Abstract

This work presents the first demonstration of atmospheric temperature measurement using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique. While DIAL is routinely used to measure atmospheric gases such as ozone and water vapor, almost no success has been found in using DIAL to measure atmospheric temperature. Attempts to measure temperature using a well-mixed gas like oxygen (O2) have largely failed based on a need for quantitative ancillary measurements of water vapor and atmospheric aerosols. Here, a lidar is described and demonstrated that simultaneously measures O2 absorption, water vapor number density, and aerosol backscatter ratio. This combination of measurements allows for the first measurements of atmospheric temperature with useful accuracy. DIAL temperature measurements are presented to an altitude of 4 km with 225 m and 30 min resolution with accuracy better than 3 K. DIAL temperature data is compared to a co-located Raman lidar system and radiosondes to evaluate the system’s performance. Finally, an analysis of current performance characteristics is presented, which highlights pathways for future improvement of this proof-of-concept instrument.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Appl. Opt. 57(16) 4440-4450 (2018)

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2019 (3)

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Hardesty, D. D. Turner, A. Behrendt, M. P. Cadeddu, P. Di Girolamo, P. Schlüssel, J. Van Baelen, and F. Zus, “A review of the remote sensing of lower tropospheric thermodynamic profiles and its indispensable role for the understanding and the simulation of water and energy cycles,” Rev. Geophys. 53(3), 819–895 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spuler, K. S. Repasky, B. Morley, D. Moen, M. Hayman, and A. R. Nehrir, “Field-deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (dial) for profiling water vapor,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 8(3), 1073–1087 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. K. Hanley, P. D. Gregory, I. G. Hughes, and S. L. Cornish, “Absolute absorption on the potassium d lines: theory and experiment,” J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys. 48(19), 195004 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database; HITRAN2012 special issue,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. S. Repasky, D. Moen, S. Spuler, A. R. Nehrir, and J. L. Carlsten, “Progress towards an autonomous field deployable diode-laser-based differential absorption lidar (dial) for profiling water vapor in the lower troposphere,” Remote Sens. 5(12), 6241–6259 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Moss, R. J. Sica, E. McCullough, K. Strawbridge, K. Walker, and J. Drummond, “Calibration and validation of water vapour lidar measurements from eureka, nunavut, using radiosondes and the atmospheric chemistry experiment fourier transform spectrometer,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(3), 741–749 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Dinoev, V. Simeonov, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, P. Ristori, B. Calpini, M. Parlange, and H. van den Bergh, “Raman lidar for meteorological observations, ralmo – part 1: Instrument description,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(5), 1329–1346 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Brocard, R. Philipona, A. Haefele, G. Romanens, A. Mueller, D. Ruffieux, V. Simeonov, and B. Calpini, “Raman lidar for meteorological observations, ralmo – part 2: Validation of water vapor measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(5), 1347–1358 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

R. R. Neely and J. P. Thayer, “Raman lidar profiling of tropospheric water vapor over kangerlussuaq, greenland,” J. Atmospheric Ocean. Technol. 28(9), 1141–1148 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. D. Venable, D. N. Whiteman, M. N. Calhoun, A. O. Dirisu, R. M. Connell, and E. Landulfo, “Lamp mapping technique for independent determination of the water vapor mixing ratio calibration factor for a raman lidar system,” Appl. Opt. 50(23), 4622–4632 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. R. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Eye-safe diode-laser-based micropulse differential absorption lidar (dial) for water vapor profiling in the lower troposphere,” J. Atmospheric Ocean. Technol. 28(2), 131–147 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Wirth, A. Fix, P. Mahnke, H. Schwarzer, F. Schrandt, and G. Ehret, “The airborne multi-wavelength water vapor differential absorption lidar wales: system design and performance,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 201–213 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Radlach, A. Behrendt, and V. Wulfmeyer, “Scanning rotational raman lidar at 355 nm for the measurement of tropospheric temperature fields,” Atmospheric Chem. Phys. Discuss. 7(3), 7569–7602 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Di Girolamo, R. Marchese, D. N. Whiteman, and B. B. Demoz, “Rotational raman lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature in the uv,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31(1), L01106 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state dial for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

1998 (3)

1996 (1)

U. von Zahn and J. Höffner, “Mesopause temperature profiling by potassium lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(2), 141–144 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

D. P. Donovan, J. A. Whiteway, and A. I. Carswell, “Correction for nonlinear photon-counting effects in lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 32(33), 6742–6753 (1993).
[Crossref]

F. A. Theopold and J. Bösenberg, “Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles: Theory and experiment,” J. Atmospheric Ocean. Technol. 10(2), 165–179 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

C. L. Korb and C. Y. Weng, “A theoretical study of a two-wavelength lidar technique for the measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21(9), 1346–1355 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

1974 (2)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13(1), 71–77 (1974).
[Crossref]

G. Tenti, C. D. Boley, and R. C. Desai, “On the kinetic model description of rayleigh–brillouin scattering from molecular gases,” Can. J. Phys. 52(4), 285–290 (1974).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, and J. A. Reagan, “Determination of aerosol height distributions by lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11(3), 482–489 (1972).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. D. Boudreau, “On the use of ultraviolet lidar for observing atmospheric constituents by raman scattering,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9(2), 316–317 (1970).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

J. A. Cooney, “Measurements on the raman component of laser atmospheric backscatter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12(2), 40–42 (1968).
[Crossref]

Adams-Selin, R. D.

K. R. Haghi, B. Geerts, H. G. Chipilski, A. Johnson, S. Degelia, D. Imy, D. B. Parsons, R. D. Adams-Selin, D. D. Turner, and X. Wang, “Bore-ing into nocturnal convection,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 100(6), 1103–1121 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ansmann, A.

Apituley, A.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of caeli — a high-performance raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, A. Apituley, H. W. J. Russchenberg, and W. A. A. Monna, eds. (2009).

Arshinov, Y.

T. Dinoev, V. Simeonov, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, P. Ristori, B. Calpini, M. Parlange, and H. van den Bergh, “Raman lidar for meteorological observations, ralmo – part 1: Instrument description,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 6(5), 1329–1346 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arshinov, Y. F.

Assion, A.

G. Poberaj, A. Fix, A. Assion, M. Wirth, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state dial for water vapour measurements in the tropopause region: system description and assessment of accuracy,” Appl. Phys. B 75(2-3), 165–172 (2002).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database; HITRAN2012 special issue,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. L. Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The hitran2012 molecular spectroscopic database; HITRAN2012 special issue,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Begbie, R.

Behrendt, A.

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Walker, M.

Wandinger, U.

Wang, X.

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Weckwerth, T. M.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. A block diagram of the NCAR MPD system combining DIAL and HSRL techniques to measure water vapor, aerosol properties, and temperature-sensitive absorption. Abbreviations used are: Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR), Multi-Mode (MM), Narrow Band Filter (NBF), Single Photon Counting Modules (SPCM), Tapered Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (TSOA), and Transmit/Receive (T/R).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. A section of the calculated $O_2$ A-band absorption spectrum with the calculated $KD_1$ absorption spectrum and measured receiver transmission spectrum of the molecular channel. The $O_2$ absorption cross section is taken at 300 K for the dashed line and 250 K for the solid line. The combined channel absorption spectrum is identical to the molecular channel with the exception of the $KD_1$ absorption trough. The online wavelength, indicated as $\lambda _{On}$ , is chosen at the line center of the $769.7958\:nm$ $O_2$ absorption line and the offline wavelength, indicated as $\lambda _{Off}$ , is chosen at the line center of the $KD_1$ line at $770.1085\:nm$ . Parameters for calculating $O_2$ ( $KD_1$ ) absorption are taken from Hitran 2012(von Zahn and Hoeffner 1996) [52,53].
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. 2-dimensional histogram comparisons of relative backscatter and water vapor measurements from April $5^{th}\:-\:10^{th}$ , 2019 made with co-located MPD systems. MPD Systems 1-5 were used for this test with system number and axis indicated in each panel. Relative backscatter (RB) is the range corrected water vapor offline signal with arbitrary units. Water vapor (WV) is in units of $g/m^3$ . Black dashed lines indicate 1:1 correspondence. Both colorbars are logarithmic occurrence frequency with the same bounds. All X and Y-axes are square. Note that forked RB structures, for example seen in RB comparison on MPD 4 (WV) and MPD 5 (WV-HSRL- $O_2$ ), are a result of minor realignments causing increased signal strength. No such structure is observed in the WV as it is a differential measurement.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Same as Fig. 3 with backscatter ratio measurements. Note that the slight drift above the 1:1 line of the data at backscatter ratio over 50 indicate a difference in output laser spectral purity.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Temperature and aerosol measurements from MPD and co-located Raman lidar system from April $19^{th}\:-\:22^{nd}$ , 2019. Sloped black dashed lines indicate the time-height of co-located radiosondes. All available MPD data is presented. Data missing from the MPD system at the start of the second day are due to a software failure. Note comparisons of specific structures are given in Section 6.2.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Two-dimensional histogram comparisons of temperature measurements made with all available co-located MPD, Raman lidar, and radiosondes systems from April $19^{th}\:-\:22^{nd}$ , 2019. The black solid line indicates 1:1 correspondence with the black dashed lines indicating the WMO threshold temperature accuracy for the lower troposphere for global High Res NWP [57]. The resolution, selected to match both histograms’ colorbar values, for the Raman comparison is $0.5K$ by $0.5K$ and $1.0K$ by $1.0K$ for the radiosonde comparison.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Difference between DIAL and Raman lidar temperature contours (DIAL - Raman). The WMO threshold temperature range is shaded white with warmer(cooler) temperatures red(blue). Background count rate is given from the $N^{O_2 Off}_{Mol}$ channel but is a good proxy for all 4 measurements near $770\;nm$ .
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Wavelength scan of etalon and $KD_1$ line. A theoretical Rayleigh-Brilloun backscatter spectrum, with an aerosol peak superimposed, is included [61]. The x-axis is in frequency shift from the center of the $KD_1$ line at 770.1085 $nm$ .
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Calibration parameter calculated as a function of temperature and pressure for the collection efficiency of the molecular scattered spectrum in the combined channel.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Calibration parameter calculated as a function of temperature and pressure for the collection efficiency of the molecular scattered spectrum in the molecular channel.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. A block diagram of the NCAR MPD system to measure water vapor. Abbreviations used are the same as in Fig. 1.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. A block diagram of the NCAR MPD system combining DIAL and HSRL techniques to measure water vapor and aerosol properties. Abbreviations used are the same as in Fig. 1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications for the combined O 2 DIAL and HSRL system presented in Fig. 1. Specifications for the water vapor DIAL pair can be found in Spuler et al. Table 1 [36]. Abbreviations used are: FSR = free spectral range and NBF = narrow band filter.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Processing steps to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles from DIAL and HSRL measurements.

Equations (8)

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N R x λ ( ν , R ) = N T x λ Δ R A R 2 η T x λ O λ ( R ) × [ l λ ( ν ) T λ ( ν , R ) β λ ( ν , R ) ] T λ ( ν , R ) η R x λ ( ν ) d ν + B λ ( ν )
N λ ( R ) = Δ R A R 2 η T x λ η R x λ ( ν λ ) O λ ( R ) T λ 2 ( ν λ , R ) β m λ ( R ) × { [ B R λ ( R ) 1 ] + β ~ m ( ν ν λ , R ) T λ ( ν , R ) T λ ( ν λ , R ) η R x ( ν ) η R x ( ν λ ) d ν }
N C o m b O 2 O n N M o l O 2 O n = η C o m b O 2 O n ( ν ) O C o m b O 2 O n ( R ) η M o l O 2 O n ( ν ) O M o l O 2 O n ( R ) .
[ N C o m b O 2 O f f N M o l O 2 O f f ] = [ η C 0 0 η M ] [ C M C C A C C M M C A M ] [ β M o l O 2 O f f ( ν , R ) β A e r O 2 O f f ( ν , R ) ]
N C o m b O 2 O f f N M o l O 2 O f f = [ η C o m b O 2 O f f ( ν ) O C o m b O 2 O f f ( R ) η M o l O 2 O f f ( ν ) O M o l O 2 O f f ( R ) ] [ C M C β M o l O 2 O f f ( ν , R ) + β A e r O 2 O f f ( ν , R ) C M M β M o l O 2 O f f ( ν , R ) + C A M β A e r O 2 O f f ( ν , R ) ]
B R = β A e r O 2 O f f + β M o l O 2 O f f β M o l O 2 O f f = 1 { C M M [ N C o m b O 2 O f f N M o l O 2 O n ] C M C [ N M o l O 2 O f f N C o m b O 2 O n ] C A M [ N C o m b O 2 O f f N M o l O 2 O n ] [ N M o l O 2 O f f N C o m b O 2 O n ] }
α O 2 = q O 2 [ 1 q H 2 O ] P k B T S o T o T exp { ϵ h c k B [ 1 T 1 T o ] } Λ ( ν , T ) ,
T i + 1 = ϵ h c k B ln { T o k B S o exp [ ϵ h c k B T o ] q O 2 [ 1 q H 2 O ] Λ ( T i ) } ln [ α T i 2 P ]

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