Abstract

Vortex beams (VBs) carrying orbital angular moment (OAM) modes have been proven to be promising resources for increasing communication capacity. Although considerable attention has been paid on metasurface-based VB generators due to the unprecedented advantages of metasurface, most applications are usually limited at a single band with a fixed OAM mode. In this work, an emerging dual-band reflection-type coding metasurface is proposed to mitigate these issues by newly engineered meta-atoms, which could achieve independent 2-bit phase modulations at two frequency bands. The proposed coding metasurface could efficiently realize and fully control dual-band VBs carrying frequency selective OAM modes under the linearly polarized incidence. As the first illustrative example, a dual-band VB generator with normal beam direction is fabricated and characterized at two widely used communication bands (Ku and Ka bands). Moreover, by encoding proper coding sequences, versatile beams carrying frequency selective OAM modes can be achieved. Therefore, by adding a gradient phase sequence to the first VB generator, the second one is designed to steer the generated beams to a preset direction, which could enable diverse scenarios. The measurement results of both VB generators agree very well with the numerical ones, validating the full control capability of the proposed approach.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (3)

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

R. A. Deshpande, F. Ding, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Dual-Band Metasurfaces Using Multiple Gap-Surface Plasmon Resonances,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(1), 1250–1256 (2020).
[Crossref]

H.-X. Xu, G. Hu, M. Jiang, S. Tang, Y. Wang, C. Wang, Y. Huang, X. Ling, H. Liu, and J. Zhou, “Wavevector and Frequency Multiplexing Performed by a Spin-Decoupled Multichannel Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 5(1), 1900710 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (7)

B. Allen, T. Pelham, Y. Wu, T. Drysdale, D. Isakov, C. Gamlath, C. J. Stevens, G. Hilton, M. A. Beach, and P. S. Grant, “Experimental evaluation of 3D printed spiral phase plates for enabling an orbital angular momentum multiplexed radio system,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 6(12), 191419 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Huang, N. A. Rubin, A. Ambrosio, Z. Shi, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Versatile total angular momentum generation using cascaded J-plates,” Opt. Express 27(5), 7469–7484 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Iqbal, H. A. Madni, S. Liu, L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Full controls of OAM vortex beam and realization of retro and negative reflections at oblique incidence using dual-band 2-bit coding metasurface,” Mater. Res. Express 6(12), 125804 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, R. Xie, S. Zhu, J. Gao, M. Xin, S. An, B. Zheng, H. Li, Y. Lin, H. Zhang, G. Zhai, and J. Ding, “Dual-Band High Efficiency Terahertz Meta-Devices Based on Reflective Geometric Metasurfaces,” IEEE Access 7, 58131–58138 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Xie, G. Zhai, X. Wang, D. Zhang, L. Si, H. Zhang, and J. Ding, “High-Efficiency Ultrathin Dual-Wavelength Pancharatnam–Berry Metasurfaces with Complete Independent Phase Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(20), 1900594 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Cai, B. Dai, Y. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Guo, “Dual-frequency geometric phase metasurface for dual-mode vortex beam generator,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(25), 255002 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Ji, J. Song, C. Huang, X. Wu, and X. Luo, “Dual-band vortex beam generation with different OAM modes using single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Express 27(1), 34–44 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

G. D. Bai, Q. Ma, S. Iqbal, L. Bao, H. B. Jing, L. Zhang, H. T. Wu, R. Y. Wu, H. C. Zhang, C. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “Multitasking Shared Aperture Enabled with Multiband Digital Coding Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer Metasurface with Controllable Multiwavelength Functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Direction-Controlled Bifunctional Metasurface Polarizers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(12), 1800198 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, Y. Yuan, D. Zhang, X. Ding, B. Ratni, S. N. Burokur, M. Lu, K. Tang, and Q. Wu, “Phase-engineered metalenses to generate converging and non-diffractive vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum in microwave region,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1351–1360 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, C. Chen, H. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Achromatic electromagnetic metasurface for generating a vortex wave with orbital angular momentum (OAM),” Opt. Express 26(5), 6466–6477 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ding, K. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Sima, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Full control of conical beam carrying orbital angular momentum by reflective metasurface,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20990 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to–orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, J. Wang, F. Liu, S. Zhang, X. Yin, and J. Li, “Spin-dependent optics with metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 215–234 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, S. An, B. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Multiwavelength Metasurfaces Based on Single-Layer Dual-Wavelength Meta-Atoms: Toward Complete Phase and Amplitude Modulations at Two Wavelengths,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700079 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Manipulation of the Photonic Spin Hall Effect with High Efficiency in Gold-Nanorod-Based Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(20), 1700413 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Q. Wang, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Anomalous Refraction and Nondiffractive Bessel-Beam Generation of Terahertz Waves through Transmission-Type Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q.-T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y.-F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, N. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Lin, W. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Wavelength Terahertz Metasurfaces with Independent Phase and Amplitude Control at Each Wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34020 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow Reflectivity Spiral Phase Plate for Generation of Millimeter-wave OAM Beam,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gao, X. Han, W. Cao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrawideband and High-Efficiency Linear Polarization Converter Based on Double V-Shaped Metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63(8), 3522–3530 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, F. Zhong, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and J. Li, “Flexible coherent control of plasmonic spin-Hall effect,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8360 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, A. Kildishev, and V. Shalaev, “Photonic spin Hall effect in gap-plasmon metasurfaces for on-chip chiroptical spectroscopy,” Optica 2(10), 860–863 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H.-T. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 704–710 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

R. Fleury, D. L. Sounas, and A. Alù, “Negative Refraction and Planar Focusing Based on Parity-Time Symmetric Metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric Meta-Reflectarray for Broadband Linear Polarization Conversion and Optical Vortex Generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(4), e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband Terahertz Wave Deflection Based on C-shape Complex Metamaterials with Phase Discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, “Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in a Strongly Focused Optical Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

L. Marrucci, C. Manzo, and D. Paparo, “Optical Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 163905 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Harwit, “Photon Orbital Angular Momentum in Astrophysics,” Astrophys. J. 597(2), 1266–1270 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Allen, B.

B. Allen, T. Pelham, Y. Wu, T. Drysdale, D. Isakov, C. Gamlath, C. J. Stevens, G. Hilton, M. A. Beach, and P. S. Grant, “Experimental evaluation of 3D printed spiral phase plates for enabling an orbital angular momentum multiplexed radio system,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 6(12), 191419 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

R. Fleury, D. L. Sounas, and A. Alù, “Negative Refraction and Planar Focusing Based on Parity-Time Symmetric Metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 023903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambrosio, A.

Y.-W. Huang, N. A. Rubin, A. Ambrosio, Z. Shi, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Versatile total angular momentum generation using cascaded J-plates,” Opt. Express 27(5), 7469–7484 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to–orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

An, S.

T. Wang, R. Xie, S. Zhu, J. Gao, M. Xin, S. An, B. Zheng, H. Li, Y. Lin, H. Zhang, G. Zhai, and J. Ding, “Dual-Band High Efficiency Terahertz Meta-Devices Based on Reflective Geometric Metasurfaces,” IEEE Access 7, 58131–58138 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, S. An, B. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Multiwavelength Metasurfaces Based on Single-Layer Dual-Wavelength Meta-Atoms: Toward Complete Phase and Amplitude Modulations at Two Wavelengths,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700079 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

Averitt, R. D.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Dielectric metasurfaces for complete control of phase and polarization with subwavelength spatial resolution and high transmission,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(11), 937–943 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, G. D.

G. D. Bai, Q. Ma, S. Iqbal, L. Bao, H. B. Jing, L. Zhang, H. T. Wu, R. Y. Wu, H. C. Zhang, C. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “Multitasking Shared Aperture Enabled with Multiband Digital Coding Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bao, L.

G. D. Bai, Q. Ma, S. Iqbal, L. Bao, H. B. Jing, L. Zhang, H. T. Wu, R. Y. Wu, H. C. Zhang, C. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “Multitasking Shared Aperture Enabled with Multiband Digital Coding Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

Beach, M. A.

B. Allen, T. Pelham, Y. Wu, T. Drysdale, D. Isakov, C. Gamlath, C. J. Stevens, G. Hilton, M. A. Beach, and P. S. Grant, “Experimental evaluation of 3D printed spiral phase plates for enabling an orbital angular momentum multiplexed radio system,” R. Soc. Open Sci. 6(12), 191419 (2019).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar Photonics with Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

R. A. Deshpande, F. Ding, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Dual-Band Metasurfaces Using Multiple Gap-Surface Plasmon Resonances,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(1), 1250–1256 (2020).
[Crossref]

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric Meta-Reflectarray for Broadband Linear Polarization Conversion and Optical Vortex Generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burokur, S. N.

Cai, T.

K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Cai, B. Dai, Y. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Guo, “Dual-frequency geometric phase metasurface for dual-mode vortex beam generator,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(25), 255002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

X. Gao, X. Han, W. Cao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrawideband and High-Efficiency Linear Polarization Converter Based on Double V-Shaped Metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63(8), 3522–3530 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Y.-W. Huang, N. A. Rubin, A. Ambrosio, Z. Shi, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Versatile total angular momentum generation using cascaded J-plates,” Opt. Express 27(5), 7469–7484 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer Metasurface with Controllable Multiwavelength Functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to–orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Multiwavelength achromatic metasurfaces by dispersive phase compensation,” Science 347(6228), 1342–1345 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chan, K.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chaudhary, K.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer Metasurface with Controllable Multiwavelength Functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheah, K. W.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H.-T. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 704–710 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q.-T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y.-F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

G. Ding, K. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Sima, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Full control of conical beam carrying orbital angular momentum by reflective metasurface,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Manipulation of the Photonic Spin Hall Effect with High Efficiency in Gold-Nanorod-Based Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(20), 1700413 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H.-T. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 704–710 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Chen, W. T.

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer Metasurface with Controllable Multiwavelength Functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-Efficiency Broadband Anomalous Reflection by Gradient Meta-Surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Gao, and X. Yang, “Direction-Controlled Bifunctional Metasurface Polarizers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(12), 1800198 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Manipulation of the Photonic Spin Hall Effect with High Efficiency in Gold-Nanorod-Based Metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(20), 1700413 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H.-T. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 704–710 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Q. Wang, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Anomalous Refraction and Nondiffractive Bessel-Beam Generation of Terahertz Waves through Transmission-Type Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chi, H.

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow Reflectivity Spiral Phase Plate for Generation of Millimeter-wave OAM Beam,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 966–969 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiu, D. T.

Y. Zhao, J. S. Edgar, G. D. M. Jeffries, D. McGloin, and D. T. Chiu, “Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion in a Strongly Focused Optical Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(7), 073901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

B. Wang, F. Dong, Q.-T. Li, D. Yang, C. Sun, J. Chen, Z. Song, L. Xu, W. Chu, Y.-F. Xiao, Q. Gong, and Y. Li, “Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5235–5240 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

S. Iqbal, H. A. Madni, S. Liu, L. Zhang, and T. J. Cui, “Full controls of OAM vortex beam and realization of retro and negative reflections at oblique incidence using dual-band 2-bit coding metasurface,” Mater. Res. Express 6(12), 125804 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. D. Bai, Q. Ma, S. Iqbal, L. Bao, H. B. Jing, L. Zhang, H. T. Wu, R. Y. Wu, H. C. Zhang, C. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “Multitasking Shared Aperture Enabled with Multiband Digital Coding Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800657 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, A. Noor, L. L. Du, L. Zhang, Q. Xu, K. Luan, T. Q. Wang, Z. Tian, W. X. Tang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, X. Y. Zhou, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Anomalous Refraction and Nondiffractive Bessel-Beam Generation of Terahertz Waves through Transmission-Type Coding Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1968–1977 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Gao, X. Han, W. Cao, H. O. Li, H. F. Ma, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrawideband and High-Efficiency Linear Polarization Converter Based on Double V-Shaped Metasurface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 63(8), 3522–3530 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, B.

K. Liu, G. Wang, T. Cai, B. Dai, Y. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Guo, “Dual-frequency geometric phase metasurface for dual-mode vortex beam generator,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(25), 255002 (2019).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, R. A.

R. A. Deshpande, F. Ding, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Dual-Band Metasurfaces Using Multiple Gap-Surface Plasmon Resonances,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(1), 1250–1256 (2020).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R. C.

Y.-W. Huang, N. A. Rubin, A. Ambrosio, Z. Shi, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Versatile total angular momentum generation using cascaded J-plates,” Opt. Express 27(5), 7469–7484 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, M. Khorasaninejad, Y.-W. Huang, C. Roques-Carmes, A. Y. Zhu, W. T. Chen, V. Sanjeev, Z.-W. Ding, M. Tamagnone, K. Chaudhary, R. C. Devlin, C.-W. Qiu, and F. Capasso, “Single-Layer Metasurface with Controllable Multiwavelength Functions,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2420–2427 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. P. B. Mueller, and F. Capasso, “Arbitrary spin-to–orbital angular momentum conversion of light,” Science 358(6365), 896–901 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, F.

R. A. Deshpande, F. Ding, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Dual-Band Metasurfaces Using Multiple Gap-Surface Plasmon Resonances,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(1), 1250–1256 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ding, G.

K. Chen, G. Ding, G. Hu, Z. Jin, J. Zhao, Y. Feng, T. Jiang, A. Alù, and C.-W. Qiu, “Directional Janus Metasurface,” Adv. Mater. 32(2), 1906352 (2020).
[Crossref]

G. Ding, K. Chen, T. Jiang, B. Sima, J. Zhao, and Y. Feng, “Full control of conical beam carrying orbital angular momentum by reflective metasurface,” Opt. Express 26(16), 20990 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

R. Xie, G. Zhai, X. Wang, D. Zhang, L. Si, H. Zhang, and J. Ding, “High-Efficiency Ultrathin Dual-Wavelength Pancharatnam–Berry Metasurfaces with Complete Independent Phase Control,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(20), 1900594 (2019).
[Crossref]

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T. Wang, R. Xie, S. Zhu, J. Gao, M. Xin, S. An, B. Zheng, H. Li, Y. Lin, H. Zhang, G. Zhai, and J. Ding, “Dual-Band High Efficiency Terahertz Meta-Devices Based on Reflective Geometric Metasurfaces,” IEEE Access 7, 58131–58138 (2019).
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J. Ding, N. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Lin, W. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Wavelength Terahertz Metasurfaces with Independent Phase and Amplitude Control at Each Wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34020 (2016).
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J. Li, S. Chen, H. Yang, J. Li, P. Yu, H. Cheng, C. Gu, H.-T. Chen, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous Control of Light Polarization and Phase Distributions Using Plasmonic Metasurfaces,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 704–710 (2015).
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X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic Spin Hall Effect at Metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
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S. Xiao, J. Wang, F. Liu, S. Zhang, X. Yin, and J. Li, “Spin-dependent optics with metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 6(1), 215–234 (2017).
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J. Ding, N. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Lin, W. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Wavelength Terahertz Metasurfaces with Independent Phase and Amplitude Control at Each Wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34020 (2016).
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G. D. Bai, Q. Ma, S. Iqbal, L. Bao, H. B. Jing, L. Zhang, H. T. Wu, R. Y. Wu, H. C. Zhang, C. Yang, and T. J. Cui, “Multitasking Shared Aperture Enabled with Multiband Digital Coding Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(21), 1800657 (2018).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband Terahertz Wave Deflection Based on C-shape Complex Metamaterials with Phase Discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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J. Ding, N. Xu, H. Ren, Y. Lin, W. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Wavelength Terahertz Metasurfaces with Independent Phase and Amplitude Control at Each Wavelength,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 34020 (2016).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband Terahertz Wave Deflection Based on C-shape Complex Metamaterials with Phase Discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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X. Ni, Z. J. Wong, M. Mrejen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “An ultrathin invisibility skin cloak for visible light,” Science 349(6254), 1310–1314 (2015).
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X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow Reflectivity Spiral Phase Plate for Generation of Millimeter-wave OAM Beam,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 966–969 (2015).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband Terahertz Wave Deflection Based on C-shape Complex Metamaterials with Phase Discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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J. Ding, S. An, B. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Multiwavelength Metasurfaces Based on Single-Layer Dual-Wavelength Meta-Atoms: Toward Complete Phase and Amplitude Modulations at Two Wavelengths,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(10), 1700079 (2017).
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Y. Yang, L. Jing, B. Zheng, R. Hao, W. Yin, E. Li, C. M. Soukoulis, and H. Chen, “Full-Polarization 3D Metasurface Cloak with Preserved Amplitude and Phase,” Adv. Mater. 28(32), 6866–6871 (2016).
[Crossref]

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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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D. Wen, F. Yue, G. Li, G. Zheng, K. Chan, S. Chen, M. Chen, K. F. Li, P. W. H. Wong, K. W. Cheah, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Zhang, and X. Chen, “Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8241 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zheng, S.

X. Hui, S. Zheng, Y. Hu, C. Xu, X. Jin, H. Chi, and X. Zhang, “Ultralow Reflectivity Spiral Phase Plate for Generation of Millimeter-wave OAM Beam,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14, 966–969 (2015).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of the reflective metasurface-based OAM generator with (a) normal beam directions and (b) tilted beam directions.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The (a) 3D view and (b) top view of the proposed building block; the simulated phase distributions at (c) 18 GHz and (d) 28 GHz for all 16 unit cells (the 2-bit phases before and after the slash are for 18 GHz and 28 GHz, respectively); the simulated amplitude distributions at (e) 18 GHz and (f) 28 GHz for all 16 unit cells.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The required phase distributions for the metasurface-based vortex beam generator for l1=−1 at 18 GH and l2=+2 at 28 GHz; (b) the near-field measurement setup for charactering the metasurface-based vortex beam generator; the simulated and measured phase and intensity of the Ey field for (c) l1=−1 at 18 GHz and (d) l2=+2 at 28 GHz at the observation plane. (scale bar: 30 mm)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The calculated mode purity of the vortex beam generator for (a) l1=−1 at 18 GH and (b) l2=+2 at 28 GHz.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic diagram of the phase addition; (b) the final total phase distribution of the dual-band beam generator for (b) l1=−1 at 18 GHz and (e) l2=+2 at 28 GHz; the calculated (c) far-field scattering pattern and (d) phase distribution for l1=−1 at 18 GHz; the calculated (f) far-field scattering pattern and (g) phase distribution for l2=+2 at 28 GHz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) The experimental set-up for charactering the OAM beam generator with tilted beam; (b) the near-field amplitude intensities of the beam generator at 18 GHz and 28 GHz on the XZ plane; the simulated and measured phase and amplitude intensity of beam generator for (c) l1=−1 at 18 GHz and (d) l2=+2 at 18 GHz at the observation plane depicted in (b). (scale bar: 30 mm)

Equations (4)

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φ 1 j ( x , y ) = l j tan 1 ( x / y )   j = 1 , 2
φ 2 j ( x , y ) = k j ( F 2 + x 2 + y 2 F ) j = 1 , 2
φ 3 j ( x , y ) = φ 1 j ( x , y ) + φ 2 j ( x , y ) j = 1 , 2
φ 4 j ( x , y ) = φ 3 j ( x , y ) + 2 π sin ( θ r ) λ j j = 1 , 2

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