Abstract

The wavelength region about of 1650 nm enables pervasive applications. Some instances include methane spectroscopy, free-space/fiber communications, LIDAR, gas sensing (i.e. C2H2, C2H4, C3H8), surgery and medical diagnostics. In this work, through the hybrid integration between an III-V optical amplifier and an extended, low-loss wavelength tunable silicon Vernier cavity, we report for the first time, a III-V/silicon hybrid wavelength-tunable laser covering the application-rich wavelength region of 1647-1690 nm. Room-temperature continuous wave operation is achieved with an output power of up to 31.1 mW, corresponding to a maximum side-mode suppression ratio of 46.01 dB. The laser is ultra-coherent, with an estimated linewidth of 0.7 kHz, characterized by integrating a 35 km-long recirculating fiber loop into the delayed self-heterodyne interferometer setup. The laser linewidth is amongst the lowest in hybrid/heterogeneous III-V/silicon lasers.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (10)

Y. Fan, A. van Rees, P. J. M. van der Slot, J. Mak, R. M. Oldenbeuving, M. Hoekman, D. Geskus, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and K. Boller, “Hybrid integrated InP-Si3N4 diode laser with a 40-Hz intrinsic linewidth,” Opt. Express 28(15), 21713–21728 (2020).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

K. Wang, C. Gao, Z. Lin, Q. Wang, M. Gao, S. Huang, and C. Chen, “1645 nm coherent Doppler wind lidar with a single-frequency Er-YAG laser,” Opt. Express 28(10), 14694–14704 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, D. D. John, J. F. Bauters, T. Bosch, B. J. Thibeault, and J. E. Bowers, “Deuterated silicon dioxide for heterogeneous integration of ultra-low-loss waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 45(12), 3340–3343 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. C. C. Mak, T. Xue, Z. Yong, and J. K. S. Poon, “Wavelength Tunable Matched-Pair Vernier Multi-Ring Filters Using Derivative-Free Optimization Algorithms,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(5), 1–12 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. X. B. Sia, W. Wang, Z. Qiao, X. Li, X. Guo, J. Zhou, C. G. Littlejohns, Z. Zhang, C. Liu, G. T. Reed, and H. Wang, “Compact silicon photonic hybrid ring external cavity (SHREC)/InGaSb-AlGaAsSb wavelength-tunable laser diode operating from 1881-1947nm,” Opt. Express 28(4), 5134–5146 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, J. Li, C. Liu, Y. Yin, W. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Fu, H. Yu, Y. Xu, Y. Shi, Y. Ma, S. Gao, L. Tong, and D. Dai, “High-performance silicon-graphene hybrid plasmonic waveguide photodetectors beyond 1.55 µm,” Light: Sci. Appl. 9(1), 29 (2020).
[Crossref]

D. E. Hagan, M. Ye, P. Wang, J. C. Cartledge, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed performance of a TDFA-band micro-ring resonator modulator and detector,” Opt. Express 28(11), 16845–16856 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (9)

J. X. B. Sia, W. Wang, X. Guo, J. Zhou, Z. Zhang, X. Li, Z. L. Qiao, C. Y. Liu, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and H. Wang, “SiN-SOI Multilayer Platform for Prospective Applications at 2 µm,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(6), 6603809 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Li, H. Wang, Z. Qiao, X. Guo, W. Wang, J. X. B. Sia, G. I. Ng, Y. Zhang, Z. Niu, C. Tong, and C. Liu, “High temperature characteristics of a 2 µm InGaSb/AlGaAsSb passively mode-locked quantum well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(22), 221104 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, R. Kumar, M. Sakib, J. B. Driscoll, H. Jayatilleka, and H. Rong, “A 128 Gb/s PAM4 Silicon Microring Modulator With Integrated Thermo-Optic Resonance Tuning,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(1), 110–115 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, Y. Jung, S. Alam, D. J. Richardson, R. Sidharthan, D. Ho, S. Yoo, and J. M. O. Daniel, “Ultra-short wavelength operation of thulium-doped fiber amplifiers and lasers,” Opt. Express 27(25), 36699–36707 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zheng, C. Zheng, N. Ma, Z. Liu, Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “Near-Infrared Broadband Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopic Multigas Sensor Using a 1650 nm Light Emitting Diode,” ACS Sens. 4(7), 1899–1908 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. X. B. Sia, W. Wang, X. Guo, J. Zhou, Z. Zhang, M. S. Rouifed, X. Li, Z. L. Qiao, C. Y. Liu, C. Littlejohns, G. T. Reed, and H. Wang, “Mid-Infrared, Ultra-Broadband, Low-Loss, Compact Arbitrary Power Splitter Based on Adiabatic Mode Evolution,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(2), 1–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, M. A. Tran, J. Guo, J. Peters, T. Komljenovic, A. Malik, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “High-power sub-kHz linewidth lasers fully integrated on silicon,” Optica 6(6), 745–752 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. A. Tran, D. Huang, and J. E. Bowers, “Tutorial on narrow linewidth tunable semiconductor lasers using Si/heterogeneous integration,” APL Photonics 4(11), 111101 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Boller, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, J. Mak, R. E. M. Lammerink, C. A. A. Franken, P. J. M. van der Slot, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. Fallnich, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, I. Visscher, R. Grootjans, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, A. Leinse, and R. G. Heideman, “Hybrid Integrated Semiconductor Lasers with Silicon Nitride Feedback Circuits,” Photonics 7(1), 4 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (6)

J. Zhang, Y. Li, S. Dhoore, G. Morthier, and G. Roelkens, “Unidirectional, widely-tunable and narrow-linewidth heterogeneously integrated-on-silicon laser,” Opt. Express 25(6), 7092–7100 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Stern, X. Ji, A. Dutt, and M. Lipson, “Compact narrow-linewidth integrated laser based on a low-loss silicon nitride ring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 42(21), 4541–4544 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Crosnier, D. Sanchez, S. Bouchoule, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, and F. Raineri, “Hybrid indium phosphide-on-silicon nanolaser diode,” Nat. Photonics 11(5), 297–300 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Patel, “Monitoring methane,” ACS Cent. Sci. 3(7), 679–682 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Tombez, E. J. Zhang, J. S. Orcutt, S. Kamlapurkar, and W. M. J. Green, “Methane absorption spectroscopy on a silicon photonic chip,” Optica 4(11), 1322–1325 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Cadroas, L. Abdeladim, L. Kotov, M. Likhachev, D. Lipatov, D. Gaponov, A. Hideur, M. Tang, J. Livet, W. Supatto, E. Beaurepaire, and S. Février, “All-fiber femtosecond laser providing 9 nJ, 50 MHz pulses at 1650 nm for three-photon microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065506 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

J. Amirloo, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “Comprehensive study of antireflection coatings for mid-infrared lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 34(6), 061505 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Yoo, N. Traina, M. Halloran, and T. Lee, “Minute Concentration Measurements of Simple Hydrocarbon Species Using Supercontinuum Laser Absorption Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(6), 1063–1071 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, N. Simakov, M. Tokurakawa, P. C. Shardlow, D. Jain, J. K. Sahu, A. M. Heidt, W. A. Clarkson, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Exploiting the short wavelength gain of silica-based thulium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 41(10), 2197–2200 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28939 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Kita, R. Tang, and H. Yamada, “Narrow Spectral Linewidth Silicon Photonic Wavelength Tunable Laser Diode for Digital Coherent Communication System,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 23–34 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Y. Liu, C. T. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. J. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. E. Bowers, “Heterogeneous Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 20–35 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Alahyane, F. Aptel, L. Kowalczuk, J. M. Legeais, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, and K. Plaman, “Wavelength optimization in femtosecond laser corneal surgery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(5), 3340–3349 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Griffith, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “High quality factor and high confinement silicon resonators using etchless process,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21341–21345 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

1990 (1)

Abdeladim, L.

P. Cadroas, L. Abdeladim, L. Kotov, M. Likhachev, D. Lipatov, D. Gaponov, A. Hideur, M. Tang, J. Livet, W. Supatto, E. Beaurepaire, and S. Février, “All-fiber femtosecond laser providing 9 nJ, 50 MHz pulses at 1650 nm for three-photon microscopy,” J. Opt. 19(6), 065506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alahyane, F.

C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Alahyane, F. Aptel, L. Kowalczuk, J. M. Legeais, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, and K. Plaman, “Wavelength optimization in femtosecond laser corneal surgery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(5), 3340–3349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

Alam, S. U.

Alyshev, S. V.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28939 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amirloo, J.

J. Amirloo, S. S. Saini, and M. Dagenais, “Comprehensive study of antireflection coatings for mid-infrared lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 34(6), 061505 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aptel, F.

C. Crotti, F. Deloison, F. Alahyane, F. Aptel, L. Kowalczuk, J. M. Legeais, D. A. Peyrot, M. Savoldelli, and K. Plaman, “Wavelength optimization in femtosecond laser corneal surgery,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 54(5), 3340–3349 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Beaudoin, G.

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Davenport, M.

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W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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Driscoll, J. B.

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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K. Boller, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, J. Mak, R. E. M. Lammerink, C. A. A. Franken, P. J. M. van der Slot, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. Fallnich, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, I. Visscher, R. Grootjans, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, A. Leinse, and R. G. Heideman, “Hybrid Integrated Semiconductor Lasers with Silicon Nitride Feedback Circuits,” Photonics 7(1), 4 (2019).
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Halloran, M.

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K. Boller, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, J. Mak, R. E. M. Lammerink, C. A. A. Franken, P. J. M. van der Slot, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. Fallnich, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, I. Visscher, R. Grootjans, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, A. Leinse, and R. G. Heideman, “Hybrid Integrated Semiconductor Lasers with Silicon Nitride Feedback Circuits,” Photonics 7(1), 4 (2019).
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S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28939 (2016).
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Kobat, D.

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Komljenovic, T.

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K. Boller, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, J. Mak, R. E. M. Lammerink, C. A. A. Franken, P. J. M. van der Slot, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. Fallnich, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, I. Visscher, R. Grootjans, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, A. Leinse, and R. G. Heideman, “Hybrid Integrated Semiconductor Lasers with Silicon Nitride Feedback Circuits,” Photonics 7(1), 4 (2019).
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[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

C. T. Santis, S. T. Steger, Y. Vilenchik, A. Vasilyev, and A. Yariv, “High-coherence semiconductor lasers based on integral high Q-resonators in hybrid Si/platforms,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(8), 2879–2884 (2014).
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S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “A 23-dB bismuth-doped optical fiber amplifier for a 1700-nm band,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 28939 (2016).
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X. Cui, F. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. Xia, T. Pang, P. Sun, B. Wu, S. Liu, L. Han, Z. Li, and R. Yu, Green Electronics: Environmental Application of High Sensitive Gas Sensors with Tunable Diode Absorption Spectroscopy (Intech Open, 2017).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Overview of III-V/silicon hybrid/heterogeneous laser linewidth reported across different wavelength regions [215] in comparison to this work; the corresponding laser output power is tabulated at the inset. Tunable lasers are illustrated by a black line that join two crosses of the same color, indicating the maximum tuning range of the laser.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) 3-D schematic of the III-V/SHREC wavelength-tunable laser diode. (b) 3-D schematic of the III-V/SHREC coupling region via the silicon slab waveguide and SSC. (c) 3-D schematic of the MRR-bus waveguide coupling region in the SHREC. (d) Micrograph image of the SOA. (e) Micrograph image of the SHREC.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Computed transmittances of mrr1, 2 and Vernier filter when Hmrr1 = Hmrr2 = 0 mW. (b) Measured and corresponding computed Vernier transmittances when Hmrr1 = 7.792 mW, Hmrr2 = 0 mW; inset shows the measured Vernier peak, indicating the FWHM.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SOA SE when Ibias = 200, 300, 400, 440 mA; inset shows GR of SE.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. L-I-V of the laser diode from Ibias = 0-440 mA.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Evolution of lasing spectra from Ibias = 300–440 mA (step-size = 20 mA); inset shows the SMSR against Ibias.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Superimposed, discrete lasing spectra of 1647-1690 nm when Ibias = 380 mA. (b) Hmrr2 corresponding to each discrete tuning wavelength.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Superimposed, fine lasing spectra (resolution = 0.5 nm) of 1666.1-1668.6 nm when Ibias = 380 mA. (b) Hmrr1&2 corresponding to each fine tuning wavelength.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Schematic setup of recirculating fiber loop (35 km) integrated DSHI measurement technique. (b) Laser linewidth measured using the recirculating fiber loop integrated DSHI measurement technique. The FWHM of the beat signal is 1.4 kHz at f = 320 MHz, corresponding to ΔL = 140 km. Insets show the beat signal at f = 240 MHz (ΔL = 105 km) and clear and distinct beat signals at f = 80, 160, 240, 320 MHz.

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