Abstract

Zero refractive index materials behave electromagnetically as single points despite the finite dimensions because a propagating electromagnetic wave passes with an infinite phase velocity. However, the composition of naturally occurring materials cannot produce a zero refractive index material because any effect of both of the dielectric and magnetic properties would have to vanish (be near zero). In this report, we demonstrate a zero refractive index metasurface with a refractive index of 0.16 + j0.09, the reflectance of 0.7%, and transmittance of 97.3% at 0.505 THz. The measured relative permittivity and relative permeability are 0.18 − j0.10 and 0.004 + j0.16 at 0.505 THz, respectively. Both the relative permittivity and relative permeability simultaneously approach zero at the same frequency, and the dielectric and magnetic properties appear to be absent (vanish) in the artificial material. The zero refractive index metasurface can offer a material platform for terahertz applications with unprecedented functionalities for 6G (beyond 5G) wireless communications, imaging, and security.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Yang, Y. Xiao, M. Xiao, and S. Li, “6G Wireless Communications: Vision and Potential Techniques,” IEEE Netw. 33(4), 70–75 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Harter, S. Ummethala, M. Blaicher, S. Muehlbrandt, S. Wolf, M. Weber, M. M. H. Adib, J. N. Kemal, M. Merboldt, F. Boes, S. Nellen, A. Tessmann, M. Walther, B. Globisch, T. Zwick, W. Freude, S. Randel, and C. Koos, “Wireless THz link with optoelectronic transmitter and receiver,” Optica 6(8), 1063–1070 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Guerboukha, K. Nallappan, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Toward real-time terahertz imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(4), 843–938 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(8), 9417–9431 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken, “Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8462–8475 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Podzorov and G. Gallot, “Low-loss polymers for terahertz applications,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3254–3257 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Wichmann, A. S. Mondol, N. Kocic, S. Lippert, T. Probst, M. Schwerdtfeger, S. Schumann, T. Hochrein, P. Heidemeyer, M. Bastian, G. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz plastic compound lenses,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4186–4191 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Han, K. Lee, J. Lim, S. S. Hong, Y. K. Kim, and J. Ahn, “Terahertz lens made out of natural stone,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8670–8675 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Tan, F. Yan, L. Singh, W. Cao, N. Xu, X. Hu, R. Singh, M. Wang, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz metasurfaces with a high refractive index enhanced by the strong nearest neighbor coupling,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29222–29230 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Awad, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Negative-index metamaterial with polymer-embedded wire-pair structures at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2683–2685 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Indrišiūnas, H. Richter, I. Grigelionis, V. Janonis, L. Minkevičius, G. Valušis, G. Račiukaitis, T. Hagelschuer, H.-W. Hübers, and I. Kašalynas, “Laser-processed diffractive lenses for the frequency range of 4.7 THz,” Opt. Lett. 44(5), 1210–1213 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Zhou, J. Du, Y. Liu, and X. Zang, “Helicity multiplexed terahertz multi-foci metalens,” Opt. Lett. 45(2), 463–466 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  30. N. Ullah, W. Liu, G. Wang, Z. Wang, A. U. R. Khalid, B. Hu, J. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Gate-controlled terahertz focusing based on graphene-loaded metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(3), 2789–2798 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  31. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  32. K. Ishihara and T. Suzuki, “Metamaterial demonstrates both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection in the 0.3-THz band,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 38(9), 1130–1139 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. Suzuki, M. Sekiya, T. Sato, and Y. Takebayashi, “Negative refractive index metamaterial with high transmission, low reflection, and low loss in the terahertz waveband,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8314–8324 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  34. X. Niu, X. Hu, S. Chu, and Q. Gong, “Epsilon-near-zero photonics: A new platform for integrated devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(10), 1701292 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  35. T. Suzuki, T. Sato, M. Sekiya, and J. C. Young, “Epsilon-near-zero three-dimensional metamaterial for manipulation of terahertz beams,” Appl. Opt. 58(11), 3029–3035 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  36. A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, R. Mendis, K. S. Reichel, W. Zhang, E. Castro-Camus, and D. M. Mittleman, “Artificial dielectric stepped-refractive-index lens for the terahertz region,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3702–3708 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  37. V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  39. V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  40. N. Engheta, “Pursuing near-zero response,” Science 340(6130), 286–287 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  41. I. Liberal and N. Engheta, “Near-zero refractive index photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 149–158 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  42. A. M. Mahmoud and N. Engheta, “Wave-matter interactions in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero structures,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5638 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  43. R. W. Ziolkowski, “Propagation in and scattering from a matched metamaterial having a zero index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70(4), 046608 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  44. P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  45. Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  46. X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  47. Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  48. J.-K. Yang, C. Kang, I. Sohn, and C.-S. Kee, “Effective description of THz localized waveguide resonance through metal film with split ring resonator holes: zero refractive index,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25371–25378 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  49. I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index of refraction in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2592–2594 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  50. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  51. Y. Minowa, T. Fujii, M. Nagai, T. Ochiai, K. Sakoda, K. Hirao, and K. Tanaka, “Evaluation of effective electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in metamaterial slabs by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4785–4796 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  52. T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys,” Rev. E 68(6), 065602 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2020 (2)

2019 (4)

2018 (6)

H. Guerboukha, K. Nallappan, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Toward real-time terahertz imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(4), 843–938 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(8), 9417–9431 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, R. Mendis, K. S. Reichel, W. Zhang, E. Castro-Camus, and D. M. Mittleman, “Artificial dielectric stepped-refractive-index lens for the terahertz region,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3702–3708 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Suzuki, M. Sekiya, T. Sato, and Y. Takebayashi, “Negative refractive index metamaterial with high transmission, low reflection, and low loss in the terahertz waveband,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8314–8324 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Niu, X. Hu, S. Chu, and Q. Gong, “Epsilon-near-zero photonics: A new platform for integrated devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(10), 1701292 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

I. Liberal and N. Engheta, “Near-zero refractive index photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Ishihara and T. Suzuki, “Metamaterial demonstrates both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection in the 0.3-THz band,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 38(9), 1130–1139 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

S. Tan, F. Yan, L. Singh, W. Cao, N. Xu, X. Hu, R. Singh, M. Wang, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz metasurfaces with a high refractive index enhanced by the strong nearest neighbor coupling,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29222–29230 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken, “Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8462–8475 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

A. M. Mahmoud and N. Engheta, “Wave-matter interactions in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero structures,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5638 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Engheta, “Pursuing near-zero response,” Science 340(6130), 286–287 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Wichmann, A. S. Mondol, N. Kocic, S. Lippert, T. Probst, M. Schwerdtfeger, S. Schumann, T. Hochrein, P. Heidemeyer, M. Bastian, G. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz plastic compound lenses,” Appl. Opt. 52(18), 4186–4191 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Han, K. Lee, J. Lim, S. S. Hong, Y. K. Kim, and J. Ahn, “Terahertz lens made out of natural stone,” Appl. Opt. 52(36), 8670–8675 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. W. Ziolkowski, “Propagation in and scattering from a matched metamaterial having a zero index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70(4), 046608 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys,” Rev. E 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adelberg, J.

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adib, M. M. H.

Ahn, J.

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Amann, M. C.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anderson, Z.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asada, M.

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Awad, M.

Bai, Y.

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bastian, G.

Bastian, M.

Beigang, R.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beruete, M.

V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaicher, M.

Boehm, G.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boes, F.

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Briggs, D. P.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byun, D.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Castro-Camus, E.

Chan, C. T.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-G.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, M.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choutagunta, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

X. Niu, X. Hu, S. Chu, and Q. Gong, “Epsilon-near-zero photonics: A new platform for integrated devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(10), 1701292 (2018).
[Crossref]

-Cía, M. N.

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Demmerle, F.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Diaz, A.

Dougakiuchi, T.

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Ducournau, G.

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Edamura, T.

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Liberal and N. Engheta, “Near-zero refractive index photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahmoud and N. Engheta, “Wave-matter interactions in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero structures,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5638 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Engheta, “Pursuing near-zero response,” Science 340(6130), 286–287 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

Fujii, T.

Fujita, K.

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gallot, G.

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gentselev, A.

V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
[Crossref]

Globisch, B.

Gong, Q.

X. Niu, X. Hu, S. Chu, and Q. Gong, “Epsilon-near-zero photonics: A new platform for integrated devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(10), 1701292 (2018).
[Crossref]

Grigelionis, I.

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guerboukha, H.

H. Guerboukha, K. Nallappan, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Toward real-time terahertz imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(4), 843–938 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hagelschuer, T.

Han, D.

Hang, Z. H.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harter, T.

Hasman, E.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heidemeyer, P.

Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.

Heydari, D.

Hirao, K.

Hitaka, M.

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hochrein, T.

Hong, S. S.

Hossain, Z.

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, B.

Hu, X.

Huang, X.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hübers, H.-W.

Imhof, C.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[Crossref]

Indrišiunas, S.

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara and T. Suzuki, “Metamaterial demonstrates both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection in the 0.3-THz band,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 38(9), 1130–1139 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ito, A.

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jang, M.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Janonis, V.

Jiang, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jornet, J. M.

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kanaya, H.

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, C.

Kang, K.-Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kašalynas, I.

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kee, C.-S.

Kemal, J. N.

Khalid, A. U. R.

Khoo, I. C.

Kildishev, A. V.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. T.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. K.

Kita, S.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knightly, E.

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

Kocic, N.

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

Koschny, T.

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys,” Rev. E 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kravchenko, I. I.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

Kuznetsov, S.

V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kwak, M. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

Lee, S. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

P. Yang, Y. Xiao, M. Xiao, and S. Li, “6G Wireless Communications: Vision and Potential Techniques,” IEEE Netw. 33(4), 70–75 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

Liberal, I.

I. Liberal and N. Engheta, “Near-zero refractive index photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

Lin, D.

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lippert, S.

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

Liu, Y.

Loncar, M.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q. Y.

Lv, X.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maekawa, T.

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mahmoud, A. M.

A. M. Mahmoud and N. Engheta, “Wave-matter interactions in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero structures,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5638 (2014).
[Crossref]

Markoš, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys,” Rev. E 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mendis, R.

Merboldt, M.

Min, B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Minkevicius, L.

Minowa, Y.

Mittleman, D. M.

Moitra, P.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mondol, A. S.

Muehlbrandt, S.

Muñoz, P.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nagai, M.

Nagatsuma, T.

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nagel, M.

Nallappan, K.

H. Guerboukha, K. Nallappan, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Toward real-time terahertz imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(4), 843–938 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nellen, S.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, V. D.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Niu, X.

X. Niu, X. Hu, S. Chu, and Q. Gong, “Epsilon-near-zero photonics: A new platform for integrated devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(10), 1701292 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ochiai, T.

Orazbayev, B.

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pacheco-Peña, V.

V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paul, O.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peña, V. P.

-Peña, V. P.

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

Podzorov, A.

Prasetyo, F. D.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Probst, T.

Raciukaitis, G.

Rahm, M.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

Razeghi, M.

Reichel, K. S.

Reinhard, B.

Renaud, C. C.

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

Reshef, O.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Richter, H.

Sakoda, K.

Sato, T.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schumann, S.

Schwerdtfeger, M.

Sekiya, M.

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shrestha, R.

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

Si, L.-M.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Singh, L.

Singh, R.

Skorobogatiy, M.

H. Guerboukha, K. Nallappan, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Toward real-time terahertz imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(4), 843–938 (2018).
[Crossref]

Slivken, S.

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys,” Rev. E 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sohn, I.

Sorolla, M.

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys,” Rev. E 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

Takebayashi, Y.

Tan, S.

Tanaka, K.

Tenggara, A. P.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tessmann, A.

Tetienne, J.-P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Torres, V.

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
[Crossref]

-Ulibarri, P. R.

Ullah, N.

Ummethala, S.

Valentine, J.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Valušis, G.

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vijayraghavan, K.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vizbaras, A.

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vulis, D. I.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Walther, M.

Wang, G.

Wang, M.

Wang, Z.

Weber, M.

Weiner, B.

Weis, P.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Werner, D. H.

Wichmann, M.

Wolf, S.

Wu, B-I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

P. Yang, Y. Xiao, M. Xiao, and S. Li, “6G Wireless Communications: Vision and Potential Techniques,” IEEE Netw. 33(4), 70–75 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

P. Yang, Y. Xiao, M. Xiao, and S. Li, “6G Wireless Communications: Vision and Potential Techniques,” IEEE Netw. 33(4), 70–75 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

Yamanishi, M.

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

Yang, J.-K.

Yang, P.

P. Yang, Y. Xiao, M. Xiao, and S. Li, “6G Wireless Communications: Vision and Potential Techniques,” IEEE Netw. 33(4), 70–75 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.-Y.

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yin, M.

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Young, J. C.

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yudistira, H. T.

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zang, X.

Zengerle, R.

Zhang, Q.-L.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, H.

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.

Zhou, W.

Zhu, W.

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski, “Propagation in and scattering from a matched metamaterial having a zero index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70(4), 046608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

X. Niu, X. Hu, S. Chu, and Q. Gong, “Epsilon-near-zero photonics: A new platform for integrated devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(10), 1701292 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

H. Guerboukha, K. Nallappan, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Toward real-time terahertz imaging,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 10(4), 843–938 (2018).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

Q.-L. Zhang, L.-M. Si, Y. Huang, X. Lv, and W. Zhu, “Low-index-metamaterial for gain enhancement of planar terahertz antenna,” AIP Adv. 4(3), 037103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

T. Maekawa, H. Kanaya, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Oscillation up to 1.92 THz in resonant tunneling diode by reduced conduction loss,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(2), 024101 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, A. Ito, M. Hitaka, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Low-threshold room-temperature continuous-wave operation of a terahertz difference-frequency quantum cascade laser source,” Appl. Phys. Express 10(8), 082102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, S. Jung, and M. A. Belkin, “Terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with a dual-upper-state active region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251104 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. T. Yudistira, A. P. Tenggara, V. D. Nguyen, T. T. Kim, F. D. Prasetyo, C.-G. Choi, M. Choi, and D. Byun, “Fabrication of terahertz metamaterial with high refractive index using high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 211106 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. P. -Peña, V. Torres, B. Orazbayev, M. Beruete, M. N. -Cía, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(24), 243503 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Netw. (1)

P. Yang, Y. Xiao, M. Xiao, and S. Li, “6G Wireless Communications: Vision and Potential Techniques,” IEEE Netw. 33(4), 70–75 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves (1)

K. Ishihara and T. Suzuki, “Metamaterial demonstrates both a high refractive index and extremely low reflection in the 0.3-THz band,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 38(9), 1130–1139 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kanaya, T. Maekawa, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, “Structure dependence of oscillation characteristics of resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz oscillators associated with intrinsic and extrinsic delay times,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 54(9), 094103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

K. Vijayraghavan, Y. Jiang, M. Jang, A. Jiang, K. Choutagunta, A. Vizbaras, F. Demmerle, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, and M. A. Belkin, “Broadly tunable terahertz generation in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2021 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Mahmoud and N. Engheta, “Wave-matter interactions in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero structures,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5638 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

X. Huang, Y. Lai, Z. H. Hang, H. Zheng, and C. T. Chan, “Dirac cones induced by accidental degeneracy in photonic crystals and zero-refractive-index materials,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 582–586 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10(6), 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Liberal and N. Engheta, “Near-zero refractive index photonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(3), 149–158 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Moitra, Y. Yang, Z. Anderson, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 791–795 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, S. Kita, P. Muñoz, O. Reshef, D. I. Vulis, M. Yin, M. Lončar, and E. Mazur, “On-chip zero-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 738–742 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

J. Ma, R. Shrestha, J. Adelberg, C.-Y. Yeh, Z. Hossain, E. Knightly, J. M. Jornet, and D. M. Mittleman, “Security and eavesdropping in terahertz wireless links,” Nature 563(7729), 89–93 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (11)

S. Tan, F. Yan, L. Singh, W. Cao, N. Xu, X. Hu, R. Singh, M. Wang, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz metasurfaces with a high refractive index enhanced by the strong nearest neighbor coupling,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29222–29230 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Ullah, W. Liu, G. Wang, Z. Wang, A. U. R. Khalid, B. Hu, J. Liu, and Y. Zhang, “Gate-controlled terahertz focusing based on graphene-loaded metasurface,” Opt. Express 28(3), 2789–2798 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. I. Hernandez-Serrano, R. Mendis, K. S. Reichel, W. Zhang, E. Castro-Camus, and D. M. Mittleman, “Artificial dielectric stepped-refractive-index lens for the terahertz region,” Opt. Express 26(3), 3702–3708 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Razeghi, Q. Y. Lu, N. Bandyopadhyay, W. Zhou, D. Heydari, Y. Bai, and S. Slivken, “Quantum cascade lasers: from tool to product,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8462–8475 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Hitaka, A. Ito, M. Yamanishi, T. Dougakiuchi, and T. Edamura, “Ultra-broadband room-temperature terahertz quantum cascade laser sources based on difference frequency generation,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16357–16365 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging [Invited],” Opt. Express 26(8), 9417–9431 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Suzuki, M. Sekiya, T. Sato, and Y. Takebayashi, “Negative refractive index metamaterial with high transmission, low reflection, and low loss in the terahertz waveband,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8314–8324 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Torres, V. P. Peña, P. R. -Ulibarri, M. N. -Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and N. Engheta, “Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9156–9166 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Minowa, T. Fujii, M. Nagai, T. Ochiai, K. Sakoda, K. Hirao, and K. Tanaka, “Evaluation of effective electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in metamaterial slabs by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4785–4796 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-K. Yang, C. Kang, I. Sohn, and C.-S. Kee, “Effective description of THz localized waveguide resonance through metal film with split ring resonator holes: zero refractive index,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25371–25378 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

V. Pacheco-Peña, N. Engheta, S. Kuznetsov, A. Gentselev, and M. Beruete, “Experimental realization of an epsilon-near-zero graded-index metalens at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034036 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016608 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. W. Ziolkowski, “Propagation in and scattering from a matched metamaterial having a zero index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70(4), 046608 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rev. E (1)

T. Koschny, P. Markoš, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys,” Rev. E 68(6), 065602 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (5)

N. Engheta, “Pursuing near-zero response,” Science 340(6130), 286–287 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Dielectric gradient metasurface optical elements,” Science 345(6194), 298–302 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Zero refractive index metasurface consisting of symmetrically aligned paired cut metal wires on both the front and back of a dielectric substrate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Equivalent circuits of the double-sided paired cut metal wires with (a) dielectric and (b) magnetic properties.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. One-unit cell model of a single meta-atom extracted from a zero refractive index metasurface for the design of dielectric and magnetic properties.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Contour maps of (a) the real and (b) imaginary parts of refractive indices, real parts of (c) relative permittivity and (d) relative permeability, (e) reflectance, and (f) transmittance at 0.50 THz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Contour maps of (a) the real and (b) imaginary parts of refractive indices, real parts of (c) relative permittivity and (d) relative permeability, (e) reflectance, and (f) transmittance at 0.50 THz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Fabricated zero refractive index metasurface consisting of symmetrically aligned paired cut metal wires on both the front and back of the cyclo-olefin polymer film. (b) Laser microscope image of meta-atoms.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measurements and simulations of the frequency characteristics for (a) the refractive index, (b) transmittance and reflectance, (c) relative permittivity, (d) relative permeability, and (e) relative wave impedance.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measurements and simulations of the frequency characteristics of (a) dielectric energy loss |µr|Im(εr) and magnetic energy loss |εr|Im(µr) and (b) the sum of dielectric energy loss |µr|Im(εr) and magnetic energy loss |εr|Im(µr).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Measurements and simulations of the power loss.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n eff = Im [ ln ( e j n k 0 ( d + 2 h ) ) ] + 2 m π j Re [ ln ( e j n k 0 ( d + 2 h ) ) ] k 0 ( d + 2 h ) ,
e j n k 0 ( d + 2 h ) = S 21 1 S 11 Z r 1 Z r + 1 ,
Z r = ± ( 1 + S 11 ) 2 S 21 2 ( 1 S 11 ) 2 S 21 2 ,
Q = ω ε 0 | E | 2 2 | μ r | [ | μ r | Im ( ε r ) + | ε r | Im ( μ r ) ] ,

Metrics