Abstract

High performance InGaN micro-size light-emitting diodes (µLEDs) with epitaxial tunnel junctions (TJs) were successfully demonstrated using selective area growth (SAG) by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Patterned n + GaN/n-GaN layers with small holes were grown on top of standard InGaN blue LEDs to form TJs using SAG. TJ µLEDs with squared mesa ranging from 10×10 to 100×100 µm2 were fabricated. The forward voltage (Vf) in the reference TJ µLEDs without SAG is very high and decreases linearly from 4.6 to 3.7 V at 20 A/cm2 with reduction in area from 10000 to 100 µm2, which is caused by the lateral out diffusion of hydrogen through sidewall. By contrast, the Vf at 20 A/cm2 in the TJ µLEDs utilizing SAG is significantly reduced to be 3.24 to 3.31 V. Moreover, the Vf in the SAG TJ µLEDs is independent on sizes, suggesting that the hydrogen is effectively removed through the holes on top of the p-GaN surface by SAG. The output power of SAG TJ µLEDs is ∼10% higher than the common µLEDs with indium tin oxide (ITO) contact.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9(6), 1206 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, and S. Rajan, “InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions for hole injection in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141104 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2020 (1)

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (4)

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, and S. Rajan, “InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions for hole injection in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141104 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akatsuka, Y.

Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Akyol, F.

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, and S. Rajan, “InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions for hole injection in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Albadri, A.

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alhassan, A. I.

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alyamani, A. Y.

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aoki, Y.

S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aventurier, B.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bonef, B.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bradford, C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

Chow, Y.

Chow, Y. C.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

Christian, K.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. A.

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Day, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Mierry, P.

DenBaars, S. P.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ding, K.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dupré, L.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Glaab, J.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guttmann, M.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hassan, Z.

Huang Chen, S.-W.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Iwaya, M.

Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iwayama, S.

Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Izyumskaya, N.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kaga, M.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kearns, J.

Kelly, A. E.

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khoury, M.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, S.

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, and S. Rajan, “InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions for hole injection in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kuwabara, M.

S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kuwano, Y.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Largeron, C.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-F.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Leonard, J. T.

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liang, S.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lie, D. Y. C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Y. C. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Maeda, J.

S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morita, T.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mughal, A. J.

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Okawara, S.

S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Olivier, F.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

K. Ding, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoc, “Micro-LEDs, a manufacturability perspective,” Appl. Sci. 9(6), 1206 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pinna, S.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

Rajan, S.

S. Krishnamoorthy, F. Akyol, and S. Rajan, “InGaN/GaN tunnel junctions for hole injection in GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 141104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sher, C.-W.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sulmoni, L.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Susilo, N.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Takagi, Y.

S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

Y. Akatsuka, S. Iwayama, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, and I. Akasaki, “Doping profiles in low resistive GaN tunnel junctions grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(2), 025502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. A.

Templier, F.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tirano, S.

F. Olivier, S. Tirano, L. Dupré, B. Aventurier, C. Largeron, and F. Templier, “Influence of size-reduction on the performances of GaN-based micro-LEDs for display application,” J. Lumin. 191, 112–116 (2017).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

K. Christian, L. Sulmoni, M. Guttmann, J. Glaab, N. Susilo, T. Wernicke, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “MOVPE-grown AlGaN-based tunnel heterojunctions enabling fully transparent UVC LEDs,” Photonics Res. 7(5), B7–B11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wong, M. S.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Hwang, A. J. Mughal, M. S. Wong, A. I. Alhassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Micro-light-emitting diodes with III–nitride tunnel junction contacts grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.

T. Wu, C.-W. Sher, Y. Lin, C.-F. Lee, S. Liang, Y. Lu, S.-W. Huang Chen, W. Guo, H.-C. Kuo, and Z. Chen, “Mini-LED and micro-LED: promising candidates for the next generation display technology,” Appl. Sci. 8(9), 1557 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yagi, K.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, K.

Y. Kuwano, M. Kaga, T. Morita, K. Yamashita, K. Yagi, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “Lateral hydrogen diffusion at p-GaN layers in nitride-based light emitting diodes with tunnel junctions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JK12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yonkee, B. P.

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, H.

S. Okawara, Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Takagi, J. Maeda, and H. Yoshida, “Nitride-based stacked laser diodes with a tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 012701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. P. Yonkee, E. C. Young, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Silver free III-nitride flip chip light-emitting-diode with wall plug efficiency over 70% utilizing a GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191104 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. T. Leonard, E. C. Young, B. P. Yonkee, D. A. Cohen, T. Margalith, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with a III-nitride tunnel junction intracavity contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

M. Khoury, H. Li, P. Li, Y. C. Chow, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, M. S. Wong, S. Pinna, J. Song, J. Choi, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized monolithic white semipolar (20-21) InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on high quality (20-21) GaN/sapphire templates and its application to visible light communication,” Nano Energy 67, 104236 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Li, M. S. Wong, M. Khoury, B. Bonef, H. Zhang, Y. Chow, P. Li, J. Kearns, A. A. Taylor, P. De Mierry, Z. Hassan, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Study of efficient semipolar (11-22) InGaN green micro-light-emitting diodes on high-quality (11-22) GaN/sapphire template,” Opt. Express 27(17), 24154–24160 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (4)

A. I. Alhassan, E. C. Young, A. Y. Alyamani, A. Albadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Reduced-droop green III–nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(4), 042101 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic structure of GaN TJ µLEDs utilizing SAG; (b) Microscope and (c) SEM images of the fabricated 80×80 µm2 SAG TJ µLEDs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Luminous microscope images of (a) reference TJ µLEDs without SAG and (b) TJ µLEDs utilizing SAG. The devices’ sizes were varied from 100×100 to 20×20 µm2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Current density-forward voltage curves of (a) reference TJ µLEDs and (b) TJ µLEDs utilizing SAG with device sizes varied from 100 to 10000 µm2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Forward voltage at 20 A/cm2 versus µLEDs area for the reference TJ µLEDs and GaN TJ µLEDs with SAG.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Output power at 20 mA versus various sizes in the TJ µLEDs with SAG and the common ITO µLEDs; (b) EQE versus current density in TJ µLEDs with SAG and common ITO µLEDs with a size of 40×40 µm2.

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