Abstract

We present an experimental and theoretical comparison of two different scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) based techniques in the terahertz regime; nanoscale reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz nanoscopy) and nanoscale laser terahertz emission microscopy, or laser terahertz emission nanoscopy (LTEN). We show that complementary information regarding a material’s charge carriers can be gained from these techniques when employed back-to-back. For the specific case of THz nanoscopy and LTEN imaging performed on a lightly p-doped InAs sample, we were able to record waveforms with detector signal components demodulated up to the 6th and the 10th harmonic of the tip oscillation frequency, and measure a THz near-field confinement down to 11 nm. A computational approach for determining the spatial confinement of the enhanced electric field in the near-field region of the conductive probe is presented, which manifests an effective “tip sharpening” in the case of nanoscale LTEN due to the alternative geometry and optical nonlinearity of the THz generation mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the finite dipole model (FDM) in predicting the broadband scattered THz electric field, and present the first use of this model for predicting a near-field response from LTEN.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  32. Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Polarization imaging of imperfect m-plane GaN surfaces,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041304 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
  34. A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative measurement of local infrared absorption and dielectric function with tip-enhanced near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  36. P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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  38. A. Reklaitis, “Terahertz emission from InAs induced by photo-Dember effect: hydrodynamic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  39. M. Sotoodeh, A. H. Khalid, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Empirical low-field mobility model for III–V compounds applicable in device simulation codes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(6), 2890–2900 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  40. A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR material recognition and conductivity mapping by nanoscale near-field microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  41. R. Mendis, M. L. Smith, L. J. Bignell, R. E. M. Vickers, and R. A. Lewis, “Strong terahertz emission from (100) p-type InAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(12), 126104 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

G. Keiser and P. Klarskov, “Terahertz field confinement in nonlinear metamaterials and near-field imaging,” Photonics 6(1), 22–48 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, D. Hu, R. Mescall, G. You, D. N. Basov, Q. Dai, and M. Liu, “Modern scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy for advanced material research,” Adv. Mater. 31(24), 1804774 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. A. Aghamiri, F. Huth, A. J. Huber, A. Fali, R. Hillenbrand, and Y. Abate, “Hyperspectral time-domain terahertz nano-imaging,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24231–24242 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the image contrast of material boundaries in ir nanoscopy reaching 5 nm spatial resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging [invited],” Opt. Express 26(8), 9417 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

P. Klarskov, H. Kim, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Nanoscale laser terahertz emission microscopy,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2676–2680 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Polarization imaging of imperfect m-plane GaN surfaces,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Eisele, T. L. Cocker, M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, M. S. Vitiello, and R. Huber, “Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 841–845 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative measurement of local infrared absorption and dielectric function with tip-enhanced near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Joyce, C. J. Docherty, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. L. Adam, “Review of near-field terahertz measurement methods and their applications,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 32(8-9), 976–1019 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

H. Zhan, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Superfocusing terahertz waves below λ/250 using plasmonic parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9643–9650 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Reklaitis, “Terahertz emission from InAs induced by photo-Dember effect: hydrodynamic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR material recognition and conductivity mapping by nanoscale near-field microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. M. Polyakov and F. Schwierz, “Influence of band structure and intrinsic carrier concentration on the THz surface emission from InN and InAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(9), 1016–1020 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Mendis, M. L. Smith, L. J. Bignell, R. E. M. Vickers, and R. A. Lewis, “Strong terahertz emission from (100) p-type InAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(12), 126104 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, N. C. J. van der Valk, and P. C. M. Planken, “Antenna effects in terahertz apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2715–2717 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1558–1560 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5 THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Sotoodeh, A. H. Khalid, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Empirical low-field mobility model for III–V compounds applicable in device simulation codes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(6), 2890–2900 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523–3525 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

Abate, Y.

Adam, A. J. L.

A. J. L. Adam, “Review of near-field terahertz measurement methods and their applications,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 32(8-9), 976–1019 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aghamiri, N. A.

Aizpurua, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Gonzalez, P.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amenabar, I.

A. A. Govyadinov, I. Amenabar, F. Huth, P. S. Carney, and R. Hillenbrand, “Quantitative measurement of local infrared absorption and dielectric function with tip-enhanced near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(9), 1526–1531 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andreev, G. O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Astley, V.

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bagsican, F. R.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balatsky, A. V.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

X. Chen, D. Hu, R. Mescall, G. You, D. N. Basov, Q. Dai, and M. Liu, “Modern scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy for advanced material research,” Adv. Mater. 31(24), 1804774 (2019).
[Crossref]

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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Jagadish, C.

H. J. Joyce, C. J. Docherty, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214006 (2013).
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Jeon, T.-I.

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
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P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
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H. J. Joyce, C. J. Docherty, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214006 (2013).
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H. J. Joyce, C. J. Docherty, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214006 (2013).
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M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawase, K.

Kawayama, I.

Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Polarization imaging of imperfect m-plane GaN surfaces,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kazantsev, D.

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR material recognition and conductivity mapping by nanoscale near-field microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
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Keiding, S.

Keilmann, F.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR material recognition and conductivity mapping by nanoscale near-field microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
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M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[Crossref]

Keiser, G.

G. Keiser and P. Klarskov, “Terahertz field confinement in nonlinear metamaterials and near-field imaging,” Photonics 6(1), 22–48 (2019).
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Kersting, R.

H.-T. Chen, R. Kersting, and G. C. Cho, “Terahertz imaging with nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3009–3011 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khalid, A. H.

M. Sotoodeh, A. H. Khalid, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Empirical low-field mobility model for III–V compounds applicable in device simulation codes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(6), 2890–2900 (2000).
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Kim, B. J.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

P. Klarskov, H. Kim, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Nanoscale laser terahertz emission microscopy,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2676–2680 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. T.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kiwa, T.

Klarskov, P.

G. Keiser and P. Klarskov, “Terahertz field confinement in nonlinear metamaterials and near-field imaging,” Photonics 6(1), 22–48 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Klarskov, H. Kim, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Nanoscale laser terahertz emission microscopy,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2676–2680 (2017).
[Crossref]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 182(4-6), 321–328 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging - modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kono, J.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kono, S.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koppens, F. H.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5 THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lewis, R. A.

R. Mendis, M. L. Smith, L. J. Bignell, R. E. M. Vickers, and R. A. Lewis, “Strong terahertz emission from (100) p-type InAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(12), 126104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

X. Chen, D. Hu, R. Mescall, G. You, D. N. Basov, Q. Dai, and M. Liu, “Modern scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy for advanced material research,” Adv. Mater. 31(24), 1804774 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, M. K.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

H. J. Joyce, C. J. Docherty, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214006 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lloyd-Hughes and T.-I. Jeon, “A review of the terahertz conductivity of bulk and nano-materials,” J. Infrared, Millimeter, Terahertz Waves 33(9), 871–925 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lundeberg, M. B.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Maissen, C.

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the image contrast of material boundaries in ir nanoscopy reaching 5 nm spatial resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maple, M. B.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mastel, S.

S. Mastel, A. A. Govyadinov, C. Maissen, A. Chuvilin, A. Berger, and R. Hillenbrand, “Understanding the image contrast of material boundaries in ir nanoscopy reaching 5 nm spatial resolution,” ACS Photonics 5(8), 3372–3378 (2018).
[Crossref]

McLeod, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mendis, R.

H. Zhan, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Superfocusing terahertz waves below λ/250 using plasmonic parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9643–9650 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Mendis, M. L. Smith, L. J. Bignell, R. E. M. Vickers, and R. A. Lewis, “Strong terahertz emission from (100) p-type InAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(12), 126104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mescall, R.

X. Chen, D. Hu, R. Mescall, G. You, D. N. Basov, Q. Dai, and M. Liu, “Modern scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy for advanced material research,” Adv. Mater. 31(24), 1804774 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mitrofanov, O.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5 THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, “Twenty years of terahertz imaging [invited],” Opt. Express 26(8), 9417 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Klarskov, H. Kim, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Nanoscale laser terahertz emission microscopy,” ACS Photonics 4(11), 2676–2680 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Zhan, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Superfocusing terahertz waves below λ/250 using plasmonic parallel-plate waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9643–9650 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Astley, R. Mendis, and D. M. Mittleman, “Characterization of terahertz field confinement at the end of a tapered metal wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031104 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, N. C. J. van der Valk, and P. C. M. Planken, “Antenna effects in terahertz apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2715–2717 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mooshammer, F.

M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref]

Murakami, H.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, H.

Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Polarization imaging of imperfect m-plane GaN surfaces,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A. Y.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nuss, M. C.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “THz near-field imaging,” Opt. Commun. 150(1-6), 22–26 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ocelic, N.

Osmond, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pesquera, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5 THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
[Crossref]

Planken, P. C. M.

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, N. C. J. van der Valk, and P. C. M. Planken, “Antenna effects in terahertz apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2715–2717 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, “Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1558–1560 (2002).
[Crossref]

Plankl, M.

M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Eisele, T. L. Cocker, M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, M. S. Vitiello, and R. Huber, “Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 841–845 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polini, M.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Polyakov, V. M.

V. M. Polyakov and F. Schwierz, “Influence of band structure and intrinsic carrier concentration on the THz surface emission from InN and InAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(9), 1016–1020 (2007).
[Crossref]

Principi, A.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qazilbash, M. M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, B. G. Chae, P. C. Ho, G. O. Andreev, B. J. Kim, S. J. Yun, A. V. Balatsky, M. B. Maple, F. Keilmann, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Mott transition in VO2 revealed by infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging,” Science 318(5857), 1750–1753 (2007).
[Crossref]

Regan, W.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reklaitis, A.

A. Reklaitis, “Terahertz emission from InAs induced by photo-Dember effect: hydrodynamic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rezazadeh, A. A.

M. Sotoodeh, A. H. Khalid, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Empirical low-field mobility model for III–V compounds applicable in device simulation codes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(6), 2890–2900 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rodin, A. S.

Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rudd, J. V.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sakai, K.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sakai, Y.

Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Polarization imaging of imperfect m-plane GaN surfaces,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041304 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sandner, F.

M. A. Huber, F. Mooshammer, M. Plankl, L. Viti, F. Sandner, L. Z. Kastner, T. Frank, J. Fabian, M. S. Vitiello, T. L. Cocker, and R. Huber, “Femtosecond photo-switching of interface polaritons in black phosphorus heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 207–211 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwierz, F.

V. M. Polyakov and F. Schwierz, “Influence of band structure and intrinsic carrier concentration on the THz surface emission from InN and InAs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(9), 1016–1020 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. L.

R. Mendis, M. L. Smith, L. J. Bignell, R. E. M. Vickers, and R. A. Lewis, “Strong terahertz emission from (100) p-type InAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(12), 126104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sorba, L.

M. Eisele, T. L. Cocker, M. A. Huber, M. Plankl, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, M. S. Vitiello, and R. Huber, “Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 841–845 (2014).
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Sotoodeh, M.

M. Sotoodeh, A. H. Khalid, and A. A. Rezazadeh, “Empirical low-field mobility model for III–V compounds applicable in device simulation codes,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(6), 2890–2900 (2000).
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Spasenovic, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Talapatra, S.

F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
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Tan, H. H.

H. J. Joyce, C. J. Docherty, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214006 (2013).
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P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X. C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, T.

P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
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Z. Fei, A. S. Rodin, W. Gannett, S. Dai, W. Regan, M. Wagner, M. K. Liu, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro Neto, F. Keilmann, A. Zettl, R. Hillenbrand, M. M. Fogler, and D. N. Basov, “Electronic and plasmonic phenomena at graphene grain boundaries,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(11), 821–825 (2013).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-Gonzalez, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenovic, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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F. R. Bagsican, A. Winchester, S. Ghosh, X. Zhang, L. Ma, M. Wang, H. Murakami, S. Talapatra, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, M. Tonouchi, and I. Kawayama, “Adsorption energy of oxygen molecules on graphene and two-dimensional tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1774 (2017).
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Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Polarization imaging of imperfect m-plane GaN surfaces,” APL Photonics 2(4), 041304 (2017).
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van Exter, M.

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P. Alonso-Gonzalez, A. Y. Nikitin, Y. Gao, A. Woessner, M. B. Lundeberg, A. Principi, N. Forcellini, W. Yan, S. Velez, A. J. Huber, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, M. Polini, J. Hone, F. H. Koppens, and R. Hillenbrand, “Acoustic terahertz graphene plasmons revealed by photocurrent nanoscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 31–35 (2017).
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O. Mitrofanov, M. Lee, J. W. P. Hsu, I. Brener, R. Harel, J. F. Federici, J. D. Wynn, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Collection-mode near-field imaging with 0.5 THz pulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 600–607 (2001).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a): Schematic of the near-field experiments; NIR pulse is shown in red while the THz beam is shown in blue. A delay stage and a ZnTe EO crystal provide the coherent E-field amplitude detection. (b): Time-domain waveforms recorded with THz nanoscopy (blue) and LTEN (red) by lock-in detection to the 2nd harmonic of the tapping frequency. (c): Amplitude spectra corresponding to the recorded waveforms in (b).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Images recorded of a groove in an bulk InAs surface. (a): AFM image recorded over an area of 3.5 × 3.5 µm2 with associated scale bar on right. (b): Peak THz Nanoscopy signal. (c): Peak LTEN signal. Associated color scale for (b), (c), is shown on the right of (c).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a): THz nanoscopy and (b): LTEN image superimposed on the AFM topography. (c): Projections onto a plane perpendicular to the groove of the data in a center region of the image (1.6 × 5 µm2).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Recorded LTEN images from 1st to 4th harmonic.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a): Waveforms of the lowest (solid lines) and highest (dotted lines) detectable harmonics for LTEN (red) and THz nanoscopy (blue). (b): THz peak-peak signal of all detectable harmonics.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a): Double exponential fits (black solid lines) to the approach curve recorded for the 1st (red dots) and 5th (gray dots) harmonics of the LTEN peak field signal together with the associated 95% confidence interval (shaded areas). The dashed line black line shows the 1/e-level of where there field confinement is estimated. (b): Field confinements estimated as shown in (a) from all harmonic approach curves for LTEN and THz nanoscopy. Error bars are estimated from the 1/e-level of the confidence intervals.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Conductive spheroid approximation used within the FDM (solid line) and conductive sphere approximation used in the PDM [2] (dashed line). Selected parameters of the FDM include the spheroid semi-major axis L, the apex radius of curvature R, the tip-sample separation z, and the magnitude of the uniform external field Einc.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Theoretical approach: Experimental (dots) and FDM predicted (solid lines) 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th harmonic-demodulated approach curves are shown for THz Nanoscopy (a) and LTEN (b). These curves, representing the peak amplitude of the THz waveform in the time domain, are all normalized to peak in-contact signal at 1st harmonic demodulation. For superior fits which recreate the approach curves’ decay rates and the higher harmonic signals’ relative strengths, values of L = 485 nm and R = 20 nm are used for the THz Nanoscopy curves, while L = 305 nm and R = 10 nm are used for the LTEN curves.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a): Line profiles of 1 THz vertical E-field enhancement from FEM simulation under conductive tip; R = 10 nm and L = 305 nm ellipsoid Ez indicated by the red solid line, R = 20 nm and L = 485 nm Ez2 indicated by blue solid line. Profiles are normalized to same height to depict confinement width. (b) and (c) show R = 10 nm, L = 305 nm and R = 20 nm, L = 485 nm simulations, respectively. Line profiles are extracted along white dashed lines. X-Z axes are shown in white.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Field confinements estimated from the 1/e-widths.

Equations (3)

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α e f f = R 2 L 2 L R + ln R 4 e L ln 4 L e 2 [ 2 + β ( g R + z L ) ln 4 L 4 z + 3 R ln 4 L R β ( g 3 R + 4 z 4 L ) ln 2 L 2 z + R ]
ε ( ω ) = ε ( 1 ω p 2 ω 2 i γ ω )
ω p 2 = n 2 ε 0 ε m e f f

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