Abstract

In this manuscript, the generation of an optical vortex beam with high order and reconfigurable orbital angular momentum (OAM) is studied. Multi-waveguide holographic gratings (MWHG) are deployed to generate OAM beams with high order. The generation of the OAM beam with an order l from +4 to +8 is demonstrated by numerical simulations, and the generated OAM order is manipulable and configurable by incident phase. The working bandwidths of the MWHG for different OAM orders are at the level of 40 nm. This work could provide valuable references for practical implementation of OAM in integrated optics.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

2019 (2)

Z. Wang and S. Jian, “Vectorial vortex beam detection using plasmonic interferences on a structured gold film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 109, 241–248 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

2017 (2)

2016 (6)

H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352(6287), 805–809 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G.-C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, K. Liu, B. Qi, and V. J. Sorger, “Re-analysis of single-mode conditions for Silicon rib waveguides at 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3811–3817 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Sephton, A. Dudley, and A. Forbes, “Revealing the radial modes in vortex beams,” Appl. Opt. 55(28), 7830–7835 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. E. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si3N4 microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, “Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3075–3087 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y.-H. Chen, L. Huang, L. Gan, and Z.-Y. Li, “Wavefront shaping of infrared light through a subwavelength hole,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(8), e26 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, G. Rui, X. Ren, Q. Zhan, G. Guo, and G. Guo, “Encoding photonic angular momentum information onto surface plasmon polaritons with plasmonic lens,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24151–24159 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allen, L.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, N.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ashrafi, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, C.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

Y. Zhu, H. Tan, N. Zhou, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Cai, “Compact high-efficiency four-mode vortex beam generator within the telecom C-band,” Opt. Lett. 45(7), 1607–1610 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Nong, X. Wu, W. Yu, M. He, C. Klitis, Y. Zhu, S. Gao, J. Liu, Z. Li, L. Liu, M. Sorel, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vector modes (de)multiplexer based on multimode micro-ring,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29895–29905 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Y. Zhu, H. Tan, N. Zhou, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Cai, “Compact high-efficiency four-mode vortex beam generator within the telecom C-band,” Opt. Lett. 45(7), 1607–1610 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, W.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Chen, L. Huang, L. Gan, and Z.-Y. Li, “Wavefront shaping of infrared light through a subwavelength hole,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(8), e26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crouse, D. T.

Ding, Y.

Du, C.

Dudley, A.

Feng, L.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

Franke-Arnold, S.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gan, L.

Y.-H. Chen, L. Huang, L. Gan, and Z.-Y. Li, “Wavefront shaping of infrared light through a subwavelength hole,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(8), e26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gao, S.

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Nong, X. Wu, W. Yu, M. He, C. Klitis, Y. Zhu, S. Gao, J. Liu, Z. Li, L. Liu, M. Sorel, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vector modes (de)multiplexer based on multimode micro-ring,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29895–29905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352(6287), 805–809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.

Guo, G.-C.

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G.-C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, M.

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Nong, X. Wu, W. Yu, M. He, C. Klitis, Y. Zhu, S. Gao, J. Liu, Z. Li, L. Liu, M. Sorel, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vector modes (de)multiplexer based on multimode micro-ring,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29895–29905 (2018).
[Crossref]

He, W.

Huang, H.

H. Huang, K. Liu, B. Qi, and V. J. Sorger, “Re-analysis of single-mode conditions for Silicon rib waveguides at 1550 nm wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3811–3817 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Y.-H. Chen, L. Huang, L. Gan, and Z.-Y. Li, “Wavefront shaping of infrared light through a subwavelength hole,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(8), e26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jemison, W. D.

Jian, S.

Z. Wang and S. Jian, “Vectorial vortex beam detection using plasmonic interferences on a structured gold film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 109, 241–248 (2019).
[Crossref]

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Klitis, C.

Kosciolek, D. J.

Kramer, J.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lavery, M. P. J.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lei, T.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

Li, X.

H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352(6287), 805–809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Nong, X. Wu, W. Yu, M. He, C. Klitis, Y. Zhu, S. Gao, J. Liu, Z. Li, L. Liu, M. Sorel, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vector modes (de)multiplexer based on multimode micro-ring,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29895–29905 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.-Y.

Y.-H. Chen, L. Huang, L. Gan, and Z.-Y. Li, “Wavefront shaping of infrared light through a subwavelength hole,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(8), e26 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liertzer, M.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Litchinitser, N. M.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

Liu, J.

Liu, K.

Liu, L.

Longhi, S.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Garcia, M.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luke, K.

Miao, P.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mo, Q.

Molisch, A. F.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morioka, T.

Nadovich, C. T.

Nong, Z.

O’brain, J. L.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

Özdemir, S. K.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peng, B.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. B.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, B.

Ramachandran, S.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352(6287), 805–809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, X.

Ren, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rotter, S.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rui, G.

Sephton, B.

Sorel, M.

S. Li, Z. Nong, X. Wu, W. Yu, M. He, C. Klitis, Y. Zhu, S. Gao, J. Liu, Z. Li, L. Liu, M. Sorel, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vector modes (de)multiplexer based on multimode micro-ring,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29895–29905 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Strain, M. J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tan, H.

Thompson, M. G.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Walasik, W.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Zhu, H. Tan, N. Zhou, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Cai, “Compact high-efficiency four-mode vortex beam generator within the telecom C-band,” Opt. Lett. 45(7), 1607–1610 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Zheng and J. Wang, “On-chip orbital angular momentum modes generator and (de)multiplexer based on trench silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18492–18501 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, W. He, M. Wu, G. Guo, and Q. Wang, “Reconfigurable vortex beam generator based on the Fourier transformation principle,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31880–31888 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G.-C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and S. Jian, “Vectorial vortex beam detection using plasmonic interferences on a structured gold film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 109, 241–248 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wiersig, J.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

Wu, X.

Xie, G.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yilmaz, H.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

S. Li, Z. Nong, X. Wu, W. Yu, M. He, C. Klitis, Y. Zhu, S. Gao, J. Liu, Z. Li, L. Liu, M. Sorel, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vector modes (de)multiplexer based on multimode micro-ring,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29895–29905 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, “Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3075–3087 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, W.

Yuan, X.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, J.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352(6287), 805–809 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S.

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Zheng and J. Wang, “On-chip orbital angular momentum modes generator and (de)multiplexer based on trench silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18492–18501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, N.

Y. Zhu, H. Tan, N. Zhou, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Cai, “Compact high-efficiency four-mode vortex beam generator within the telecom C-band,” Opt. Lett. 45(7), 1607–1610 (2020).
[Crossref]

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Zou, C.-L.

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, W. He, M. Wu, G. Guo, and Q. Wang, “Reconfigurable vortex beam generator based on the Fourier transformation principle,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31880–31888 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G.-C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

A. E. Willner, H. Huang, Y. Yan, Y. Ren, N. Ahmed, G. Xie, C. Bao, L. Li, Y. Cao, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, M. P. J. Lavery, M. Tur, S. Ramachandran, A. F. Molisch, N. Ashrafi, and S. Ashrafi, “Optical communications using orbital angular momentum beams,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(1), 66–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, Q. Wang, and G.-C. Guo, “On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 181103 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

S. Franke-Arnold, L. Allen, and M. Padgett, “Advances in optical angular momentum,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(4), 299–313 (2008).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

Y.-H. Chen, L. Huang, L. Gan, and Z.-Y. Li, “Wavefront shaping of infrared light through a subwavelength hole,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(8), e26 (2012).
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Nat. Commun. (2)

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4856 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Zheng and J. Wang, “On-chip orbital angular momentum modes generator and (de)multiplexer based on trench silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18492–18501 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, C.-L. Zou, X. Ren, W. He, M. Wu, G. Guo, and Q. Wang, “Reconfigurable vortex beam generator based on the Fourier transformation principle,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31880–31888 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Li, Y. Ding, S. Chen, C. Du, Q. Mo, T. Morioka, K. Yvind, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. Yu, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Orbital angular momentum modes emission from a silicon photonic integrated device for km-scale data-carrying fiber transmission,” Opt. Express 26(12), 15471–15479 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, G. Rui, X. Ren, Q. Zhan, G. Guo, and G. Guo, “Encoding photonic angular momentum information onto surface plasmon polaritons with plasmonic lens,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24151–24159 (2012).
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S. Yu, “Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3075–3087 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Li, Z. Nong, X. Wu, W. Yu, M. He, C. Klitis, Y. Zhu, S. Gao, J. Liu, Z. Li, L. Liu, M. Sorel, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Orbital angular momentum vector modes (de)multiplexer based on multimode micro-ring,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29895–29905 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. T. Nadovich, W. D. Jemison, D. J. Kosciolek, and D. T. Crouse, “Focused apodized forked grating coupler,” Opt. Express 25(22), 26861–26874 (2017).
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Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Z. Wang and S. Jian, “Vectorial vortex beam detection using plasmonic interferences on a structured gold film,” Opt. Laser Technol. 109, 241–248 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photonics Res. (1)

Z. Xie, S. Gao, T. Lei, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, F. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Li, and X. Yuan, “Integrated (de)multiplexer for orbital angular momentum fiber communication,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 743–749 (2018).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, M. Liertzer, W. Chen, J. Kramer, H. Yılmaz, J. Wiersig, S. Rotter, and L. Yang, “Chiral modes and directional lasing at exceptional points,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 113(25), 6845–6850 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

N. Zhou, S. Zheng, X. Cao, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, Y. Zhu, M. He, X. Cai, and J. Wang, “Ultra-compact broadband polarization diversity orbital angular momentum generator with 3.6 × 3.6 μm2 footprint,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaau9593 (2019).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

H. Ren, X. Li, Q. Zhang, and M. Gu, “On-chip noninterference angular momentum multiplexing of broadband light,” Science 352(6287), 805–809 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’brain, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated Compact Optical Vortex Beam Emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Miao, Z. Zhang, J. Sun, W. Walasik, S. Longhi, N. M. Litchinitser, and L. Feng, “Orbital angular momentum microlaser,” Science 353(6298), 464–467 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a)The schematic illustration of the proposed optical vortex beam generator on the integrated multi-waveguide. (b1)-(b4) The principle of generating OAM beam by MWHG.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The phase (1st and 3rd columns) and intensity (2nd and 4th columns) distributions of the target (1st and 2nd columns) and generated (3rd and 4th columns) OAM beams with the orders from $l=+4$ to $l=+8$.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The histograms of the $5\times 8$ crosstalk matrix. $l_{in}$ denotes the same OAM order as the input mode.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The intensity (up row) and phase distributions (down row) of the OAM beam obtained from the MWHG for $l=+4$ with manipulated incident phase. (a) $l=+3$, (b) $l=+4$, (c) $l=+5$.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The relation of the obtained OAM beam and the square width of MWHG. (a1)-(a5)The phase (up row) and intensity (down row) distributions of the OAM beams with $l=+4$ obtained from MWHG with the square width $q=1.0$ $\mu$m,1.4 $\mu$m, 1.8 $\mu$m, 2.2 $\mu$m, 2.6 $\mu$m, respectively. (b) The fidelity of the generated OAM as a function of the square width $q$.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The fidelity of generated optical OAM beam as a function of the incident wavelength for different OAM orders.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The fidelity of generated OAM.

Equations (6)

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E t = A ( x , y , z ) exp ( i l φ ) ,
E w = j = 0 N 1 B j ( x , y , z ) exp ( i k j r j ) ,
H = | E o + E w | 2 1 + c o s θ ,
E = j = 0 N 1 | B j ( x , y , z ) | 2 A ( x , y , z ) exp ( i l φ ) .
E j = 0 N 1 | B j ( x , y , z ) | 2 A ( x , y , z ) exp ( i ( l + Δ ) φ ) ,
F = | E ( x , y , z ) E t ( x , y , z ) d x d y d z | 2 | E ( x , y , z ) | 2 d x d y d z | E t ( x , y , z ) | 2 d x d y d z ,

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