C.

M.-C. Amann, T. M. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. A. Myllylae, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of unusual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40(1), 10–20 (2001).
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Andersson, E.

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1174–1182 (2012).
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M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, and B. E. Player, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 351–370 (2002).

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 335–349 (2002).

Baek, B.

M. G. Tanner, C. Natarajan, V. Pottapenjara, J. O’Connor, R. Warburton, R. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. Dorenbos, and E. B. Ureña, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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Besse, P.-A.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P.-A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(9), 1847–1854 (2005).
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Bioucas-Dias, J.

A. Halimi, R. Tobin, A. McCarthy, J. Bioucas-Dias, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Restoration of Multidimensional Sparse Single-Photon 3D-LiDAR Images,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging, in press (2019).

Bird, R. E.

R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, and L. Lewis, “Terrestrial solar spectral data sets,” Sol. Energy 30(6), 563–573 (1983).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bosch, T. M.

M.-C. Amann, T. M. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. A. Myllylae, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of unusual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40(1), 10–20 (2001).
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C. Mallet and F. Bretar, “Full-waveform topographic lidar: State-of-the-art,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. 64(1), 1–16 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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Buller, G. S.

P. Vines, K. Kuzmenko, J. Kirdoda, D. C. Dumas, M. M. Mirza, R. W. Millar, D. J. Paul, and G. S. Buller, “High performance planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche detectors,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1086 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Bayesian 3d reconstruction of complex scenes from single-photon lidar data,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 12(1), 521–550 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, N. Mellado, A. McCarthy, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Real-time 3D reconstruction from single-photon lidar data using plug-and-play point cloud denoisers,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 4984 (2019).
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R. Tobin, A. Halimi, A. McCarthy, M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and G. S. Buller, “Three-dimensional single-photon imaging through obscurants,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4590–4611 (2019).
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A. M. Pawlikowska, A. Halimi, R. A. Lamb, and G. S. Buller, “Single-photon three-dimensional imaging at up to 10 kilometers range,” Opt. Express 25(10), 11919–11931 (2017).
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A. Halimi, A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Object depth profile and reflectivity restoration from sparse single-photon data acquired in underwater environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(3), 472–484 (2017).
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R. Tobin, A. Halimi, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, K. J. McEwan, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth profiling of camouflaged targets using single-photon detection,” Opt. Eng. 57(3), 031303 (2017).
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Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Lidar waveform-based analysis of depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 25(5), 1935–1946 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. E. Warburton, A. M. Wallace, J. Moffat, Y. Petillot, and G. S. Buller, “Underwater depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33911–33926 (2015).
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A. M. Wallace, A. McCarthy, C. J. Nichol, X. Ren, S. Morak, D. Martinez-Ramirez, I. H. Woodhouse, and G. S. Buller, “Design and evaluation of multispectral lidar for the recovery of arboreal parameters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 52(8), 4942–4954 (2014).
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A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
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A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
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N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller, B. C. Wilson, and R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. R. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, N. J. Pilgrim, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, and G. S. Buller, “Ge-on-Si Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Detectors: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Characterization at Wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1174–1182 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 244–256 (2011).
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G. S. Buller and R. Collins, “Single-photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. A. Hiskett, C. S. Parry, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “A photon-counting time-of-flight ranging technique developed for the avoidance of range ambiguity at gigahertz clock rates,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13685–13698 (2008).
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R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2266–2268 (2007).
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G. S. Buller and A. Wallace, “Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting and point-by-point acquisition,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(4), 1006–1015 (2007).
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A. Y. Loudon, P. A. Hiskett, G. S. Buller, R. T. Carline, D. C. Herbert, W. Leong, and J. G. Rarity, “Enhancement of the infrared detection efficiency of silicon photon-counting avalanche photodiodes by use of silicon germanium absorbing layers,” Opt. Lett. 27(4), 219–221 (2002).
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A. Halimi, R. Tobin, A. McCarthy, J. Bioucas-Dias, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Restoration of Multidimensional Sparse Single-Photon 3D-LiDAR Images,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging, in press (2019).

J. Kirdoda, L. Ferre Llin, K. Kuzmenko, P. Vines, Z. Greener, D. C. S. Dumas, R. W. Millar, M. M. Mirza, G. S. Buller, and D. J. Paul, “High efficiency planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics ff1A.4 (2019).

A. Halimi, Y. Altmann, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Restoration of intensity and depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” in Proceedings of 24th European Signal Processing Conference, (EUSIPCO2016).

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Campbell, J. C.

Z. Lu, Y. Kang, C. Hu, Q. Zhou, H.-D. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, “Geiger-Mode Operation of Ge-on-Si Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 731–735 (2011).
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Carleer, M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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Carline, R. T.

Chackerian Jr, C.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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Charbon, E.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P.-A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(9), 1847–1854 (2005).
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Chen, J.

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
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Christnacher, F.

Clarke, P. J.

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1174–1182 (2012).
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Collins, R.

G. S. Buller and R. Collins, “Single-photon generation and detection,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(1), 012002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Collins, R. J.

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1174–1182 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 595–604 (2014).
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D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and A. Simoni, “A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54(1), 4–12 (2007).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Daniels, P. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 335–349 (2002).

Davids, P. S.

Della Frera, A.

Derose, C. T.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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Dorenbos, S.

M. G. Tanner, C. Natarajan, V. Pottapenjara, J. O’Connor, R. Warburton, R. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. Dorenbos, and E. B. Ureña, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, S. D.

Dorenbos, S. N.

Du, B.

Dumas, D. C.

P. Vines, K. Kuzmenko, J. Kirdoda, D. C. Dumas, M. M. Mirza, R. W. Millar, D. J. Paul, and G. S. Buller, “High performance planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche detectors,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1086 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dumas, D. C. S.

J. Kirdoda, L. Ferre Llin, K. Kuzmenko, P. Vines, Z. Greener, D. C. S. Dumas, R. W. Millar, M. M. Mirza, G. S. Buller, and D. J. Paul, “High efficiency planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics ff1A.4 (2019).

Dunjko, V.

P. J. Clarke, R. J. Collins, V. Dunjko, E. Andersson, J. Jeffers, and G. S. Buller, “Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1174–1182 (2012).
[Crossref]

Entwistle, M.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 5–16 (2015).
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M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
[Crossref]

Felton, B. J.

B. F. Aull, A. H. Loomis, D. J. Young, R. M. Heinrichs, B. J. Felton, P. J. Daniels, and D. J. Landers, “Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 335–349 (2002).

Fernández, V.

Ferre Llin, L.

J. Kirdoda, L. Ferre Llin, K. Kuzmenko, P. Vines, Z. Greener, D. C. S. Dumas, R. W. Millar, M. M. Mirza, G. S. Buller, and D. J. Paul, “High efficiency planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics ff1A.4 (2019).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fouche, D. G.

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A. M. Wallace, A. McCarthy, C. J. Nichol, X. Ren, S. Morak, D. Martinez-Ramirez, I. H. Woodhouse, and G. S. Buller, “Design and evaluation of multispectral lidar for the recovery of arboreal parameters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 52(8), 4942–4954 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. R. Gemmell, A. McCarthy, B. Liu, M. G. Tanner, S. D. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. S. Patterson, G. S. Buller, B. C. Wilson, and R. H. Hadfield, “Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5005–5013 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, R. J. Collins, N. J. Krichel, V. Fernández, A. M. Wallace, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range time-of-flight scanning sensor based on high-speed time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6241–6251 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. A. Hiskett, C. S. Parry, A. McCarthy, and G. S. Buller, “A photon-counting time-of-flight ranging technique developed for the avoidance of range ambiguity at gigahertz clock rates,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13685–13698 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. E. Warburton, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, “Subcentimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2266–2268 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Halimi, R. Tobin, A. McCarthy, J. Bioucas-Dias, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Restoration of Multidimensional Sparse Single-Photon 3D-LiDAR Images,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging, in press (2019).

A. Halimi, Y. Altmann, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Restoration of intensity and depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” in Proceedings of 24th European Signal Processing Conference, (EUSIPCO2016).

McEwan, K. J.

R. Tobin, A. Halimi, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, K. J. McEwan, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth profiling of camouflaged targets using single-photon detection,” Opt. Eng. 57(3), 031303 (2017).
[Crossref]

McLaughlin, S.

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Bayesian 3d reconstruction of complex scenes from single-photon lidar data,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 12(1), 521–550 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, N. Mellado, A. McCarthy, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Real-time 3D reconstruction from single-photon lidar data using plug-and-play point cloud denoisers,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 4984 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Tobin, A. Halimi, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, K. J. McEwan, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth profiling of camouflaged targets using single-photon detection,” Opt. Eng. 57(3), 031303 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Halimi, A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Object depth profile and reflectivity restoration from sparse single-photon data acquired in underwater environments,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(3), 472–484 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Lidar waveform-based analysis of depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 25(5), 1935–1946 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Halimi, Y. Altmann, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Restoration of intensity and depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” in Proceedings of 24th European Signal Processing Conference, (EUSIPCO2016).

A. Halimi, R. Tobin, A. McCarthy, J. Bioucas-Dias, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Restoration of Multidimensional Sparse Single-Photon 3D-LiDAR Images,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging, in press (2019).

Mellado, N.

J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, N. Mellado, A. McCarthy, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Real-time 3D reconstruction from single-photon lidar data using plug-and-play point cloud denoisers,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 4984 (2019).
[Crossref]

Millar, R. W.

P. Vines, K. Kuzmenko, J. Kirdoda, D. C. Dumas, M. M. Mirza, R. W. Millar, D. J. Paul, and G. S. Buller, “High performance planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche detectors,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1086 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Kirdoda, L. Ferre Llin, K. Kuzmenko, P. Vines, Z. Greener, D. C. S. Dumas, R. W. Millar, M. M. Mirza, G. S. Buller, and D. J. Paul, “High efficiency planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics ff1A.4 (2019).

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P. Vines, K. Kuzmenko, J. Kirdoda, D. C. Dumas, M. M. Mirza, R. W. Millar, D. J. Paul, and G. S. Buller, “High performance planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche detectors,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1086 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Kirdoda, L. Ferre Llin, K. Kuzmenko, P. Vines, Z. Greener, D. C. S. Dumas, R. W. Millar, M. M. Mirza, G. S. Buller, and D. J. Paul, “High efficiency planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics ff1A.4 (2019).

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Mooney, J. G.

M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, and B. E. Player, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 351–370 (2002).

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A. M. Wallace, A. McCarthy, C. J. Nichol, X. Ren, S. Morak, D. Martinez-Ramirez, I. H. Woodhouse, and G. S. Buller, “Design and evaluation of multispectral lidar for the recovery of arboreal parameters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 52(8), 4942–4954 (2014).
[Crossref]

Myllylae, R. A.

M.-C. Amann, T. M. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. A. Myllylae, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of unusual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40(1), 10–20 (2001).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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M. G. Tanner, C. Natarajan, V. Pottapenjara, J. O’Connor, R. Warburton, R. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. Dorenbos, and E. B. Ureña, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
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A. M. Wallace, A. McCarthy, C. J. Nichol, X. Ren, S. Morak, D. Martinez-Ramirez, I. H. Woodhouse, and G. S. Buller, “Design and evaluation of multispectral lidar for the recovery of arboreal parameters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 52(8), 4942–4954 (2014).
[Crossref]

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C. Niclass, M. Soga, H. Matsubara, S. Kato, and M. Kagami, “A 100-m Range 10-Frame/s 340 ( 96-Pixel Time-of-Flight Depth Sensor in 0.18-mu m CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48(2), 559–572 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P.-A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(9), 1847–1854 (2005).
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X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 5–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
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D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and A. Simoni, “A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54(1), 4–12 (2007).
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M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
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P. Vines, K. Kuzmenko, J. Kirdoda, D. C. Dumas, M. M. Mirza, R. W. Millar, D. J. Paul, and G. S. Buller, “High performance planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche detectors,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 1086 (2019).
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R. E. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. R. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, N. J. Pilgrim, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, and G. S. Buller, “Ge-on-Si Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Detectors: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Characterization at Wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3807–3813 (2013).
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J. Kirdoda, L. Ferre Llin, K. Kuzmenko, P. Vines, Z. Greener, D. C. S. Dumas, R. W. Millar, M. M. Mirza, G. S. Buller, and D. J. Paul, “High efficiency planar Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics ff1A.4 (2019).

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Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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Pilgrim, N. J.

R. E. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. R. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. J. Paul, N. J. Pilgrim, L. J. M. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. W. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, and G. S. Buller, “Ge-on-Si Single-Photon Avalanche Diode Detectors: Design, Modeling, Fabrication, and Characterization at Wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60(11), 3807–3813 (2013).
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M. A. Albota, B. F. Aull, D. G. Fouche, R. M. Heinrichs, D. G. Kocher, R. M. Marino, J. G. Mooney, N. R. Newbury, M. E. O’Brien, and B. E. Player, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode arrays,” L. Lab. J. 13(2), 351–370 (2002).

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Pottapenjara, V.

M. G. Tanner, C. Natarajan, V. Pottapenjara, J. O’Connor, R. Warburton, R. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. Dorenbos, and E. B. Ureña, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rangwala, S.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 5–16 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
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J. Rapp and V. K. Goyal, “A few photons among many: Unmixing signal and noise for photon-efficient active imaging,” IEEE Trans. Comput. Imaging 3(3), 445–459 (2017).
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N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, I. Rech, M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, and G. S. Buller, “Cumulative data acquisition in comparative photon-counting three-dimensional imaging,” J. Mod. Opt. 58(3-4), 244–256 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. Tachella, Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, J.-Y. Tourneret, and S. McLaughlin, “Bayesian 3d reconstruction of complex scenes from single-photon lidar data,” SIAM J. Imaging Sci. 12(1), 521–550 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Tobin, A. Halimi, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, K. J. McEwan, S. McLaughlin, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth profiling of camouflaged targets using single-photon detection,” Opt. Eng. 57(3), 031303 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Altmann, X. Ren, A. McCarthy, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Lidar waveform-based analysis of depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 25(5), 1935–1946 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Maccarone, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. E. Warburton, A. M. Wallace, J. Moffat, Y. Petillot, and G. S. Buller, “Underwater depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Opt. Express 23(26), 33911–33926 (2015).
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A. M. Wallace, A. McCarthy, C. J. Nichol, X. Ren, S. Morak, D. Martinez-Ramirez, I. H. Woodhouse, and G. S. Buller, “Design and evaluation of multispectral lidar for the recovery of arboreal parameters,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 52(8), 4942–4954 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, X. Ren, A. Della Frera, N. R. Gemmell, N. J. Krichel, C. Scarcella, A. Ruggeri, A. Tosi, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range depth imaging at 1550 nm wavelength using an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode detector,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22098–22113 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Halimi, Y. Altmann, A. McCarthy, X. Ren, R. Tobin, G. S. Buller, and S. McLaughlin, “Restoration of intensity and depth images constructed using sparse single-photon data,” in Proceedings of 24th European Signal Processing Conference, (EUSIPCO2016).

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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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M.-C. Amann, T. M. Bosch, M. Lescure, R. A. Myllylae, and M. Rioux, “Laser ranging: a critical review of unusual techniques for distance measurement,” Opt. Eng. 40(1), 10–20 (2001).
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C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P.-A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(9), 1847–1854 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and A. Simoni, “A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54(1), 4–12 (2007).
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D. Shin, F. Xu, D. Venkatraman, R. Lussana, F. Villa, F. Zappa, V. K. Goyal, F. N. Wong, and J. H. Shapiro, “Photon-efficient imaging with a single-photon camera,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 12046 (2016).
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D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G.-F. Dalla Betta, and A. Simoni, “A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I 54(1), 4–12 (2007).
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X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-based single-photon detectors and geiger-mode APD arrays for quantum communications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(3), 5–16 (2015).
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M. Entwistle, M. A. Itzler, J. Chen, M. Owens, K. Patel, X. Jiang, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “Geiger-mode APD camera system for single-photon 3D LADAR imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750D (2012).
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L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, M. Birk, L. Brown, M. Carleer, C. Chackerian Jr, K. Chance, L. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96(2), 139–204 (2005).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. A schematic diagram representing the experimental set-up of the monostatic transceiver. The target was illuminated using a spectrally tunable supercontinuum laser system. The target was mounted on computer controlled motorized translation stages, which allowed it to be raster scanned relative to the stationary illuminating beam. Light reflected from the beam splitter was then focused via lens L2 onto the 100 µm diameter planar Ge-on-Si SPAD. BS denotes a beam-splitter. The detector was located inside a cryostat and operated at a temperature of 100 K.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The depth and intensity profile measurements reconstructed using the pixel-wise cross–correlation approach. The images (a) and (b) are close-up visible photographs of the targets: a double decker bus model (110 × 60 × 38 mm) and a Mini Cooper car model (95 × 45 × 60 mm). The depth reconstructions are shown in (c) and (d), and the intensity reconstructions are shown in (e) and (f). The measurements were performed in a dark laboratory environment at a stand–off distance of 0.4 m. The scanned scene consisted of the target mounted in front of a white cardboard backplane with a maximum front-to-back separation of approximately 100 mm. To improve the presentation clarity, an arbitrary zero depth position was used for the scale on depth profiles (c) and (d). The measurement parameters are described in the main text.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Depth and intensity profiles reconstructed using the pixel-wise cross correlation technique using data acquired with varying per-pixel acquisition times: (a) 30 ms; (b) 10 ms; (c) 3 ms; (d) 1 ms; and (e) 0.5 ms. The scene was scanned at a wavelength of 1450 nm in dark laboratory conditions. The image format used was 100 × 70 pixels, which covered an area of approximately 100 × 70 mm at a range of 0.4 m. In order to improve the presentation clarity, an arbitrary zero depth position was used for the scale on the depth profiles.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Depth and intensity images reconstructed using the cross-correlation technique (left), the RDI-TV algorithm (middle), and the ManiPoP algorithm (right) with 25% of the pixels removed. The image contained 100 × 70 pixels prior to the randomly selected removal of 25% of the pixels. A 10 ms per pixel acquisition time was used in these measurements.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Depth and intensity images reconstructed using the cross-correlation technique (left), the RDI-TV algorithm (middle), and the ManiPoP algorithm (right) with 50% of the pixels removed. The image contained 100 × 70 pixels prior to the randomly selected removal of 50% of the pixels. A 10 ms per pixel acquisition time was used in these measurements.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Depth and intensity images reconstructed using the cross-correlation technique (left), the RDI-TV algorithm (middle), and the ManiPoP algorithm (right) with 75% of the pixels removed. The image contained 100 × 70 pixels prior to the randomly selected removal of 75% of the pixels. A 10 ms per pixel acquisition time was used in these measurements.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The average laser power required to image a target at different stand-off distances from 100 m to 1 km using 1310 nm (a) or 1450 nm (b) wavelength illuminating light. The estimation considers different acquisition times per pixel: 1 ms (magenta triangles), 3 ms (blue triangles), 10 ms (red circles) and 30 ms (black squares). The estimate is based on a collecting lens of 23 mm diameter and a 26 µm diameter planar Ge-on-Si SPAD operated at a temperature of 125 K under an excess bias of 2.5% above avalanche breakdown. The repetition rate of the pulsed illumination laser is 100 kHz.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The average laser power required to image a target at a stand-off distance of 300 meters for different attenuation lengths between the system and the target using operating wavelengths of 1310 nm (black squares) and 1450 nm (red circles) and 10 ms per pixel acquisition time. The SPAD operating conditions are the same as used in Fig. 7.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Description of the parameters in Eq. (2).

Equations (5)

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c τ = j = 1 N h τ + j × g j ,
n p = E P u l s e F λ h c t A L e n s ρ 2 π R 2 e 2 α R C i n C d e t η
n b = t D C R τ b F
S N R = n p n p + n b .
P o u t = h c λ 2 π R 2 n p A l e n s ρ t η C in C det .