Abstract

We report here on one-dimensional (1D) grating couplers based on hybrid silicon/LNOI platform for polarization-independent and high-efficient single-polarization coupling efficiencies. A low index oxide buffer layer was introduced in between the top silicon high index grating coupler and bottom LNOI waveguide. With optimal design of the buffer layer thicknesses, modal and index matches can be tuned for either single polarization or both TE/TM polarization coupling applications. Over 70% coupling efficiency can be achieved for single polarization based on the basic uniform 1D grating coupler design without any bottom reflectors incorporated. Polarization independent coupling efficiency of 51% was also achieved. The spectral bandwidth is over 50 nm with polarization dependent loss of 0.1 dB. The proposed structure is simple to fabricate. Detailed modal and loss analysis suggest different dominant loss mechanisms in the proposed hybrid structure, where the introduction of the bottom mirror may not result in significant improvement in coupling efficiency, as the dominant loss mechanism arises from the top reflection loss.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (7)

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. McKenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” Optica 6(7), 845 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Cai, A. Mahmoud, and G. Piazza, “Low-loss waveguides on Y-cut thin film lithium niobate: towards acousto-optic applications,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9794 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, L. Carroll, K. Gradkowski, and P. Minzioni, “Coupling strategies for silicon photonics integrated chips [Invited],” Photonics Res. 7(2), 201 (2019).
[Crossref]

I. Krasnokutska, R. J. Chapman, J.-L. J. Tambasco, and A. Peruzzo, “High coupling efficiency grating couplers on lithium niobate on insulator,” Opt. Express 27(13), 17681 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

J. Jian, P. Xu, H. Chen, M. He, Z. Wu, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Yang, and S. Yu, “High-efficiency hybrid amorphous silicon grating couplers for sub-micron-sized lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Express 26(23), 29651 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Z. Nong, S. Gao, H. Huang, Y. Zhu, L. Liu, L. Zhou, J. Xu, L. Liu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, “Low-loss two-dimensional silicon photonic grating coupler with a backside metal mirror,” Opt. Lett. 43(3), 474 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. C. C. Mak, W. D. Sacher, H. Ying, X. Luo, P. G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Multi-layer silicon nitride-on-silicon polarization-independent grating couplers,” Opt. Express 26(23), 30623 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Mahmoud, A. Mahmoud, L. Cai, M. Khan, T. Mukherjee, J. Bain, and G. Piazza, “Novel on chip rotation detection based on the acousto-optic effect in surface acoustic wave gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 26(19), 25060 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and Potential of Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) for Photonic Integrated Circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Aghaeimeibodi, B. Desiatov, J.-H. Kim, C.-M. Lee, M. A. Buyukkaya, A. Karasahin, C. J. K. Richardson, R. P. Leavitt, M. Lončar, and E. Waks, “Integration of quantum dots with lithium niobate photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(22), 221102 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, E. A. Wollack, M. Pechal, J. D. Witmer, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Coupling a Superconducting Quantum Circuit to a Phononic Crystal Defect Cavity,” Phys. Rev. X 8(3), 031007 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Silicon grating coupler on a lithium niobate thin film waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1253 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Z. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Jiang, R. Kong, and H. Hu, “Grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 72, 136–139 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baghban, J. Schollhammer, C. Errando-Herranz, K. B. Gylfason, and K. Gallo, “Bragg gratings in thin-film LiNbO_3 waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32323 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, R. Luo, H. Liang, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and Q. Lin, “Fast response of photorefraction in lithium niobate microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3267 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Shao and Y. Wang, “Highly compact polarization-independent grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1834 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

T. K. Saha and W. Zhou, “High efficiency diffractive grating coupler based on transferred silicon nanomembrane overlay on photonic waveguide,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(8), 085115 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11622 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aghaeimeibodi, S.

S. Aghaeimeibodi, B. Desiatov, J.-H. Kim, C.-M. Lee, M. A. Buyukkaya, A. Karasahin, C. J. K. Richardson, R. P. Leavitt, M. Lončar, and E. Waks, “Integration of quantum dots with lithium niobate photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(22), 221102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

Arrangoiz-Arriola, P.

W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. McKenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” Optica 6(7), 845 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, E. A. Wollack, M. Pechal, J. D. Witmer, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Coupling a Superconducting Quantum Circuit to a Phononic Crystal Defect Cavity,” Phys. Rev. X 8(3), 031007 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Atikian, H. A.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1567 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11622 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baghban, M. A.

Bain, J.

Berggren, J.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berroth, M.

Bertrand, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bo, F.

Boes, A.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and Potential of Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) for Photonic Integrated Circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1567 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Borel, P. I.

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and Potential of Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) for Photonic Integrated Circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozzola, A.

Burek, M. J.

Burghartz, J.

Buscaino, B.

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

Butschke, J.

Buyukkaya, M. A.

S. Aghaeimeibodi, B. Desiatov, J.-H. Kim, C.-M. Lee, M. A. Buyukkaya, A. Karasahin, C. J. K. Richardson, R. P. Leavitt, M. Lončar, and E. Waks, “Integration of quantum dots with lithium niobate photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(22), 221102 (2018).
[Crossref]

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W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y.-C. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shams-Ansari, A.

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shao, S.

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

Shuai, Y.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shuai, Y.-C.

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y.-C. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stark, P.

Sun, S.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1567 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tambasco, J.-L. J.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Tu, X.

H. Zhang, C. Li, X. Tu, H. Zhou, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “High Efficiency Silicon Nitride Grating Coupler with DBR,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), paper Th1A.4.

Valery, J. A.

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Van Laer, R.

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Venkataraman, V.

Vermeulen, D.

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vogel, W.

Waks, E.

S. Aghaeimeibodi, B. Desiatov, J.-H. Kim, C.-M. Lee, M. A. Buyukkaya, A. Karasahin, C. J. K. Richardson, R. P. Leavitt, M. Lončar, and E. Waks, “Integration of quantum dots with lithium niobate photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(22), 221102 (2018).
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Wang, C.

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I.-C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30924 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, K. X.

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y.-C. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
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Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wen, X.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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Witmer, J. D.

W. Jiang, R. N. Patel, F. M. Mayor, T. P. McKenna, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. D. Witmer, R. Van Laer, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Lithium niobate piezo-optomechanical crystals,” Optica 6(7), 845 (2019).
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P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, E. A. Wollack, M. Pechal, J. D. Witmer, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Coupling a Superconducting Quantum Circuit to a Phononic Crystal Defect Cavity,” Phys. Rev. X 8(3), 031007 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
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P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, E. A. Wollack, M. Pechal, J. D. Witmer, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Coupling a Superconducting Quantum Circuit to a Phononic Crystal Defect Cavity,” Phys. Rev. X 8(3), 031007 (2018).
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Xu, M.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, P.

Xu, Y.

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Yang, H.

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y.-C. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yang, W.

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ying, H.

Yu, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Li, X. Tu, H. Zhou, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “High Efficiency Silicon Nitride Grating Coupler with DBR,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), paper Th1A.4.

Yu, S.

Zaoui, W. S.

Zhang, G.

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Z. Chen, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, and H. Hu, “Silicon grating coupler on a lithium niobate thin film waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1253 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Li, X. Tu, H. Zhou, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “High Efficiency Silicon Nitride Grating Coupler with DBR,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), paper Th1A.4.

Zhang, M.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, C. Wang, R. Cheng, A. Shams-Ansari, and M. Lončar, “Monolithic ultra-high-Q lithium niobate microring resonator,” Optica 4(12), 1536 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, D.

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y.-C. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhang, C. Li, X. Tu, H. Zhou, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “High Efficiency Silicon Nitride Grating Coupler with DBR,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), paper Th1A.4.

Zhou, L.

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y.-C. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. K. Saha and W. Zhou, “High efficiency diffractive grating coupler based on transferred silicon nanomembrane overlay on photonic waveguide,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(8), 085115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Zhu, B.

Zhu, R.

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Aghaeimeibodi, B. Desiatov, J.-H. Kim, C.-M. Lee, M. A. Buyukkaya, A. Karasahin, C. J. K. Richardson, R. P. Leavitt, M. Lončar, and E. Waks, “Integration of quantum dots with lithium niobate photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(22), 221102 (2018).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Taillaert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, and R. Baets, “A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(9), 1249–1251 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, D. Vermeulen, and G. Roelkens, “Reducing Polarization-Dependent Loss of Silicon-on-Insulator Fiber to Chip Grating Couplers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(6), 389–391 (2010).
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T. K. Saha and W. Zhou, “High efficiency diffractive grating coupler based on transferred silicon nanomembrane overlay on photonic waveguide,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(8), 085115 (2009).
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D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(8A), 6071–6077 (2006).
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G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
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A. Boes, B. Corcoran, L. Chang, J. Bowers, and A. Mitchell, “Status and Potential of Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) for Photonic Integrated Circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(4), 1700256 (2018).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Wang, M. Zhang, M. Yu, R. Zhu, H. Hu, and M. Loncar, “Monolithic lithium niobate photonic circuits for Kerr frequency comb generation and modulation,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 978 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. He, M. Xu, Y. Ren, J. Jian, Z. Ruan, Y. Xu, S. Gao, S. Sun, X. Wen, L. Zhou, L. Liu, C. Guo, H. Chen, S. Yu, L. Liu, and X. Cai, “High-performance hybrid silicon and lithium niobate Mach–Zehnder modulators for 100 Gbit s−1 and beyond,” Nat. Photonics 13(5), 359–364 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, D. Zhao, S. Chuwongin, J.-H. Seo, W. Yang, Y. Shuai, J. Berggren, M. Hammar, Z. Ma, and W. Zhou, “Transfer-printed stacked nanomembrane lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 6(9), 615–620 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. Zhang, B. Buscaino, C. Wang, A. Shams-Ansari, C. Reimer, R. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, and M. Lončar, “Broadband electro-optic frequency comb generation in a lithium niobate microring resonator,” Nature 568(7752), 373–377 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, M. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Bertrand, A. Shams-Ansari, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Winzer, and M. Lončar, “Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages,” Nature 562(7725), 101–104 (2018).
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W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and E. Pluk, “A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1567 (2007).
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C. Wang, M. J. Burek, Z. Lin, H. A. Atikian, V. Venkataraman, I.-C. Huang, P. Stark, and M. Lončar, “Integrated high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30924 (2014).
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Z. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Jiang, R. Kong, and H. Hu, “Grating coupler on single-crystal lithium niobate thin film,” Opt. Mater. 72, 136–139 (2017).
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R. Marchetti, C. Lacava, L. Carroll, K. Gradkowski, and P. Minzioni, “Coupling strategies for silicon photonics integrated chips [Invited],” Photonics Res. 7(2), 201 (2019).
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P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, E. A. Wollack, M. Pechal, J. D. Witmer, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “Coupling a Superconducting Quantum Circuit to a Phononic Crystal Defect Cavity,” Phys. Rev. X 8(3), 031007 (2018).
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W. Zhou, D. Zhao, Y.-C. Shuai, H. Yang, S. Chuwongin, A. Chadha, J.-H. Seo, K. X. Wang, V. Liu, Z. Ma, and S. Fan, “Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 38(1), 1–74 (2014).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

J. D. Witmer, J. A. Valery, P. Arrangoiz-Arriola, C. J. Sarabalis, J. T. Hill, and A. H. Safavi-Naeini, “High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 46313 (2017).
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Other (2)

M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in CLEO: 2015 (OSA, 2015), p. SW4I.7.

H. Zhang, C. Li, X. Tu, H. Zhou, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “High Efficiency Silicon Nitride Grating Coupler with DBR,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OSA, 2014), paper Th1A.4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of grating coupler on the hybrid LNOI platform with silicon on top: (a) A 3D sketch and (b) Cross-sectional view with key parameters defined for the Si grating and LNOI waveguide layers.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Simulated coupling efficiency for (a) basic LNOI grating structure and (b) hybrid Si/LNOI grating structure without buried oxide layer (tox = 0), where blue curves represent TE mode, red curves represent TM mode, respectively. Case B1 represent grating on the 300 nm full-etched LNOI platform, while Case B2 represent grating on the 400 nm LNOI platform with 200 nm partially etched depth. The design parameters are summarized in Table 1 for Case B1 and B2 and Table 2 for Case H1, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Oxide buffer impact on the coupling efficiencies for TE and TM modes in the hybrid Si/LNOI structure; (b) Coupling efficiencies for TE and TM modes for a design with optimized high-efficiency design for TE mode in Case H2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Coupling efficiencies for TE and TM modes for a polarization-independent coupler design; and (b) Polarization dependent loss (PDL) for the design shown in (a). The design parameters are summarized in Table 2 for Case H3. PDL is within 0.1 dB in the wavelength range of 1537-1587 nm and only 1.5 × 10−3 dB at 1550 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Field distribution at λ = 1.55 µm in an infinite 1D periodic grating structure on the (a,b) basic LNOI grating structure in Case B2 and (c,d) polarization-independent hybrid Si/LNOI grating structure in Case H3. (a,b) Ez field of TE mode; (c,d) Hz field of TM mode.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Transmissivity from all directions of the grating for (a) Basic partial-etched LNOI grating structure in Case B2 and (b) Hybrid Si/LNOI optimized high-efficiency grating for TE mode in Case H2. Solid lines denote TE mode and dashed lines denote TM mode. Power is coupled from the SMF fiber to the waveguide

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Key design parameters and performances for basic LNOI grating couplers.

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Table 2. Key design parameters and performances for hybrid Si/LNOI grating couplers