Abstract

We demonstrate quantum cascade laser (QCL) optical frequency combs emitting at λ ∼ 6 μm. A 5.5 μm-wide, 4.5 mm-long laser exhibits comb operation from −20 °C up to 50 °C. A maximum output power of 300 mW is achieved at 50 °C showing a robustness of the system. The laser output spectrum is ∼80 cm−1 wide at the maximum current, with a mode spacing of 0.334 cm−1, resulting in a total of 240 modes with an average power of 0.8 mW per mode. To achieve frequency comb operation, a plasmonic-waveguide approach is utilized. A thin, highly-doped indium phosphide (InP) layer is inserted in the top cladding design to compensate the positive dispersion of the system (material and waveguide). This approach can be further exploited to design QCL combs at even shorter wavelengths, down to 4 μm. Different ridge widths between 2.8 and 5.5 μm have been fabricated and characterized. All of the devices exhibit frequency comb operation. These observations demonstrate that the plasmonic-waveguide is a robust and reliable method for dispersion compensation of a semiconductor laser systems to achieve frequency comb operation.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, and C. K. N. Patel, “λ ∼ 7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, Y. Yang, D. Burghoff, J. Reno, Q. Hu, and G. Wysocki, “Terahertz hyperspectral imaging with dual chip-scale combs,” Optica 6(6), 766–771 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Cappelli, L. Consolino, G. Campo, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, A. Campa, M. S. de Cumis, P. C. Pastor, R. Eramo, M. Rösch, M. Beck, G. Scalari, J. Faist, P. D. Natale, and S. Bartalini, “Retrieval of phase relation and emission profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(8), 562–568 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

M. Singleton, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Evidence of linear chirp in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 5(8), 948–953 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Lu, S. Manna, D. H. Wu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Shortwave quantum cascade laser frequency comb for multi-heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(14), 141104 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hillbrand, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Tunable dispersion compensation of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1746–1749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, F. Kapsalidis, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupled-Waveguides for Dispersion Compensation in Semiconductor Lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(5), 1700323 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. L. Klocke, M. Mangold, P. Allmendinger, A. Hugi, M. Geiser, P. Jouy, J. Faist, and T. Kottke, “Single-Shot Sub-microsecond Mid-infrared Spectroscopy on Protein Reactions with Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs,” Anal. Chem. 90(17), 10494–10500 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

N. Jornod, K. Gürel, V. J. Wittwer, P. Brochard, S. Hakobyan, S. Schilt, D. Waldburger, U. Keller, and T. Südmeyer, “Carrier-envelope offset frequency stabilization of a gigahertz semiconductor disk laser,” Optica 4(12), 1482–1487 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P. A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. L. Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Mayer, C. Phillips, and U. Keller, “Watt-level 10-gigahertz solid-state laser enabled by self-defocusing nonlinearities in an aperiodically poled crystal,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1673 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, I. Sergachev, W. Wuester, R. Maulini, T. Gresch, A. Bismuto, S. Blaser, A. Muller, and J. Faist, “Plasmon-enhanced waveguide for dispersion compensation in mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 42(8), 1604–1607 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. R. Alcaráz, A. Schwaighofer, H. Goicoechea, and B. Lendl, “EC-QCL mid-IR transmission spectroscopy for monitoring dynamic changes of protein secondary structure in aqueous solution on the example of β-aggregation in alcohol-denaturated α-chymotrypsin,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(15), 3933–3941 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Mode-locked mid-infrared frequency combs in a silicon microresonator,” Optica 3(8), 854–860 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, G. Villares, G. Scalari, M. Rösch, C. B. A. Hugi, and M. Beck, “Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 272–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171104 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, S. Riedi, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dispersion engineering of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Optica 3(3), 252–258 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

2014 (2)

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. Maulini, A. Lyakh, A. Tsekoun, and C. K. N. Patel, “λ ∼ 7.1 μm quantum cascade lasers with 19% wall-plug efficiency at room temperature,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17203–17211 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

N. R. Newbury and W. C. Swann, “Low-noise fiber-laser frequency combs (Invited),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1756–1770 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alcaráz, M. R.

M. R. Alcaráz, A. Schwaighofer, H. Goicoechea, and B. Lendl, “EC-QCL mid-IR transmission spectroscopy for monitoring dynamic changes of protein secondary structure in aqueous solution on the example of β-aggregation in alcohol-denaturated α-chymotrypsin,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(15), 3933–3941 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alexandre, C.

X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P. A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. L. Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allmendinger, P.

J. L. Klocke, M. Mangold, P. Allmendinger, A. Hugi, M. Geiser, P. Jouy, J. Faist, and T. Kottke, “Single-Shot Sub-microsecond Mid-infrared Spectroscopy on Protein Reactions with Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs,” Anal. Chem. 90(17), 10494–10500 (2018).
[Crossref]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baker, M. J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bartalini, S.

F. Cappelli, L. Consolino, G. Campo, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, A. Campa, M. S. de Cumis, P. C. Pastor, R. Eramo, M. Rösch, M. Beck, G. Scalari, J. Faist, P. D. Natale, and S. Bartalini, “Retrieval of phase relation and emission profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(8), 562–568 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bassan, P.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

F. Cappelli, L. Consolino, G. Campo, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, A. Campa, M. S. de Cumis, P. C. Pastor, R. Eramo, M. Rösch, M. Beck, G. Scalari, J. Faist, P. D. Natale, and S. Bartalini, “Retrieval of phase relation and emission profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(8), 562–568 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Singleton, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Evidence of linear chirp in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 5(8), 948–953 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hillbrand, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Tunable dispersion compensation of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 43(8), 1746–1749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Bidaux, F. Kapsalidis, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupled-Waveguides for Dispersion Compensation in Semiconductor Lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(5), 1700323 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Villares, S. Riedi, J. Wolf, D. Kazakov, M. J. Süess, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Dispersion engineering of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Optica 3(3), 252–258 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, G. Villares, G. Scalari, M. Rösch, C. B. A. Hugi, and M. Beck, “Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 272–291 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benedick, A. J.

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, R.

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[Crossref]

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G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5192 (2014).
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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P. A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. L. Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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Trevisan, J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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Tsekoun, A.

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
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J. Faist, G. Villares, G. Scalari, M. Rösch, C. B. A. Hugi, and M. Beck, “Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 272–291 (2016).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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Waldburger, D.

Walsh, M. J.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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Westberg, J.

Wilken, T.

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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
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Wilpers, G.

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Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
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S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
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Wittwer, V. J.

Wolf, J.

Wood, B. R.

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
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Wu, D. H.

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[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Ye, J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
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Yu, M.

Zaugg, C. A.

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M. R. Alcaráz, A. Schwaighofer, H. Goicoechea, and B. Lendl, “EC-QCL mid-IR transmission spectroscopy for monitoring dynamic changes of protein secondary structure in aqueous solution on the example of β-aggregation in alcohol-denaturated α-chymotrypsin,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 408(15), 3933–3941 (2016).
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J. L. Klocke, M. Mangold, P. Allmendinger, A. Hugi, M. Geiser, P. Jouy, J. Faist, and T. Kottke, “Single-Shot Sub-microsecond Mid-infrared Spectroscopy on Protein Reactions with Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs,” Anal. Chem. 90(17), 10494–10500 (2018).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(17), 171104 (2016).
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Q. Y. Lu, S. Manna, D. H. Wu, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Shortwave quantum cascade laser frequency comb for multi-heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112(14), 141104 (2018).
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U. Sterr, C. Degenhardt, H. Stoehr, C. Lisdat, H. Schnatz, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, G. Wilpers, C. Oates, and L. Hollberg, “The optical calcium frequency standards of PTB and NIST,” C. R. Phys. 5(8), 845–855 (2004).
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Y. Bidaux, F. Kapsalidis, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupled-Waveguides for Dispersion Compensation in Semiconductor Lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(5), 1700323 (2018).
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Nanophotonics (1)

J. Faist, G. Villares, G. Scalari, M. Rösch, C. B. A. Hugi, and M. Beck, “Quantum Cascade Laser Frequency Combs,” Nanophotonics 5(2), 272–291 (2016).
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A. Mayer, C. Phillips, and U. Keller, “Watt-level 10-gigahertz solid-state laser enabled by self-defocusing nonlinearities in an aperiodically poled crystal,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 1673 (2017).
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G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5192 (2014).
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T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of Ultrastable Microwaves via Optical Frequency Division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
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X. Xie, R. Bouchand, D. Nicolodi, M. Giunta, W. Hänsel, M. Lezius, A. Joshi, S. Datta, C. Alexandre, M. Lours, P. A. Tremblin, G. Santarelli, R. Holzwarth, and Y. L. Coq, “Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise,” Nat. Photonics 11(1), 44–47 (2017).
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A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
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F. Cappelli, L. Consolino, G. Campo, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, A. Campa, M. S. de Cumis, P. C. Pastor, R. Eramo, M. Rösch, M. Beck, G. Scalari, J. Faist, P. D. Natale, and S. Bartalini, “Retrieval of phase relation and emission profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13(8), 562–568 (2019).
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Nat. Protoc. (1)

M. J. Baker, J. Trevisan, P. Bassan, R. Bhargava, H. J. Butler, K. M. Dorling, P. R. Fielden, S. W. Fogarty, N. J. Fullwood, K. A. Heys, C. Hughes, P. Lasch, P. L. Martin-Hirsch, B. Obinaju, G. D. Sockalingum, J. Sulé-Suso, R. J. Strong, M. J. Walsh, B. R. Wood, P. Gardner, and F. L. Martin, “Using fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials,” Nat. Protoc. 9(8), 1771–1791 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s−1,” Nature 452(7187), 610–612 (2008).
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S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct Link between Microwave and Optical Frequencies with a 300 THz Femtosecond laser Comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, T. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, “An Optical Clock Based on a Single Trapped 199Hg+ Ion,” Science 293(5531), 825–828 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Norm of the electric field distribution in the waveguide structure at wavelengths of 7 $\mu$m (a), 6 $\mu$m (b), and 5 $\mu$m (c). The white plots on the right side are the cross sections of the electric field in the center of the structure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated material and waveguide GVD and losses of the QCL waveguide without (blue) and with (red) highly doped plasmonic layer incorporated in the top cladding design. Grey areas indicate the operational region of the laser.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated material and waveguide GVD (left column) and losses (right column) of the QCL waveguide as a function of thickness of the layer between active region (AR) and highly doped layer (a), thickness of the highly doped layer (b), doping concentration of the highly doped layer (c).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulated material and waveguide GVD values for 1650 cm$^{-1}$ as a function of the waveguide facet dimensions (a and b), thickness of the layer between active region (AR) and highly doped layer (c), thickness of the highly doped layer (d), doping concentration of the highly doped layer (e).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Continuous-wave LIV curves for a 5.5 $\mu$m-wide laser at temperatures from −20 $^{0}$C (blue) to 50 $^{0}$C (red).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental setup of the comb measurements. The QCL output beam is collimated with off-axes parabolic mirror, attenuated with a polarizer, and sent either to thermal powermeter for optical power measurements, or to conventional FTIR for optical spectrum measurements. The QCL laser is driven with low-noise conventional current source, the RF component of the electrical signal is extracted through a bias-T and sent to a RF analyser.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Frequency comb operation map of a 5.5 $\mu$m-wide QCL. Comb operation is observed at all measured temperatures (−10 °C to 50 °C), with few hundreds of mA of operational range.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. a): Electrically detected intermode beat note (left column) and optical spectra detected with FTIR (right column) for 5.5 $\mu$m-wide QCL for currents from 0.45 A to 1.1 A with a step of 50 mA at −10 $^\circ$C. At 0.45 A the laser is operating in a single mode regime, so there is no intermode beatnote signal (top left). The intermode beat note measurement is done with span of 200 kHz, resolution bandwidth of 3 Hz, and shows a signal to noise ratio more than 60 dB. b): Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the intermode beatnote as a function of the driving current, operating temperature is −10 $^\circ$C.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Optical spectrum detected with FTIR (top) and electrically detected intermode beat note (bottom) for a 5.5 $\mu$m-wide QCL for current of 1 A and temperature of −10 $^\circ$C. The pink line at the top indicates the atmospheric absorption spectrum taken from HITRAN. The intermode beat note measurement is done with span of 200 kHz, resolution bandwidth of 3 Hz, and shows a signal to noise ratio of 60 dB.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Optical spectra detected with FTIR of 4.5 mm-long lasers with different ridge widths at the same operational voltage of 12.5 V and at −10 $^\circ$C. The ridge widths vary from 2.8 $\mu$m (blue curve) to 5.5 $\mu$m (red curve).
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Frequency comb operation map of 4.5 mm-long QCL combs with different ridge widths. a): 2.8 $\mu$m, b): 3.7 $\mu$m, c): 4.6 $\mu$m, d): 5.5 $\mu$m.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Map representing the optical power with optical bandwidth of 4.5 mm-long QCL combs at −10 $^\circ$C as a function of ridge widths

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. List of parameters in the design of the waveguide. First column "Value" are the values of the optimized design, second and third columns are the minimum and maximum values for the simulations (see Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). cl4, cl5, ridge width, and ridge height correspond to the parameters explained in Fig. 1