Abstract

A novel technique for realization of configurable/one-time programmable (OTP) silicon photonic circuits is presented. Once the proposed photonic circuit is programmed, its signal routing is retained without the need for additional power consumption. This technology can potentially enable a multi-purpose design of photonic chips for a range of different applications and performance requirements, as it can be programmed for each specific application after chip fabrication. Therefore, the production costs per chip can be reduced because of the increase in production volume, and rapid prototyping of new photonic circuits is enabled. Essential building blocks for the configurable circuits in the form of erasable directional couplers (DCs) were designed and fabricated, using ion implanted waveguides. We demonstrate permanent switching of optical signals between the drop port and through the port of the DCs using a localized post-fabrication laser annealing process. Proof-of-principle demonstrators in the form of generic 1×4 and 2×2 programmable switching circuits were fabricated and subsequently programmed.

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2020 (1)

2018 (2)

M. M. Milosevic, X. Chen, W. Cao, A. F. J. Runge, Y. Franz, C. G. Littlejohns, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, D. J. Thomson, and G. T. Reed, “Ion implantation in silicon for trimming the operating wavelength of ring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(4), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. G. Chen, X. S. Yu, X. Chen, M. M. Milosevic, D. J. Thomson, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Saito, O. L. Muskens, and G. T. Reed, “Real-time monitoring and gradient feedback enable accurate trimming of ion-implanted silicon photonic devices,” Opt. Express 26(19), 24953–24963 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

X. Chen, M. M. Milosevic, D. J. Thomson, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Franz, A. F. J. Runge, S. Mailis, A. C. Peacock, and G. T. Reed, “Post-fabrication phase trimming of mach-zehnder interferometers by laser annealing of germanium implanted waveguides,” Photonics Res. 5(6), 578–582 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Perez, I. Gasulla, L. Crudgington, D. J. Thomson, A. Z. Khokhar, K. Li, W. Cao, G. Z. Mashanovich, and J. Capmany, “Multipurpose silicon photonics signal processor core,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 636 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. J. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljacic, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

S. T. Chen, Y. C. Shi, S. L. He, and D. X. Dai, “Compact eight-channel thermally reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(17), 1874–1877 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and D. Perez, “Microwave photonics the programmable processor,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 6–8 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Ribeiro, A. Ruocco, L. Vanacker, and W. Bogaerts, “Demonstration of a 4 ( 4-port universal linear circuit,” Optica 3(12), 1348–1357 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fedeli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 073003 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Silicon quantum photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 390–402 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Perfect optics with imperfect components,” Optica 2(8), 747–750 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Carolan, C. Harrold, C. Sparrow, E. Martin-Lopez, N. J. Russell, J. W. Silverstone, P. J. Shadbolt, N. Matsuda, M. Oguma, M. Itoh, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. C. F. Matthews, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Laing, “Universal linear optics,” Science 349(6249), 711–716 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. Hoekman, K. J. Boller, and A. J. Lowery, “Programmable photonic signal processor chip for radiofrequency applications,” Optica 2(10), 854–859 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2012 (3)

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon cmos-integrated nano-photonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s67–s72 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Mid-infrared suspended membrane waveguide and ring resonator on silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1510–1519 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

Y. Shoji, K. Kintaka, S. Suda, H. Kawashima, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, “Low-crosstalk 2 ( 2 thermo-optic switch with silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9071–9075 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801–2803 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Sanchis, J. V. Galan, A. Griol, J. Marti, M. A. Piqueras, and J. M. Perdigues, “Low-crosstalk in silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossings with optimized-angle,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(20), 1583–1585 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and A. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Kitahara, Y. Ohashi, Y. Katoh, A. Hara, and N. Sasaki, “Submicron-scale characterization of poly-si thin films crystallized by excimer laser and continuous-wave laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(12), 7850–7855 (2004).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Reck, A. Zeilinger, H. J. Bernstein, and P. Bertani, “Experimental realization of any discrete unitary operator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(1), 58–61 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ackert, J. J.

Aktas, O.

Alduino, A.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. w. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics wdm link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 150–157 (2014).
[Crossref]

Au, H.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. w. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics wdm link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Baehr-Jones, T.

N. C. Harris, G. R. Steinbrecher, M. Prabhu, Y. Lahini, J. Mower, D. Bunandar, C. C. Chen, F. N. C. Wong, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Lloyd, and D. Englund, “Quantum transport simulations in a programmable nanophotonic processor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 447–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, N. C. Harris, S. Skirlo, M. Prabhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, X. Sun, S. J. Zhao, H. Larochelle, D. Englund, and M. Soljacic, “Deep learning with coherent nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 441–446 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, T. Pinguet, P. Lo Guo-Qiang, S. Danziger, D. Prather, and M. Hochberg, “Myths and rumours of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 206–208 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Bar, R.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. w. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics wdm link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref]

Basak, J.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. w. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics wdm link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Beatty, R.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. w. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics wdm link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Bernstein, H. J.

M. Reck, A. Zeilinger, H. J. Bernstein, and P. Bertani, “Experimental realization of any discrete unitary operator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(1), 58–61 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bertani, P.

M. Reck, A. Zeilinger, H. J. Bernstein, and P. Bertani, “Experimental realization of any discrete unitary operator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(1), 58–61 (1994).
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S. Nakamura, S. Takahashi, M. Sakauchi, T. Hino, M. B. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Wavelength selective switching with one-chip silicon photonic circuit including 8 × 8 matrix switch,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC) and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OTuM2.

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X. Yu, X. Chen, M. M. Milosevic, X. Yan, S. Saito, and G. T. Reed, “Ion implantation and electrical annealing for trimming silicon mzis and facilitating one-time programmable photonic circuits,” in IEEE 16th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP) (IEEE, 2019), pp. 1–2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Structures of the implanted waveguides (WGs) and DCs. (a) Cross sectional view of the erasable DC with a conventional rib waveguide and an ion implanted waveguide. (b) Simulation result for the Ge implanted process using the Silvaco software, the density of damage to the crystal lattice is shown in the figure. (c) Illustration of the single-stage DC. (d) Illustration of the two-stage DC. Optical microscope images of (e) a fabricated single-stage DC and (f) a two-stage DC on a SOI wafer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Calculated fundamental optical mode for the 500 nm wide silicon waveguide. (b) Calculated fundamental optical mode for the 560 nm wide germanium implanted silicon waveguide. (c) Top view of the simulation result for the optimized two-stage directional coupler.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured propagation losses of the implanted waveguides. A linear dotted line was fitted to each device group measured. Each device group includes waveguides from the same silicon chip. The corresponding function equations are shown in the figure. The width of the implanted waveguides are: (a) 360 nm, (b) 560 nm, (c) 760 nm, and (d) 960 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured optical transmission of the: (a) single-stage DCs with various coupling lengths, and (b) two-stage DCs with various coupling lengths. Simulated results (dotted line), with a step-index profile assumed for the implanted waveguides, are plotted as a reference. (c) SEM image of a typical opening in the implantation mask after Ge ion implantation. The original designed width of the opening is 500 nm (marked in yellow). However, the width was increased to around 620 - 660 nm after ion implantation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Illustration of the laser annealing process for the two-stage DCs. (b) Measured results for the two-stage DCs with various coupling lengths after laser annealing. The original coupling length for the directional couplers used for this test are 20 μm. Simulation results (dotted line) were plotted as a reference.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Optical microscope images of a 1×4 programmable photonic switching circuit and (b) a 2×2 photonic switching circuit. Measurement results for the photonic switching circuits. The 1×4 photonic switching circuit was programmed by laser annealing to produce an output at one of the four ports sequentially (c, d, e and f). (c) Measured results when P1 is set to be the output port. (d) Measured results when P2 is set to be the output port. (e) Measured results when P3 is set to be the output port. (f) Measured results when P4 is set to be the output port. The 2×2 switching circuit was programmed to operate in two modes by laser annealing: (g) cross-coupling modes or, (h) through-coupling mode.

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