Abstract

Thin-film lithium niobate (LN) photonic integrated circuits (PICs) could enable ultrahigh performance in electro-optic and nonlinear optical devices. To date, realizations have been limited to chip-scale proof-of-concepts. Here we demonstrate monolithic LN PICs fabricated on 4- and 6-inch wafers with deep ultraviolet lithography and show smooth and uniform etching, achieving 0.27 dB/cm optical propagation loss on wafer-scale. Our results show that LN PICs are fundamentally scalable and can be highly cost-effective.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

W. Jiang, C. J. Sarabalis, Y. D. Dahmani, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. McKenna, R. Van Laer, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Efficient bidirectional piezo-optomechanical transduction between microwave and optical frequency,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1166 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (5)

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Q.-F. Yang, J. Ling, R. Luo, H. Liang, M. Li, B. Shen, H. Wang, K. Vahala, and Q. Lin, “Self-starting bi-chromatic LiNbO3 soliton microcomb,” Optica 6(9), 1138–1144 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Krasnokutska, R. J. Chapman, J.-L. J. Tambasco, and A. Peruzzo, “High coupling efficiency grating couplers on lithium niobate on insulator,” Opt. Express 27(13), 17681–17685 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

S. Y. Siew, E. J. H. Cheung, H. Liang, A. Bettiol, N. Toyoda, B. Alshehri, E. Dogheche, and A. J. Danner, “Ultra-low loss ridge waveguides on lithium niobate via argon ion milling and gas clustered ion beam smoothening,” Opt. Express 26(4), 4421–4430 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Wu, J. Zhang, N. Yao, W. Fang, L. Qiao, Z. Chai, J. Lin, and Y. Cheng, “Lithium niobate micro-disk resonators of quality factors above 107,” Opt. Lett. 43(17), 4116–4119 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. O. Weigel, J. Zhao, K. Fang, H. Al-Rubaye, D. Trotter, D. Hood, J. Mudrick, C. Dallo, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, C. T. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, G. Rebeiz, and S. Mookherjea, “Bonded thin film lithium niobate modulator on a silicon photonics platform exceeding 100 GHz 3-dB electrical modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23728–23739 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, J. Carolan, D. Bunandar, M. Prabhu, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, M. L. Fanto, A. M. Smith, C. C. Tison, P. M. Alsing, and D. Englund, “Linear programmable nanophotonic processors,” Optica 5(12), 1623–1631 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Loncar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. J. Mercante, S. Shi, P. Yao, L. Xie, R. M. Weikle, and D. W. Prather, “Thin film lithium niobate electro-optic modulator with terahertz operating bandwidth,” Opt. Express 26(11), 14810–14816 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Krasnokutska, J.-L. J. Tambasco, X. Li, and A. Peruzzo, “Ultra-low loss photonic circuits in lithium niobate on insulator,” Opt. Express 26(2), 897–904 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Wolf, I. Breunig, H. Zappe, and K. Buse, “Scattering-loss reduction of ridge waveguides by sidewall polishing,” Opt. Express 26(16), 19815–19820 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Loncar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

2016 (5)

A. J. Mercante, P. Yao, S. Shi, G. Schneider, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, “110 GHz CMOS compatible thin film LiNbO3 modulator on silicon,” Opt. Express 24(14), 15590–15595 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Rao, A. Patil, P. Rabiei, A. Honardoost, R. DeSalvo, A. Paolella, and S. Fathpour, “High-performance and linear thin-film lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators on silicon up to 50 GHz,” Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5700–5703 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonte, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18(10), 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Gunter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. L. O’Brien, “Optical Quantum Computing,” Science 318(5856), 1567–1570 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonte, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18(10), 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Rubaye, H.

Alshehri, B.

Alsing, P. M.

Arrangoiz-Arriola, P.

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High- Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Attanasio, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baida, F. I.

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barbosa, F. A. S.

Bernal, M. P.

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bertrand, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Loncar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bettiol, A.

Bossi, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Brasch, V.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Breunig, I.

Bryant, A.

Bunandar, D.

Buse, K.

Cai, X.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Calero, V.

G. Ulliac, V. Calero, A. Ndao, F. I. Baida, and M. P. Bernal, “Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application,” Opt. Mater. 53, 1–5 (2016).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

D. Marpaung, J. Yao, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Carolan, J.

Chai, Z.

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Loncar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

Chapman, R. J.

Chen, H.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Loncar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, R. Luo, H. Liang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Fast response of photorefraction in lithium niobate microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3267–3270 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

A. Shams-Ansari, M. Yu, Z. Chen, C. Reimer, M. Zhang, N. Picque, and M. Loncar, “An integrated lithium-niobate electro-optic platform for spectrally tailored dual-comb spectroscopy,” arXiv:2003.04533 [physics] (2020).

Cheng, R.

Cheng, Y.

Cheung, E. J. H.

Chrostowski, L.

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics Design: From Devices to Systems (Cambridge University, 2015).

D’Auria, V.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonte, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18(10), 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dahmani, Y. D.

W. Jiang, C. J. Sarabalis, Y. D. Dahmani, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. McKenna, R. Van Laer, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Efficient bidirectional piezo-optomechanical transduction between microwave and optical frequency,” Nat. Commun. 11(1), 1166 (2020).
[Crossref]

Dallo, C.

Danner, A. J.

DeRose, C. T.

DeSalvo, R.

Desiatov, B.

Dogheche, E.

Doutre, F.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonte, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18(10), 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

Englund, D.

Fang, K.

Fang, W.

Fanto, M. L.

Fathpour, S.

Fejer, M. M.

Freude, W.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fritz, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gao, S.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gunter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Gunter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hallemeier, P.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Harris, N. C.

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, M.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Herr, T.

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C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Loncar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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A. Shams-Ansari, M. Yu, Z. Chen, C. Reimer, M. Zhang, N. Picque, and M. Loncar, “An integrated lithium-niobate electro-optic platform for spectrally tailored dual-comb spectroscopy,” arXiv:2003.04533 [physics] (2020).

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M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536–1537 (2017).
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A. Shams-Ansari, M. Yu, Z. Chen, C. Reimer, M. Zhang, N. Picque, and M. Loncar, “An integrated lithium-niobate electro-optic platform for spectrally tailored dual-comb spectroscopy,” arXiv:2003.04533 [physics] (2020).

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C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
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M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536–1537 (2017).
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C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Loncar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High- Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
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C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
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A. Shams-Ansari, M. Yu, Z. Chen, C. Reimer, M. Zhang, N. Picque, and M. Loncar, “An integrated lithium-niobate electro-optic platform for spectrally tailored dual-comb spectroscopy,” arXiv:2003.04533 [physics] (2020).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Photographs of 6-inch (a) and 4-inch (b) thin-film lithium niobate wafers fabricated using deep-ultraviolet lithography and standard etching processes. (c) SEM image showing typical device sidewall roughness, which is comparable to devices made with e-beam lithography [4].
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the fabrication process. On a thin-film LN wafer (a), we deposited a $\mathrm {SiO}_2$ hard mask, then spin-coated anti-reflective coating (ARC) and DUV photoresist (b). After DUV patterning (c) and ARC etching (d), the pattern was transferred into the $\mathrm {SiO}_2$ hard mask (e), and then into the LN layer, leaving a thin slab of LN. The photoresist was stripped (f), and then residual hard mask was removed (g). Finally, the devices were cladded with $\mathrm {SiO}_2$ (h).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measurement of LN thickness uniformity of a 4-inch wafer (a) before device processing and (b) after device processing. (c) Map of the etch depth, which is the difference between (a) and (b). The etch depth is very uniform, with standard deviations of 5.9 nm across the wafer and of 3.2 nm within the dotted circle, 6 mm from the edge of the measurable wafer area. Note that the etch depth variation is comparable to the thickness variation of the initial wafer, demonstrating that the processing was not a dominant source of nonuniformity. Overlaid on the etch depth (c) are measured propagation loss values (in units of dB/cm) from a similarly processed wafer, showing achieved propagation losses between 0.21 dB/cm and 0.36 dB/cm, with an average of 0.27 dB/cm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Typical resonance spectrum of a grating-coupled micro-ring resonator. We measure from 1590 to 1600 nm wavelength to overlap with the peak of the grating-coupler bandwidth for these devices. (b) Micro-ring resonance spectra from different locations on the wafer (see Fig. 3(c) for measurement locations), after renormalizing and centering around the resonant wavelength. Each resonance is from a different reticle exposure across the wafer. The minimum transmission varies because the waveguide-ring coupling is sensitive to fabrication, which changes the loading condition of the resonator. However, note that the linewidths of the resonances are consistent with each other, which suggests that the fabrication is uniform across the wafer.

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