Abstract

The broad bandwidth and spectral efficiency of photonics has facilitated unparalleled speeds in long-distance lightwave communication. Yet efficient routing and control of photonic information without optical-to-electrical conversion remains an ongoing research challenge. Here, we demonstrate a practical approach for dynamically transforming the carrier frequencies of dense wavelength-division–multiplexed data. Combining phase modulators and pulse shapers into an all-optical frequency processor, we realize both cyclic channel hopping and 1-to-N broadcasting of input data streams for systems with N = 2 and N = 3 users. Our method involves no optical-to-electrical conversion and enables low-noise, reconfigurable routing of fiber-optic signals with in principle arbitrary wavelength operations in a single platform, offering new potential for low-latency all-optical networking.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (2)

2019 (3)

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2018 (4)

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, O. D. Odele, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Electro-optic frequency beam splitters and tritters for high-fidelity photonic quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030502 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, B. P. Williams, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Quantum interference and correlation control of frequency-bin qubits,” Optica 5(11), 1455–1460 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, and O. F. Yilmaz, “All-optical signal processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 660–680 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. Nakazawa, T. Hirooka, P. Ruan, and P. Guan, “Ultrahigh-speed ‘orthogonal’ TDM transmission with an optical Nyquist pulse train,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1129–1140 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. Pelusi, D. Yong Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photonic chip based ultrafast optical processing based on high nonlinearity dispersion engineered chalcogenide waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 97–114 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. E. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, Y. Wang, A. E. Willner, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical, wavelength and bandwidth preserving, pulse delay based on parametric wavelength conversion and dispersion,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7872–7877 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

B. Little, S. Chu, P. Absil, J. Hryniewicz, F. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

B. Little, S. Chu, P. Absil, J. Hryniewicz, F. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adamiecki, A.

M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

Agarwal, A.

Alem, M.

M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

Banwell, T.

Bergman, K.

Bertrand, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blaicher, M.

Bogoni, A.

A. E. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brès, C.-S.

M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Scalable multicasting in one-pump parametric amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 356–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

Chen, W.

Chen, X.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chitgarha, M. R.

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, P. Absil, J. Hryniewicz, F. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

Corteselli, S.

M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

Dalton, L. R.

Davidson, R.

Delfyett, P. J.

Donovan, K.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. Pelusi, D. Yong Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photonic chip based ultrafast optical processing based on high nonlinearity dispersion engineered chalcogenide waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 97–114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elder, D. L.

Etemad, S.

Fan, L.

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I.

Fejer, M. M.

Fontaine, N. K.

M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

Foster, M. A.

Freude, W.

C. Kieninger, Y. Kutuvantavida, D. L. Elder, S. Wolf, H. Zwickel, M. Blaicher, J. N. Kemal, M. Lauermann, S. Randel, W. Freude, L. R. Dalton, and C. Koos, “Ultra-high electro-optic activity demonstrated in a silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Optica 5(6), 739–748 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gan, F.

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gill, D.

Guan, P.

Guo, C.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, M.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Herr, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hirooka, T.

Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hryniewicz, J.

Imany, P.

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, B. P. Williams, P. Imany, N. A. Peters, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “A controlled-NOT gate for frequency-bin qubits,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 24 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jackel, J.

Jian, J.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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Kutuvantavida, Y.

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Liu, L.

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C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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B. Qi, P. Lougovski, and B. P. Williams, “Characterizing photon number statistics using conjugate optical homodyne detection,” Opt. Express 28(2), 2276–2290 (2020).
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J. M. Lukens, H.-H. Lu, B. Qi, P. Lougovski, A. M. Weiner, and B. P. Williams, “All-optical frequency processor for networking applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38(7), 1678–1687 (2020).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, B. P. Williams, P. Imany, N. A. Peters, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “A controlled-NOT gate for frequency-bin qubits,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 24 (2019).
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H.-H. Lu, A. M. Weiner, P. Lougovski, and J. M. Lukens, “Quantum information processing with frequency-comb qudits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(23), 1858–1861 (2019).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, O. D. Odele, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Electro-optic frequency beam splitters and tritters for high-fidelity photonic quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030502 (2018).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, B. P. Williams, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Quantum interference and correlation control of frequency-bin qubits,” Optica 5(11), 1455–1460 (2018).
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J. M. Lukens and P. Lougovski, “Frequency-encoded photonic qubits for scalable quantum information processing,” Optica 4(1), 8–16 (2017).
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J. M. Lukens, H.-H. Lu, B. Qi, P. Lougovski, A. M. Weiner, and B. P. Williams, “All-optical frequency processor for networking applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38(7), 1678–1687 (2020).
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H.-H. Lu, A. M. Weiner, P. Lougovski, and J. M. Lukens, “Quantum information processing with frequency-comb qudits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(23), 1858–1861 (2019).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, B. P. Williams, P. Imany, N. A. Peters, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “A controlled-NOT gate for frequency-bin qubits,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 24 (2019).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, O. D. Odele, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Electro-optic frequency beam splitters and tritters for high-fidelity photonic quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030502 (2018).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, B. P. Williams, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Quantum interference and correlation control of frequency-bin qubits,” Optica 5(11), 1455–1460 (2018).
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J. M. Lukens, H.-H. Lu, B. Qi, P. Lougovski, A. M. Weiner, and B. P. Williams, “All-optical frequency processor for networking applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38(7), 1678–1687 (2020).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, B. P. Williams, P. Imany, N. A. Peters, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “A controlled-NOT gate for frequency-bin qubits,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 24 (2019).
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H.-H. Lu, A. M. Weiner, P. Lougovski, and J. M. Lukens, “Quantum information processing with frequency-comb qudits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(23), 1858–1861 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, O. D. Odele, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Electro-optic frequency beam splitters and tritters for high-fidelity photonic quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030502 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, B. P. Williams, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Quantum interference and correlation control of frequency-bin qubits,” Optica 5(11), 1455–1460 (2018).
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J. M. Lukens and P. Lougovski, “Frequency-encoded photonic qubits for scalable quantum information processing,” Optica 4(1), 8–16 (2017).
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J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
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Nuccio, S. R.

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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, O. D. Odele, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Electro-optic frequency beam splitters and tritters for high-fidelity photonic quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030502 (2018).
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J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, Y. Wang, A. E. Willner, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical, wavelength and bandwidth preserving, pulse delay based on parametric wavelength conversion and dispersion,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7872–7877 (2005).
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Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
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B. J. Eggleton, T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. Pelusi, D. Yong Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photonic chip based ultrafast optical processing based on high nonlinearity dispersion engineered chalcogenide waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 97–114 (2012).
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B. J. Eggleton, T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. Pelusi, D. Yong Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photonic chip based ultrafast optical processing based on high nonlinearity dispersion engineered chalcogenide waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 97–114 (2012).
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H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, B. P. Williams, P. Imany, N. A. Peters, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “A controlled-NOT gate for frequency-bin qubits,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 24 (2019).
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[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, B. P. Williams, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Quantum interference and correlation control of frequency-bin qubits,” Optica 5(11), 1455–1460 (2018).
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Qi, M.

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
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M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

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M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

Schindler, P.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
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M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

Schweinsberg, A.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
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B. Little, S. Chu, P. Absil, J. Hryniewicz, F. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
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Shams-Ansari, A.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, Y. Wang, A. E. Willner, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical, wavelength and bandwidth preserving, pulse delay based on parametric wavelength conversion and dispersion,” Opt. Express 13(20), 7872–7877 (2005).
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J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
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M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
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M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
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M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
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M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
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Toliver, P.

Trakalo, M.

B. Little, S. Chu, P. Absil, J. Hryniewicz, F. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
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Turner-Foster, A. C.

Van, V.

B. Little, S. Chu, P. Absil, J. Hryniewicz, F. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
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van Howe, J.

Varghese, L. T.

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
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M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
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Vo, T. D.

B. J. Eggleton, T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. Pelusi, D. Yong Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photonic chip based ultrafast optical processing based on high nonlinearity dispersion engineered chalcogenide waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 97–114 (2012).
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C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
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A. E. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 320–332 (2011).
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J. Wang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, O. F. Yilmaz, L. Zhang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yue, and A. E. Willner, “40 Gbit/s optical data exchange between wavelength-division-multiplexed channels using a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1067–1069 (2010).
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J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
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Wegner, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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Weiner, A. M.

J. M. Lukens, H.-H. Lu, B. Qi, P. Lougovski, A. M. Weiner, and B. P. Williams, “All-optical frequency processor for networking applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38(7), 1678–1687 (2020).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, B. P. Williams, P. Imany, N. A. Peters, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “A controlled-NOT gate for frequency-bin qubits,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 24 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, A. M. Weiner, P. Lougovski, and J. M. Lukens, “Quantum information processing with frequency-comb qudits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(23), 1858–1861 (2019).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, O. D. Odele, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Electro-optic frequency beam splitters and tritters for high-fidelity photonic quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030502 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, B. P. Williams, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Quantum interference and correlation control of frequency-bin qubits,” Optica 5(11), 1455–1460 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, X.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Williams, B. P.

Willner, A. E.

Winzer, P.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wolf, S.

Wu, R.

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

A. E. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, O. F. Yilmaz, L. Zhang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yue, and A. E. Willner, “40 Gbit/s optical data exchange between wavelength-division-multiplexed channels using a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1067–1069 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Xu, C.

Xu, M.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xu, Y.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xuan, Y.

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-Y.

Yilmaz, O. F.

Yong Choi, D.

B. J. Eggleton, T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. Pelusi, D. Yong Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photonic chip based ultrafast optical processing based on high nonlinearity dispersion engineered chalcogenide waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 97–114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Young, J.

Yu, S.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

Zhang, L.

A. E. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, O. F. Yilmaz, L. Zhang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, Y. Yue, and A. E. Willner, “40 Gbit/s optical data exchange between wavelength-division-multiplexed channels using a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1067–1069 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zwickel, H.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Willner, O. F. Yilmaz, J. Wang, X. Wu, A. Bogoni, L. Zhang, and S. R. Nuccio, “Optically efficient nonlinear signal processing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(2), 320–332 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

H.-H. Lu, A. M. Weiner, P. Lougovski, and J. M. Lukens, “Quantum information processing with frequency-comb qudits,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 31(23), 1858–1861 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Little, S. Chu, P. Absil, J. Hryniewicz, F. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, and M. Trakalo, “Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2263–2265 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

B. J. Eggleton, T. D. Vo, R. Pant, M. Pelusi, D. Yong Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Photonic chip based ultrafast optical processing based on high nonlinearity dispersion engineered chalcogenide waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 97–114 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

J. Wang, H. Shen, L. Fan, R. Wu, B. Niu, L. T. Varghese, Y. Xuan, D. E. Leaird, X. Wang, F. Gan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5957 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Soto, M. Alem, M. A. Shoaie, A. Vedadi, C.-S. Brès, L. Thévenaz, and T. Schneider, “Optical sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses of exceptional quality,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2898 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

npj Quantum Inf. (1)

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, B. P. Williams, P. Imany, N. A. Peters, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “A controlled-NOT gate for frequency-bin qubits,” npj Quantum Inf. 5(1), 24 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H.-H. Lu, J. M. Lukens, N. A. Peters, O. D. Odele, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and P. Lougovski, “Electro-optic frequency beam splitters and tritters for high-fidelity photonic quantum information processing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 120(3), 030502 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(15), 153902 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. Mazur, N. K. Fontaine, H. Chen, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, G. Raybon, A. Adamiecki, S. Corteselli, and J. Schröder, “Multi-wavelength arbitrary waveform generation through spectro-temporal unitary transformations,” arXiv:1907.02595 (2019).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Example transformations for three-user broadcast (top) and two-user hop (bottom) on our three-element AFP. Dashed boxes enclose the channels of interest in our WDM network, and each user $n\in \{0,1,2\}$ is associated with a particular channel frequency $\omega _{n}$. The intensity distribution at each step matches the transformations implemented experimentally (see Appendix A.2).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier. PC: polarization controller. PBS: polarizing beamsplitter. LO: local oscillator path. POL: in-line fiber polarizer. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator. ATT: optical attenuator. BD: balanced detector. ADC: analog-to-digital converter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Outputs for 1-to-$N$ broadcast operations ($5\times 10^3$ symbols). (a) Reference constellation for direct throughput. The data stream is sent through the AFP with all the EOMs off (i.e., no frequency transformation). (b) Outputs for all combinations of two-user broadcasts. (c) Outputs for all three-user broadcasts. Measured SNRs follow in the insets.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured outputs for cyclic hop ($10^6$ symbols). (a) Reference constellation with AFP off. Frequency-hopped outputs for (b) $N=2$ and (c) $N=3$ channels. The case “w/crosstalk” corresponds to all $N$ inputs modulated and transmitted, whereas “w/o crosstalk” to only the designated input transmitting at a time. SNR values for each plot are provided in the insets.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Numerical solutions obtained to realize (a) two-channel and (b) three-channel broadcasts on a three-element AFP. (Left) Temporal phase modulation applied to the first EOM (solid red) and second EOM (dotted blue), plotted over one period; (Right) Spectral phase modulation programmed on the pulse shaper, where indices 0 and 1 (and 2) denote the two (three) channels of interest. Both solutions are optimized for an effective photon number $\mu _{\mathrm {eff}}=100$ at the input. For (b), the EO modulations are identical, and thus the two curves are on top of each other.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Numerical solutions obtained to realize (a) two-channel and (b) three-channel hops on a three-element AFP. (Left) temporal phase modulation applied to the first EOM (solid red) and second EOM (dotted blue), plotted over one period; (Right) spectral phase modulation programmed on the pulse shaper, where indices 0 and 1 (and 2) denote the two (three) channels of interest. Both solutions are optimized for an effective photon number $\mu _{\mathrm {eff}}=1000$ at the input.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Experimentally measured output spectra for (a-b) two-channel broadcast and (c-d) two-channel hop. Theoretical spectra are also plotted (green circles) for comparison. Indices 0 and 1 denote the two channels of interest in our defined WDM network (dashed box).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Experimentally measured output spectra for (a-c) three-channel broadcast and (d-f) three-channel cyclic hop: (d) $\omega _0 \rightarrow \omega _1$, (e) $\omega _1 \rightarrow \omega _2$, and (f) $\omega _2 \rightarrow \omega _0$. Theoretical spectra are also plotted (green circles) for comparison. Indices 0, 1, and 2 denote the three channels of interest in our defined WDM network (dashed box).

Equations (6)

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b m ( t ) = n = c m n a n ( t ) ,
b n ( t ) = e i ϕ n a n ( t ) .
V = ( F D E O M 2 F ) D P S ( F D E O M 1 F ) ,
X k l = K η | V k l | x l + n l K η | V k n | x n cos β k n + d X ,
R k l = 2 μ e f f | V k l | 2 1 + μ e f f n l | V k n | 2
| V | 2 = ( 0.0001 0.0009 0.0595 0.1474 0.0024 0.00018 0.0011 0.0761 0.0005 ) .