Abstract

Lithium niobate (LN), possessing wide transparent window, strong electro-optic effect, and large optical nonlinearity, is an ideal material platform for integrated photonics application. Microring resonators are particularly suitable as integrated photonic components, given their flexibility of device engineering and their potential for large-scale integration. However, the susceptibility to temperature fluctuation has become a major challenge for their implementation in a practical environment. Here, we demonstrate an athermal LN microring resonator. By cladding an x-cut LN microring resonator with a thin layer of titanium oxide, we are able to completely eliminate the first-order thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) of cavity resonance right at room temperature (20°C), leaving only a small residual quadratic temperature dependence with a second-order TOC of only 0.37 pm/K2. It corresponds to a temperature-induced resonance wavelength shift within 0.33 nm over a large operating temperature range of (−10 – 50)°C that is one order of magnitude smaller than a bare LN microring resonator. Moreover, the TiO2-cladded LN microring resonator is able to preserve high optical quality, with an intrinsic optical Q of 5.8 × 105 that is only about 11% smaller than that of a bare LN resonator. The flexibility of thermo-optic engineering, high optical quality, and device fabrication compatibility show great promise of athermal LN/TiO2 hybrid devices for practical applications, elevating the potential importance of LN photonic integrated circuits for future communication, sensing, nonlinear and quantum photonics.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

D. Pohl, M. R. Escalé, M. Madi, F. Kaufmann, P. Brotzer, A. Sergeyev, B. Guldimann, P. Giaccari, E. Alberti, U. Meier, and R. Grange, “An integrated broadband spectrometer on thin-film lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 14(1), 24–29 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (8)

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit· s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. McKenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” Optica 6(7), 845–853 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Luo, Y. He, H. Liang, M. Li, and Q. Lin, “Semi-nonlinear nanophotonic waveguides for highly efficient second-harmonic generation,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(3), 1800288 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Q.-F. Yang, J. Ling, R. Luo, H. Liang, M. Li, B. Shen, H. Wang, K. Vahala, and Q. Lin, “Self-starting bi-chromatic LiNbO3 soliton microcomb,” Optica 6(9), 1138–1144 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Li, H. Liang, R. Luo, Y. He, J. Ling, and Q. Lin, “Photon-level tuning of photonic nanocavities,” Optica 6(7), 860–863 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Chen, Z.-H. Ma, Y. M. Sua, Z. Li, C. Tang, and Y.-P. Huang, “Ultra-efficient frequency conversion in quasi-phase-matched lithium niobate microrings,” Optica 6(9), 1244–1245 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, J. B. Surya, X. Liu, A. W. Bruch, Z. Gong, Y. Xu, and H. X. Tang, “Periodically poled thin-film lithium niobate microring resonators with a second-harmonic generation efficiency of 250,000%/W,” Optica 6(12), 1455–1460 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. O. Weigel, J. Zhao, K. Fang, H. Al-Rubaye, D. Trotter, D. Hood, J. Mudrick, C. Dallo, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, C. T. DeRose, A. L. Lentine, G. Rebeiz, and S. Mookherjea, “Bonded thin film lithium niobate modulator on a silicon photonics platform exceeding 100 GHz 3-dB electrical modulation bandwidth,” Opt. Express 26(18), 23728–23739 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. He, Y. Guo, Z. Han, K. Wada, J. Michel, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Broadband athermal waveguides and resonators for datacom and telecom applications,” Photonics Res. 6(11), 987–990 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

2016 (4)

2015 (6)

2014 (1)

2013 (4)

H. C. Nguyen, N. Yazawa, S. Hashimoto, S. Otsuka, and T. Baba, “Sub-100 μm photonic crystal Si optical modulators: spectral, athermal, and high-speed performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 127–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express 21(12), 13958–13968 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Guha, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon microring resonators with titanium oxide cladding,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26557–26563 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

N. Kobayashi, N. Zaizen, and Y. Kokubun, “Athermal and polarization-independent microring resonator filter using stress control,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(8B), 5465–5469 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl’Innocenti, and P. Günter, “Electro–optically tunable microring resonators in lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 407–410 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Moretti, M. Iodice, F. G. Della Corte, and I. Rendina, “Temperature dependence of the thermo-optic coefficient of lithium niobate, from 300 to 515 K in the visible and infrared regions,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 036101 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, “Temperature-independent optical filter at 1.55/spl mu/m wavelength using a silica-based athermal waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 367–369 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, “Athermal waveguides for temperature-independent lightwave devices,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1297–1300 (1993).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

Y. Kim and R. Smith, “Thermal expansion of lithium tantalate and lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(11), 4637–4641 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

Adibi, A.

Adikaari, A.

Agarwal, A. M.

L. He, Y. Guo, Z. Han, K. Wada, J. Michel, A. M. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, G. Li, and L. Zhang, “Broadband athermal waveguides and resonators for datacom and telecom applications,” Photonics Res. 6(11), 987–990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alberti, E.

D. Pohl, M. R. Escalé, M. Madi, F. Kaufmann, P. Brotzer, A. Sergeyev, B. Guldimann, P. Giaccari, E. Alberti, U. Meier, and R. Grange, “An integrated broadband spectrometer on thin-film lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 14(1), 24–29 (2020).
[Crossref]

Alipour, P.

Al-Rubaye, H.

Arrangoiz-Arriola, P.

Baba, T.

H. C. Nguyen, N. Yazawa, S. Hashimoto, S. Otsuka, and T. Baba, “Sub-100 μm photonic crystal Si optical modulators: spectral, athermal, and high-speed performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 127–137 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

Bertrand, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Boes, A.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Bradley, J. D.

Breunig, I.

Brotzer, P.

D. Pohl, M. R. Escalé, M. Madi, F. Kaufmann, P. Brotzer, A. Sergeyev, B. Guldimann, P. Giaccari, E. Alberti, U. Meier, and R. Grange, “An integrated broadband spectrometer on thin-film lithium niobate,” Nat. Photonics 14(1), 24–29 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bruch, A. W.

Bucio, T. D.

Buse, K.

Cai, X.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit· s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Camacho-González, G. F.

A. Rao, J. Chiles, S. Khan, S. Toroghi, M. Malinowski, G. F. Camacho-González, and S. Fathpour, “Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(11), 111109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chang, L.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and potential of lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531–535 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit· s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
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C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
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C. Wang, C. Langrock, A. Marandi, M. Jankowski, M. Zhang, B. Desiatov, M. M. Fejer, and M. Lončar, “Ultrahigh-efficiency wavelength conversion in nanophotonic periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Optica 5(11), 1438–1441 (2018).
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Zhao, D.

S. Liu, D. Zhao, J.-H. Seo, Y. Liu, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Athermal photonic crystal membrane reflectors on diamond,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1072–1075 (2015).
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M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit· s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. Yoo, “Athermalizing and trimming of slotted silicon microring resonators with UV-sensitive PMMA upper-cladding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
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C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
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ACS Photonics (1)

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, and S. Yokoyama, “Athermal and high-Q hybrid TiO2–Si3N4 ring resonator via an etching-free fabrication technique,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 405–409 (2015).
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F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 051106 (2013).
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Y. Kokubun, S. Yoneda, and S. Matsuura, “Temperature-independent optical filter at 1.55/spl mu/m wavelength using a silica-based athermal waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 34(4), 367–369 (1998).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Device geometry of the TiO $_2$ -cladded LN waveguide and resonator. (a) Schematic of the cross section of a TiO $_2$ -cladded x-cut LN waveguide. (b) Optical mode field profile of the fundamental quasi-TE mode, simulated by the finite-element method. The LN waveguide has dimensions of W = 1.8 ${\mu}$ m, H = 600 nm, h = 410 nm, and $\theta = 75^{\circ }$ . The TiO $_2$ cladding layer has a thickness of T = 115 nm. (c) Schematic of a TiO $_2$ -cladded x-cut LN microring resonator. The white arrows indicate the polarization direction of a quasi-TE cavity mode, which evolves along the resonator and alternates between the ordinary and extraordinary polarization of LN crystal.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. FEM-simulated optical and thermo-optic property of the fundamental quasi-TE cavity mode in a circular-shaped TiO $_2$ -cladded x-cut LN microring resonator. (a) Simulated thermo-optic coefficient, $\frac {d\lambda _0}{dT}$ , of cavity resonance around 1550 nm at room temperature, as a function of waveguide width $W$ and TiO $_2$ layer thickness $T$ . The dashed curve corresponds to the cases when $\frac {d\lambda _0}{dT} = 0$ . The color bar on the right shows the magnitude scale of $\frac {d\lambda _0}{dT}$ . (b) Fraction of optical energy, $\Gamma _\textrm{LN}$ , inside the LN waveguide core, corresponding to (a). The color bar on the right shows the magnitude scale of $\Gamma _\textrm{LN}$ . The microring resonator is assumed to have H = 600 nm, h = 410 nm, and $\theta = 75^{\circ}$ . The mark "*" indicates the case used in device fabrication.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Scanning electron microscopic image of a fabricated TiO $_2$ -cladded x-cut LN microring resonator with a radius of 100 ${\mu} \textrm{m}$ . The waveguide dimensions are indicated by the mark "*" in Fig. 2. A pulley bus waveguide of 1.2 ${\mu} \textrm{m}$ wide is used to couple light into and out of the resonator, which has a gap of around 0.9 ${\mu} \textrm{m}$ and a coupling length of around 60 ${\mu} \textrm{m}$ to allow a broadband coupling condition.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic of the experimental testing setup. The temperature of the device is controlled by a thermo-electric cooler (TEC). EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; VOA: variable optical attenuator; PC: polarization controller; MZI: Mach-Zehnder interferometer; PD: photo detector.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Laser-scanned transmission spectra of LN microring resonators at room temperature. (a) and (b) show the case of a bare LN microring resonator without TiO $_2$ cladding, where (b) shows the details of a cavity resonance around 1542 nm, with intrinsic and loaded optical Q of $6.3\times 10^5$ and $5.3\times 10^5$ , respectively. (c) and (d) show the case of a LN microring resonator with TiO $_2$ cladding, where (d) shows the details of a cavity resonance around the same wavelength of 1542 nm, with intrinsic and loaded optical Q of $5.8\times 10^5$ and $4.6\times 10^5$ , respectively. In (b) and (d), the blue dots show the experimental data and the red cures show theoretical fittings.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Temperature dependent wavelength shift of cavity resonances shown in Figs. 5(b) and 5(d), for a bare LN resonator (black stars) and a TiO $_2$ -cladded LN resonator (blue circles), respectively. The red curve shows a linear fitting and the green curve shows a quadratic fitting.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d n eff d T = i N Γ i d n i d T ,
d λ 0 d T = λ 0 ( 1 n eff d n eff d T + α ) ,
d λ 0 d T = λ 0 ( 1 n ¯ eff d n ¯ eff d T + α ¯ ) ,
d n ¯ eff d T = Γ LN d n ¯ LN d T + Γ TiO 2 d n TiO 2 d T + Γ SiO 2 d n SiO 2 d T ,