Abstract

We demonstrate a hybrid integrated and widely tunable diode laser with an intrinsic linewidth as narrow as 40 Hz, achieved with a single roundtrip through a low-loss feedback circuit that extends the cavity length to 0.5 meter on a chip. Employing solely dielectrics for single-roundtrip, single-mode resolved feedback filtering enables linewidth narrowing with increasing laser power, without limitations through nonlinear loss. We achieve single-frequency oscillation with up to 23 mW fiber coupled output power, 70-nm wide spectral coverage in the 1.55 μm wavelength range with 3 mW output and obtain more than 60 dB side mode suppression. Such properties and options for further linewidth narrowing render the approach of high interest for direct integration in photonic circuits serving microwave photonics, coherent communications, sensing and metrology with highest resolution.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

M. A. Tran, D. Huang, J. Guo, T. Komljenovic, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “Ring-resonator based widely-tunable narrow-linewidth Si/InP integrated lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(2), 1500514 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (7)

D. Huang, M. A. Tran, J. Guo, J. Peters, T. Komljenovic, A. Malik, P. A. Morton, and J. E. Bowers, “High-power sub-kHz linewidth lasers fully integrated on silicon,” Optica 6(6), 745–752 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Marpaung and J. Yao, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 80–90 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Newman, V. Maurice, T. Drake, J. R. Stone, T. C. Briles, D. T. Spencer, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, B. Shen, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, C. Johnson, D. M. S. Johnson, L. Hollberg, K. J. Vahala, K. Srinivasan, S. A. Diddams, J. Kitching, S. B. Papp, and M. T. Hummon, “Architecture for the photonic integration of an optical atomic clock,” Optica 6(5), 680–685 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Gundavarapu, G. M. Brodnik, M. Puckett, T. Huffman, D. Bose, R. Behunin, J. Wu, T. Qiu, C. Pinho, N. Chauhan, J. Nohava, P. T. Rakich, K. D. Nelson, M. Salit, and D. J. Blumenthal, “Sub-Hertz fundamental linewidth photonic integrated Brillouin laser,” Nat. Photonics 13(1), 60–67 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Boller, A. van Rees, Y. Fan, J. Mak, R. E. M. Lammerink, C. A. A. Franken, P. J. M. van der Slot, D. A. Marpaung, C. Fallnich, J. E. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, I. Visscher, R. Grootjans, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, A. Leinse, and R. G. Heideman, “Hybrid integrated semiconductor lasers with silicon nitride feedback circuits,” Photonics 7(1), 4 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Taddei, L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, and K. Boller, “High-selectivity on-chip optical bandpass filter with sub-100-MHz flat-top and under-2 shape factor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(6), 455–458 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, E. J. Klein, L. S. Wevers, R. B. Timens, D. Marchenko, D. Geskus, R. Dekker, A. Alippi, R. Grootjans, A. van Rees, R. M. Oldenbeuving, J. P. Epping, R. G. Heideman, K. Wörhoff, A. Leinse, D. Geuzebroek, E. Schreuder, P. W. L. van Dijk, I. Visscher, C. Taddei, Y. Fan, C. Taballione, Y. Liu, D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Benelajla, and K. Boller, “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 4400321 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562(7727), 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. T. Santis, Y. Vilenchik, N. Satyan, G. Rakuljic, and A. Yariv, “Quantum control of phase fluctuations in semiconductor lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 115(34), E7896–E7904 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

B. Kuyken, F. Leo, S. Clemmen, U. Dave, R. Van Laer, T. Ideguchi, H. Zhao, X. Liu, J. Safioui, S. Coen, S. Gorza, S. K. Selvaraja, S. Massar, R. M. Osgood, P. Verheyen, J. Van Campenhout, R. Baets, W. M. J. Green, and G. Roelkens, “Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides,” Nanophotonics 6(2), 377–392 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, R. E. M. Lammerink, J. Mak, R. M. Oldenbeuving, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Spectral linewidth analysis of semiconductor hybrid lasers with feedback from an external waveguide resonator circuit,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32767–32782 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Li, M.-G. Suh, and K. Vahala, “Microresonator Brillouin gyroscope,” Optica 4(3), 346–348 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. Fan, J. P. Epping, R. M. Oldenbeuving, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, R. Dekker, R. G. Heideman, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “Optically integrated InP-Si3N4 hybrid laser,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(6), 1505111 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

S. Latkowski, A. Hänsel, N. Bhattacharya, T. de Vries, L. Augustin, K. Williams, M. Smit, and E. Bente, “Novel widely tunable monolithically integrated laser source,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(6), 1503709 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Kita, R. Tang, and H. Yamada, “Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Kobayashi, K. Sato, M. Namiwaka, K. Yamamoto, S. Watanabe, T. Kita, H. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “Silicon photonic hybrid ring-filter external cavity wavelength tunable lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(6), 1241–1246 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

R. M. Oldenbeuving, E. J. Klein, H. L. Offerhaus, C. J. Lee, H. Song, and K. J. Boller, “25 kHz narrow spectral bandwidth of a wavelength tunable diode laser with a short waveguide-based external cavity,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(1), 015804 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, and J. E. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Jiang, A. Ludlow, N. Lemke, R. Fox, J. Sherman, L.-S. Ma, and C. Oates, “Making optical atomic clocks more stable with 10−16-level laser stabilization,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 158–161 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. Özdemir, J. Zhu, W. Kim, and L. Yang, “Detecting single viruses and nanoparticles using whispering gallery microlasers,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(7), 428–432 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Bauters, M. J. R. Heck, D. D. John, J. S. Barton, C. M. Bruinink, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24090–24101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415(6872), 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Akulova, G. A. Fish, P.-C. Koh, C. L. Schow, P. Kozodoy, A. P. Dahl, S. Nakagawa, M. C. Larson, M. P. Mack, T. A. Strand, C. W. Coldren, E. Hegblom, S. K. Penniman, T. Wipiejewski, and L. A. Coldren, “Widely tunable electroabsorption-modulated sampled-grating DBR laser transmitter,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1349–1357 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive microring-resonator-coupled lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3561–3563 (2001).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

L. B. Mercer, “1/f frequency noise effects on self-heterodyne linewidth measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 485–493 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

A. Hemmerich, D. McIntyre, D. Schropp, D. Meschede, and T. Hänsch, “Optically stabilized narrow linewidth semiconductor laser for high resolution spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 75(2), 118–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

T. L. Koch and U. Koren, “Semiconductor lasers for coherent optical fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 274–293 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

G. Bjork and O. Nilsson, “A tool to calculate the linewidth of complicated semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(8), 1303–1313 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. Kazarinov and C. Henry, “The relation of line narrowing and chirp reduction resulting from the coupling of a semiconductor laser to passive resonator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(9), 1401–1409 (1987).
[Crossref]

N. A. Olsson, C. H. Henry, R. F. Kazarinov, H. J. Lee, and B. H. Johnson, “Relation between chirp and linewidth reduction in external Bragg reflector semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(2), 92–93 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

C. Henry, “Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its application to lasers and optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 4(3), 288–297 (1986).
[Crossref]

L. Richter, H. Mandelberg, M. Kruger, and P. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22(11), 2070–2074 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

K. Ujihara, “Phase noise in a laser with output coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(7), 814–818 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

E. Patzak, A. Sugimura, S. Saito, T. Mukai, and H. Olesen, “Semiconductor laser linewidth in optical feedback configurations,” Electron. Lett. 19(24), 1026–1027 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

M. Lax, “Classical noise. V. Noise in self-sustained oscillators,” Phys. Rev. 160(2), 290–307 (1967).
[Crossref]

1958 (1)

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[Crossref]

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A. S. Raja, A. S. Voloshin, H. Guo, S. E. Agafonova, J. Liu, A. S. Gorodnitskiy, M. Karpov, N. G. Pavlov, E. Lucas, R. R. Galiev, A. E. Shitikov, J. D. Jost, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Electrically pumped photonic integrated soliton microcomb,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 680 (2019).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic view of the hybrid laser comprising an InP gain section and a Si $_{3}$ N $_{4}$ feedback circuit that extends the cavity length physically via a spiral, with a length of 33 mm, and optically via three ring resonators. The cavity mirrors are formed by the HR coating on the back facet of the gain section and the Sagnac mirror. The combined total optical length is significantly larger than the optical length of the solitary semiconductor chip.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic representation of a laser with an extended external cavity. The gain section has an intrinsic loss, $\alpha _{\textrm {i}}$ , and gain, $g$ , per unit length. Further, $L_{\textrm {g}}$ is the length of the gain section, $R_{\textrm {b}}$ is the back reflectivity and $T_{\textrm {c}}$ is the mode coupling efficiency at the interface. The passive gain section provides a total effective roundtrip reflectivity $R_{\textrm {i}}$ . The feedback chip provides a low propagation loss, $\alpha _{\textrm {f}}$ ( $\ll \alpha _{\textrm {i}}$ ), a long effective length, $L_{\textrm {f}}$ , an end mirror with reflectivity $R_{\textrm {s}}$ and a spectral filtering with width $\Delta \nu _{\textrm {f}}$ to ensure single-mode oscillation, that are all combined in a single reflectivity $R_{\textrm {f}}=|r_{\textrm {f}}(\nu )|^2$ , with $r_{\textrm {f}}(\nu )$ the total complex amplitude reflectivity of the feedback circuit. The large $L_{\textrm {f}}$ dominates the total length of the laser cavity and is responsible for increasing the photon lifetime and narrowing the laser linewidth, even in the presence of high intrinsic loss $\alpha _{\textrm {i}}$ (i.e., low $R_{\textrm {i}}$ ).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Calculated photon lifetime $\tau _{\textrm {p}}$ as a function of the geometric length $L_{\textrm {f}}$ of the feedback arm for a typical propagation loss of $\alpha _{\textrm {f}}=2.3$ m $^{-1}$ (0.1 dB/cm) and for losses that are a factor of 5 smaller and larger, while $\alpha _{\textrm {g}}=1600$ m $^{-1}$ . Other parameters are $R_{\textrm {b}}=0.9$ , $R_{\textrm {s}}=0.8$ , $n_{\textrm {g,i}}=3.6$ , $n_{\textrm {g,f}}=1.715$ , and $L_{\textrm {g}}=1$ mm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic view of the cross section of the double stripe Si $_{3}$ N $_{4}$ waveguide used in the photonic feedback circuit for the hybrid laser. The supported single transverse optical mode has a cross section of $1.6 \times 1.7$ $\mu$ m $^2$ .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Calculated double-pass power transmission $T_{123}$ of the Si $_3$ N $_4$ feedback arm containing three cascaded rings with radii $R_1=99$ $\mu$ m, $R_2=102$ $\mu$ m and $R_3=1485$ $\mu$ m across a range corresponding to the gain bandwidth (a) and across a small range near the maximum of the gain at 1.54 $\mu$ m (b). The peak transmission amounts to 51% as calculated with an effective group index of $n_g=1.715$ , the Sagnac mirror reflectance set to 90%, and a propagation loss of $0.1$ dB/cm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Typical laser output power as measured with increasing pump current, yielding a maximum output of 23 mW. The discontinuities indicate spectral mode hops. This particular measurement was performed at a wavelength of 1561 nm.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Typical power spectrum recorded across a range of 30 pm with 0.1 pm resolution (3.7 GHz and 12 MHz, respectively).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Typical power spectrum of the relative intensity noise (RIN). The spectrum is flat except for a small intermittent peak around 950 MHz. The optical output power was 1.2 mW.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Superimposed output spectra recorded by tuning the laser wavelength in steps of 2 nm across a range of $>70$ nm.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Superimposed spectra when fine tuning the laser in steps of 0.15 nm.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Double-sided power spectral density (PSD) of laser frequency noise for a pump current of 255 mA, plotted for positive frequencies. The dashed line at 6.5 Hz $^2$ /Hz represents the mean of PSD values for noise frequencies between 4 and 7.5 MHz. The detection limit is at 0.5 Hz $^{2}$ /Hz.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Double logarithmic plot of Lorentzian linewidth versus the threshold factor, $X=(I_{\textrm {p}}-I_{\textrm {p,th}})/I_{\textrm {p,th}}$ , which is proportional to the output power, $P_{\textrm {out}}$ . Unfilled symbols show measurements vs decreasing power. Measurements vs increasing power (filled symbols) yield slightly smaller linewidths. The solid line is a least-square fit to the lower linewidth data with negative unity slope (inverse power law, $\propto P_{\textrm {out}}^{-1}$ ). The linewidth obtained from PSD measurements (Fig. 11) is shown as a black round symbol at $X=5.07$ (255 mA pump current).

Equations (2)

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1 τ p = 1 L g + L f ( α i v g,i L g + α f v g,f L f 1 2 v g ln ( R b R s ) ) ,
Δ ν ST = h ν 4 π n sp γ tot γ m F P P 0 K ( ν ) 1 + α H 2 F 2 .